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EAU, 





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THEOKETICAL AND PR 

GUAMMA 




OP THE 






FRENCH TONGUE, 



BY M, DE LEVIZAC. 



jLEV 



FIRST CANADIAN EDITION. 



REVISED AND AME 




KINGSTON: DESBARATS and GARY. 
GtUEBEC : THOS. GARY and GO. 

AND TO BE HAD OP ALL BOOKSELLERS IN CANADA, 

1843. 







,|11UI*^ 



mmmifjz 




Hi 



to 



m 



'V 



iki • 



NOTICE. 



atequirement of ihis lano-t.^Jl °^ -rendering more eaay the 
pufilic an edition or£eS.'ri.lJl^^^^^ ^*^^ Caoadiaa 
high reputation olXeviza^^^^^^^^^ Gmmmar. The 

and in Fr«.nce, where leipon^ir""^"^"' ^?**^ ^" ^^^'^nd 
excellence of Airmethod a\Tw^ ^^^u ^"*ho"ty, and the 
all others. Ad™ta«?e h'«! k! '! 7°'*' l^^ preference over 
as have taken p™fS^hrnrHl" ^f^"" °^'"^^ improvements 
cHitat^ the learner Thp F.i" °1 \^^^/ement so aa to fa- 
8ultedonXortKaDhv?n wi^°K^ Academy haa been con- 
removed The^Sf/nnJ^^^ 

the pronunciatfor^ciX n t^^^^ ™«asure the guide to 
Anglais, Danc^^'r^^UrelnlJ'''^A I"^/"^ ^" °^' ^. ^s 
it as a ruleTf CnimciaUon ' Th ^^^ "^T"* *=^" ^<*Wt 
necessary by that leaJne f hnH^ •* ^'^ ^'^** ^®^n ^^eemed 
derivation that words endfn^fj' "! °'^'u*° maintain the 
plural formed Vthe addition n? n!f ' ^ ',^^«"jd have their 
as practiced by some wriW r "/ "^-^^"^^ dropping the I 
to prevent the^b^^nner frnm ?u-^^ P-^'"" .^'^^^ been taken 
whenever the twf kn Jacrp/^ T »»*« J^jomatic error., 
A very ample Table op^L^I^'^ '" ^^?'' construction! 

learner canttot torweirma^ehSf'' ^'^'■"' !^^^^^ ^« 
it is of great momenTZ*h«!h if ^^^''T'*^^^^^ ^ith, a. 
Book contains buTwhe^t'^s to"be'foSnd°"'^ »^naw what'the 



n» 



CONTENTS. 



iAe uumi/r of m pig'.' ^^"' "^ "" ">'*'> »*"«- 



I: 



1,3. Definition of Grammar: ^^° 
^ French Alphabet... i 

' n?*].^*"®" '" general": 

r r^^ -Accentuation 2 

& Of the Sound of the 
Vowei.«( 1 2 

GTabio of the SevenVeen 
bimplft Sounds of tho 

I rench Tongrje 4 

V Table of Combinations of 
Letters represcntincr so- 
ft '/?'!''' **/?!? «i'«ple Sounds 5 
« Table of Dipthongs . . . , <; 

a Observations onM. N, and 

vanous nassal sounds fi 

10 Of the letter Y.. ,,.,[[ 9 
J 1 Of Consonants ........ 9 

i2, 13, 14 Practical Exercises i 
on the Pronunciation of 
iVIonosyllablcB and Poly- 
eyllables "^ ok .>-> 

15 ofGRNnicR. ...... ;;;;;; 5;^,; ' 

16, 17, 18. Geneml rules to I 
ascertain the gender of 1*25 

1 a A"JJi"?1 »ul«tantivc8 35J j2(; 

iJA lablc of .\ouns Subs- 27 

tantives, having two gen- I ' 
<}ers and two siirnifica- 

Uons \ 3gj 

20,21. Vocabularies: 1. Of Of 
the irniverse. 2. Of Man. 
3. Ofthc Mind and its fa- 
culties. 4. Of Meats and 
Dnnks. 5. Of the Dress- 09 

i»g Apparel. G. Of a 
House and Furniturr, 



r Of the City. 8. 
Of Trades, Arts, and 
professions. J). Of the 
» ountrjr. 10. Of Flowers. 
Ij. Of Fruits. 12. Of 
Herbs and Plants. J 3. 

M D ^'''*^* '^'^'^ Shrubs. 
i^. Promiscuous Words. 

ir f^?L ?«a«^rupeds. 
16. Oi Birds. nJ^Of 
Fishes. 18. Of Reptiles 
and Insects. 19. Of^Mo- 
tals 20. Of Colours. 21. 

Of the Pnncipal Coun- 

■iNational Names. 



PagQ 



'NTRonuCTrON TO 
EXERCIiSES. 



38 



T»B 



5 24 Of the Prepositions 

article Me, a.. ^, 

Of Elisions % 

OfNegations ^ 

28 Of Words alike in boih 
i-iflg«agcs, etc ^... eg 

OF GRAMMAR. 

W'ords considered in their 

nature and inflections... 



CHAPTER I, 



67 



30, 31 Of tlic 'Svdsfan- 
<ll-c; of Genders I of 
^''^f^f^rs ^ 



5 
6 

Cv 
6 



CO.NTE.tTt. 



'agQ 



39 



63 

66 

C6 



m 



^ Of the P>^mation of the^*** 
-P^ttro/ of Simple Sub- 
•itaiiuvefl 

33 Of the rornuuion'of'the 
^i^ral of Compound 
oubstantives .., jq 



69 



Page 
98 



CHAPTER 11. 



64 Of the PewonandReU. 
tive en, 

65 OfthePeraonaij^dRel 
lutive Y. 

66, 67, 68 Possessive Pro- 
nowis Conjunctive 
Mon, ma, ntes, elc. theu 

Concord ^ 

69 Possessive P,onouiu R ' 
LATiVB le micii, la 
I en7t£ etc 

70 to 



kJb* 



101 



34, 35, 36, 37 Of the Ar- 
Ticr.E its Elision before 

Vowels, and Contraction 170 tn 74 n ;•: 

. with Consonants 70 ^° "^ Demojistmtive P/^ 

S8 Concord of tl.« "aVm;!: ^"^ ?,*"'«. RELATiVE and 

75 Ij^ p^^f ''•'^'^f '-'^^ elc. ..... 108 

/o /a UB, in explanatory sentcn- • 

CCS, used instead of U. 
V5I tls,ell^,elles .' 104 



with the Noun.. 

' 40 PARtlTIVB Arti'cle 

an, dela,des,de.,. 



CHAPTER III. 



76 io 



41 
42 



80 Rclaiioe Ptotiuuns 

L ft>Sv"'i^''''^«Q'". Q'*<?,'l05 
pi, 8i Ou, for Diujucl Amuei. 



etc. 



77 



S S^'^'^^r PreiKwitions. . . 

'^Q'^.hQue,quoi Quel, usiid 
in interrogative Senten- 
ces 

g^,®^''>g>^I»Jcfinito Pronou) 

81 



83 



87 



CHiiPTER V. 



VERB. 



Adjective, its nature and 

concord with the Noun . 

1-ormationoftheFeimnine 

4^ o/t *'^?^''J^'^^«s•••• 
43 Of Irregular AdjeUives; 
Singularity of dcmi, ftv 

44 Remarks on' 7 W,' 'Qusiaii,^ 

4DFVnnaHonofthepTu^Tof 
, Adjectives. . . . 

4b, 47, Mi Degrees of Compa: 

nson ; irregularity of ^^. 

49, 00, 51 Of the feuperiutiCe ^' 
50 .^''t/'n^"*^ absolute.... 
0-, .)J, 54 Concord of the Ad- 

jective with one, or with i ni- ' -."'^ 

several Nouns .. . «u L ^./^f''*'^ a"*^ /w^^m^^z/ 

OfNu,, bers.... ^P ^^ }^^ different CoumZ 

- .^, nn,^*'''?^-".^ Auxiliaries.^*. 

<^HAPTER IV. 

50 Pronoun, its Nature and 
_ different cfasscs. 



lUiS, 



109 
110 



ib. 
113 



90, etc. Verb 



P '"°'i** De^nition, 
i crsons, Numbers,. Ten- 
ses ... 

f)4to.98Whui*ure"Vcrb;':i*,i: 
iioe, Passive, Neuter, jHer 



55 



115 



118 



118 
119 



57 to Gl Of pe, 



to „i ui /-e,.s«,i«^ p,^ 
Y"mi Pronouns of the 

I'Jrl'J^'"^'^ ""'^ third 
pf r^on 

■ 62 The Pn,noun after "the VeVl." 
in Interrogative Phrasos.' 
and .A> not expressed. 
63 1 cflectod and Lciprocal 



9 



101 Conjugation of A voiR,and 
iJ^xcrcise . . 

in- ,™f -Adjectives hq 

lOo />. after d:ancaup, com- 

^icn, pen, trap, ehi 123 

100 Repetition ofthc ArUclo 
and prci)osi(ion before 
fach JSoun of a sentrnco l;j;i 

, usi'd after ueifiitivH 
KonfcMOfs ... 

ctf iiin _/ .■;■.* 



93 



107 De. 



108 



125 



■■I 



ii-n.. hc/bn- il. 



,«• 



Ti 



VI 



;vv ■ . 



VM 



^■iPPMHiil 



ti 



coffTjerrTf. 



I 



M)9 OitbeVerbintejrrogBtive i 
and Negative ifg 

110 Qonjugaiiwi of Etbe .... 130 

lU Gen«rtil Rule on the place 
of the Adverb ib. 

US Formofthe/;nyer<rtit>eln 

the third penon 134 

113 General Obeervation on 
the Uee of the Subjunctive 
Mood in French ib. 

1 M Remarks on the Orth(^ra- 
phyofthe Verbs of the 
First Conjugat on 137 

115 Model of the Firut Con- 
jugation, Parler ib. 

116 Second Conjugation, its 

cfiviwion into five branch- 
es 145 

117 Models of the Second 
Conjugation Punir, Sen- 
Tin, OuvRiR, Tenir, 
COORlR. 147 

il8 Model of m third Con- 
jugation, RiicKvoiR 152 

U9 Fourth Conjugation di- 
vided into five branchis . 156 

120 Models of the Fourth 
Conjugp.tion, Rendre, 
Plaire, Paraxtre, Re- 
DuiRE, Joindre ib. 

ISl, 2 Pimtoyninnl or R Jlxl- 
ed Verbs, and list of those 
which are inoct commonly 
used 161 

123 Mo4lel oi a Reflective 
Verb. Sb Repentir ... 163 

124 Interrogative and Nega- 
tive forms of the Reflec- 
tive Verb ib 

1Q5 Conjugatiun of Passive 
Verbs 17C 

liJO, etc. Neuter Vabs, their 
Government and Auxilia- 
ries 171 

129 I'Mpcrsoiu/l VerLSj list of 
the most common 173 

l'M\ etc. Conjugation of Fal- 
LOIR ; comparison be- 
tween Must and Fal- 
r.oiH ; ^\Uoir joined to 
a Verb wlien implying; 
duty or wxc^-Mtii ; and 



1 joined to a SubsUntive, 
.o^ J?*^*." implying }cant.. . . 173 
IJ4 Conjugation of y avoir . 17» 
135 Imgular Verbt of the \ 
First Conjogatfon al- 

LER, ENVOYER 175 

137 Conjugation of s'en al- 

,„Q i-eB, t« go away 177 

>d», etc. Irregular Verbs of 
the Second Conjugation, 

1st Branch, Punu 179 

2nd Branch, Sentir 18O 

3rd Branch, Ouvrir 183 

141 Irregular Verbs of the 
1..0 'Tbinl Conjugation 184 

142 etc. Irregular Verbs of 
the Fourth Conjugation, 

Ist Branch, Rcndre 190 

2nd Branch, Plaire . 195 

3rd Branch, Paraitre ... 196 

4th Branch, R^duire 197 

5th Branch, Joindre 201 

147 Table of the Primitive 
Tenses of the Fdur Re- 
gular Conjugations 208 

148 Table of the Primitive 
Tenses of the irregular 
Verbs 203 

CHAPTER VI. 

M9, etc. Prepos'ticns 206 

Denoting Pluce ib. 

Order ^ 

Union (^ 

Oppoiition ,'..', ib. 

Scyaratiov giQg 

Eiul ib. 

yJausf; and Means 2l6 

156 Of the Preposit-ons a, 

DE, EN... ib. 



CHAPTER VII. 

1.57, etc. Of th« Adverbs, 
their Nature, Formation, 
etc. 

CHAPTER VIII. 



166, it€. Of Conjunctions , . . 

168 Conjunction atE never 

omitted after the Verb. . 



212 



218 
001 



< 




. 206 

. ib. 

. 207 

. 208 

. ib. 

. 209 

. ib. 

. 210 

» 

. ib. 



212 



J 



tokrkttUi 



i 



^y 



CHAPTER IX. 
i6» loterjectiona 

PART II. 
CHAPTER I. 

•UBSTANTIVE. 

170 Explanation of the terma 
li-igimen direcl, Regimen 

,_, *>^irect, ot CfMOfi 

171 Order, place of tha sub- 
ject of the Verb, in the 
four forms 

IS O/* Government or caaes! 

IT6 Difference between tha 
two Languages, aa to the 

,_ J^overnment o{ Verbs. . . 

174 Necessity of attending to 
the Government of Verbs 
with regard to the Rela- 

- *»ve Pronouns 

I7o How to risndor the King's 
Palace, and ouch like sen- 
tences 

176 Compound Words* 'such 
«w, SUk Stocking^, Dinin" 
■ R<M>m; how to render 
them u. French . 



P*«e 
. 2S2 



191 Phrases in which the Ar- *** 
tide is omitted 237 

CHAPTER III. 



ADiBCTiVB. 



192 



223 



224 
225 



lb. 

226 
227 

ib. 



19? 
191 



196 
197 



198, 
204, 



208 



•209 



SM4 

ib. 



247 



CHAPTER II. 

177 Of the indofinite a an • 

i7fl cT A*"" '•«"^«>'ed, when not 
I7H-J A, an, rendered by l- la 
par J > } 

130 etc Of the dennite Article 

lai V • 'Z^''' ^^'^'•" to use it. 

183 Article definite omitted. . 

181, etc. T/ie not rendered in 
^rench in L<nus the 
^/r^t, Biok the TeHth 

and such likt? 

I.K used atl.'r .//yns,' never 
alter en,- several cases 
when it is omitted 

187 t roper na-nes do not take 
the definite Article. Ex- 
yCptions 

18^ OC ihc P.irlifiD: Ariicie 

OV, DLLAjDES 



228 

229 

230 
232 

231 
234 
235 



•210 
211 
212 

213 
■215 



Concord of the Adjective 
with the Noun 339 

Ad^jectives of Dimensions 240 
AdjtfCtivcs used Substan- 
tively, require the Article 

Definite 241 

The Superlative takes tiie 

Article 243 

rlow to render EquaUij 
tviik, as well as, nothing so 

pleasant as, etc 

etc. Place of Adjectives . 
etc. Government of Ad- 
jectives ; of those which 

require de ^ . . ^^ ^ 

Of those which require a 248 
Of those which require 

^'^^^^ ib. 

IScceKsity of attending; 
the Government of Ad v 
lives, wheii there are t' 
joined to one Sutatan^ 
Etrk, with Adjectives t 
pressing gladness, reg.t,^ 
requires the infinitive or 

the Subjunctive 249 

Government of il est 
joined to an Adicctivo.,' ib. 
Ne used before the Verba 

in comparisons ^50 

The SwijuTiclive and the 
Genitive used after an 
Adjective in the Super- 

lattce 251 

By render(>d by de, in 

comparisons jb. 

Cardinal Numbers used 

in dates and irther . ases . . 253 

CHAPTER IV. 

PRONOUNS. 



217 Personal Pkonoi;n.^; 
Distinction betveon the 
2^6 [ Olijcjt and the vuljcct. 253 





vijl 



»i«, etc. 
used 



CONTENTS, 



Mt 



"I. 



^V'> ''*'. <«u« 



Page) 



in 



lis 



tnstoad of /- 



lit. 



j\i 



P^4 



ils. 



254 






356 



Pron( 



or, "'^'e. ihinga 

«P-. regmre the intcrro- 
^^3 &r Pro..oun,;-,;e.;;bi: ^^^ -^^How to rende^ 



DuMUNSTiiATIVE 



924, etc 



rect and (ndirect ft, 
«non.. . 



330, 



Place of the 
«<>nal Pronouns 



ogi- 
Per- 



ib.i 



....... 282 

fh CO tiue, ce ao/t, Z 
''-'"'" '283 



. «to. D.r.>ction« on he f ""]"'"' '^'^^'^o, key y^k^ * 
U«e ot; the proper Per! '^"?^'«'-''<^ ^'y celui qui celU 

■onal Pronouns'.. o/S.L. ?!*/•«*«•••• 

«^^t. Particular use-o> ''f' it'for'Lf *f-^«' ' «i-^* 
-^7 Ch instead of eV. ..i. ^'l'^"' S; "T //'' ^^'^^-'^^^ 



?8| 
285 



^h e/les, 
tionf .... 
238, etc. (^ftsoa 



"1 descrJ 



inhvhich //i/ 
''^'?. ^-//.vf. may ap! 



i-'ELA, neuter faini- 



ib. 



ih 



,., P'y to things..... 

"»ff the supplying ¥ro. 

i-eruomil Pronouns... o-n ' '' •^•. What. bfimn,.;.. 



etc 
^Gjari Ceci, 

liaruseofc^/fc .. 

^/5//; rendered by ^,/«. '■•• JJ' 

^pO«»moni„ .peaking ;? 
P'-raofis and Thii] 



3G8 



Q 17 r^ Vi L '■^'■onouna .... 27n 
SnOnthePronounsor. : ^7? 



hingd, 
an 
beo-i/K 



ib. 



their ^*"'^*'«'^^■^"-'^'^ 
o 4f» . " "^ t^oncord .... ' i»-.^ 

" used ro render n-.s 



ning 



ib. 



THKin, 
S'' 



instead 

; ses, leur 

250, etc. Mifie 
with /o A-, 



of sun. 



rentJered by 



quo8t,on,^ renuered |,^ 

-'80 The relutiVeinu'sVbe'cIo'se 
to Its antecedent.. o^y 



5283 



f'*<? accusative case i« 
O'^.'i M T ', ^^ '"'' « ^'''. etc. . ' •27«l'2«7 z'^"''' ,"""tted .... 
±^ *! r^^«r .^A/^trfof 'T^ ,(:'r'>. ^"^/"-^ Pri 



251 



:'/"M/-.v, « /itf/v 



used bcf-"- -■• -' 



tiondhip 
2;>5 Poss 



•t 're titirs of re/a- 



•<?90 Q, 



;/-«! .o^ak'Xe 



ib. 



•200 



Possos.ivfp,-^^^^^^ ib. 



^ " A«r«/-, etc. . . 
^55, etc. ftcpetition' of " ih* 
P(wsr.ss,vn Pronoun.. 



rai-isol-theEodv,«u-' 



to 



iicns in ^ppakinjr of 

„""-* ""'''teriMinatelv coo 

How to re;,der nhos/ ^ -^^ 

Wro^f. are? ' ., 

lb. >;)-2 How f.. .. ■■,■**: lb. 



«^ stand- 



293 



.'1 -ftnSoMiTK Prom, ,-. - 



rojiouns indtfiiiltc. 



I 



!■' 



a 

3 

31 

3; 

33 

33 
33< 
34( 
34-^ 



349 



CONTJSNT^, 



IX 



ib. 



1^ 

If 



On, lui me»,ung ^,hJ p^. 

voice •ubsiitutcd to tho 
^e^r^' ^-''^ JN for. uh- 

300, etc. Qtt«/i^'ii;;iuw,;;. 

'««<«, etc. etc;....!.. 
CAPTER V. 

TH3 VBRH. 

32l.etc Concovdhotwlfauho 
if-^ tJt"'^ ^"'^ '*» subject . . 
3^7 Nouns of Af uKitido .nU 
Nouns Collective Parti- 
tive, reqvMre tho Ve/b to 



Pago 



r«go 



36U fMiiiRTiiu-r f!sM>.<7 
the prepositions tie, d pout 
used btlbro the' infinitive 

-^^f jJ5t, etc. Kulr, on tije Prcijo- 
I HitiorjH to be vsed bclore 
the iniioitive jk 



298 



_ "'" Hiuoiiive 

J5G, etc. itbles ah to when tho 
Mcond Verb must be in 
the tiulicalive, and when 
m the subjunctive mood. 

JViTirnp .»-.^ TT-_ 



irn i? " ''^J^^tctive mood.. 327 
360 Natuhe and Use or 

JUO Of thfl Pro--„. T^ .. 



J62 Use of the ImptrfeU (j« 

^28 The Verb :/ the plVr;'] 1^^. 7"%^' 330 

329 Place of the subject S ^'•f/«^'«, O'ai parlI:) 

33i /^/^ tV«'^ 314 367 rri ?.'?.!*".-»: •••:;-^3l 

cd in questions begfi^^r.ing 
f^ ^"^' ' ^'^^'^^ a 

subject placed "after 'the 
Verb in sentences bccin- 

3« ^ e;b in the interro- 
gative form after an,,! 
f^jO-elre, etc. See No! 

334 Iniperati^c " of * p'oiivoir 
SS ^-, in impre' 



332 



ib. 



ib. 



ib, 



"* i/mur lenses. . . . 

367 Umo of the I<\ture Ab^ 

3fiS T? 'i?: ^''''?"^') 333 

«Jt)« Ihe ruture is u.wd aiiev 

QUAND, in spoalcing of 

'u-n "?'"g«to conic 

\m The /^<^<?>f is not ..«ed 

aJter ai meaning if, but 

a"er si, meaning whe- 

i'H-3R. How to render 

•iiO illustrative examples of 
the use of the ienses, jr 

338 Of a Noun 'governed "by '^- F^' f ' Of the cJn^^i^;^; '•^'* 

339 Passive V^'requul'tiu. T'^ ^^'"'^ ''^ ''^'^^' ^^ovon 

"' .^S' '^<""'«- F^A?, their 
q 1.? f! at"^' Jfovenunent .... 320 
^^^'^f-^7''^': Verbs do not 

«'l cn-l always require 

tiie same auxiliary ; ex- 

amptes of those which 

oHhc^e with which £>th 

340 A Verb" following',- ^''• 
&;i!!? ':^^%r'n the 



poculiar use of the Condi- 
'-lonal 2g„ 

377 OK ^^l ^'''^'i;>^/^'.: : : ; : 338 

Mood; the two Langua- 
ges do not coincide with 
regard to this tense; iUus- 

378 Lm of cU>^../f^;, ""^^ 
which require the Sttf^ 
J't-iiclive ^lood . 



•J>~n 'r\ ^"I'u 

•'/.7 \i\'.V. mnv van-,-,'.— l.\. .-, , 

■i"^^^'"''^-^^''^'/, when used 
instead of another Con- 



ib. 




■^SSS^^omm^m*., 



COKTlNTa. 



JuncUon.... 



P«ff6 

381 'An ^^w*in*ihi*V«l 
2«-ia^iw and /« pr^i^^ 



** seul, penonn^, ^. ,». 

*« The wlaUve ««», ^ ^ 
yure the subjunctive af- 
tor a negative phnne .... y, 

384 Nature of the nrbsvrhich 
require the Subimtctive 

385WR.V,,, ;-••—, '^• 
etc. have also the Sub- 

386 aemarlw on the way of 
rendering de, rfjrf j^w 

vovU, should, can, could 
may, might '344 

^7 Concord between the tenl 
8M of the Indicative 345 

389, etc. Concord Wtween th« 



#17 Government of Piwpo- ***v 

SITIOm jgiy 

CHAPTER 



VII. 



#19; 



421 



423 



* „ , Wtween the 

teiwes of the SubpincHve, 
and those of the /n<iica: 

live ^lA'v 

393 Of the lNFiVmv'E'.'"lti 
use after prenosiiions, 
instead of the ParticipUs 

3&ri SjT^'"^«EngU8h. 353 
»»o uf the PARTICIPLE Pre- 
sent, whew declined, 

when not 354 

399 How te render tb-* 'En- 
gltsh Participk present, 

^y^S^^ntiA>ely .'355 

% -Par/ici/jfe present is 

uaedafker EN sgg 

«« Participle past. Some- 
times declined, Sometimes 

Mtvr C?*- . Example 357 

40S Participle Past, with 



ADYJSRBS. 

1418 Of the different sorts 

of Adverbs 350 

etc. Of tjie Negations 
««, pas^ poitit, where 
aw the latter tb be used 370 
De must be used before 
the nouns after a nega- 
tive sentence 374 

Ji ne saurais used in- 
8teadofy«we|n4«...^... 37^ 

CHAPTER VIII. 

COWJUNCTIOKS. 

J?ln'*!?'H*«<'''<i^E 378 

426 Particular use of ^ after 

c'est ' ^ ^ 219 

427, etc. Government ' of 

v.'oajunctions , 3gf| 

CHAPTER IX. 



construc- 



430 Grammatical 
tion oQw 

431 Of Inversion.. ^1 

432 Of Ellipsis. :::::::::;• ^ 

433 Of Pleonasm 300 

«4 0fthe Syllepsis....;::: Ij 
4d5 Of Grammatical Discord- 



iPRE. 



agrees with th^' 
subject jt. 

404, etc. Participle ' p'a^, ' 

with AVOIR 350 

408 Difficulty on the Parti- 
ciple Past 3gA 

UO' Participle Past with 
R»PLECTivE Verbs 



ance. 



436 0fAmphibo:ii;;::::::it 

tralhcisms, etuxa^ of 

IL'S'eN FAUT... 



397. 



MISCELLANY. 



ill 



CHAPTER VT. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

etc. Rules on ( 
positions, 



Pfgn 



362 



363 



437 Free Exercises 400 

Examples op Phra&es 
ON THi: Principal 
Difficulties op the 
Frei«cii. Lanouaob.. 
I. UoHective 



i. Verbs which 



titlve... 418 



cannot 



be conjugated with 



■»* 



AVOIR. 



ib. 



iSdlfTENTt. 



3. On Word, of duan-^*** 
tity 413 

* On Pewonal Pro- 
nouns jjj 

6. On SOI, lui, soi^mime. 4H 

6. On the Relative Pro- 
„ nouns 415 

7. On the Relative Pro- 

« S>«n«- • 416 

o. Un My a ^^m 

9. Phrases diverses. .... 4ig 

10. Continuation " A&n 

11. Idem ; i^ 

12. On the Article. !.*.*.. *. 432 

13. Article omitted....*.'.* 433 



14. Continuation . , , 

15. Continuation ...."" 

16. Onth« PwBouafc'..*. 

17. On the Participle Past. 
1«. Relations of Tenses.. 
IV. On Devoir, Pouvoir, 

Alter, Venir de., 
20. On Shauidr Woidd, 
^ Could, WiUtShaU.... 

jl. Continut^tion . * * 

^. On tJie Negative M,.. 
*3. t/ontmuation,. . 

84. NkeUes of the French 
iManguafle 



lb. 

425 

426 

427 

438 

m 

i%. 
430 
4^1 

433 




EXPLANATION 



OP THK 



ABREVUTIONS irSKD m THK EXERCISES. ^ 



■ 



m. 

f. 

pi. 

«. or sing. 

A. m. 

A asp. 

f r. ♦ 

art. • 

pr.-art. 

pron. 

inf-l 

inf-2 

P-pr. 

ind-1 

ind-a 

ind-3 

ind-4 

ind-5 

md-6 

ind-7 

ind-8 

con-1 

con-2 

con-3 

imp. 

■ubi-l 

«ubj-2 

0ubj.3 

subj.4 



•tands for masculine, 
—•feminine. 
- Ijlural. 

• singular. 

• A mute. 
h aspirated. 

' preposition. 

• article. 

•;Sur'P"P°«"°"^-traeted. 

-present of the infinitive. 

~^^^,f^ of the infinitive, 
particjple present 
participle past. 

present of the indicative Je «^w. 

imperfect. Je parlaU ' ^'^''' 

preterit definite. Jeparlai 
preterit indefinite. SaiZrle 
Pretent anterior. J^e^l^arU 
Pluperf^t. J^avaUparU 
fuure absolute. JelarUrai ' 

imperative. Ate ^^wau eu parle. 

present of the subjunctive n... ■ 

pretent. Qm fate parle 
•pluperfect, due faisse parli 



■" ™JpeSdt ^ietr " '"" "« ""O -O" Which i, i. p,^ 

In filling the Exercises, the ordpr oi' ♦». ^ 
the phra.es after the French woS is t^ h ^""'^ '^'^^ sometime, in 

Xn the exercises, when «bvZ« i?' ,•* u ^ observed . '" 

• P'^ronthe.i.. th«3r'm..t b'eTrSt^eSt r^.f/ii«f ^"<!-l between 

--., ■'"<<'•<' I'mv'ou under. 



1 
5 



S( 

a 



SES. ' 



FRENCH GRAMMAR. 

coieSy!''''^"' '" ^'"''^^' '^ '^^ «••' of ^eoArtn^ and t^n^tV^ 

latld sfunds"^-^' '" '""^'^ ""^ *^°"g^^« by means of articu- 

ble\'y meaLVf^eV" IblfLl^'^' *h*'"^^*^ permanently visi- 
and tL latter disposed^ ?^^^^^ ^^"^^ ^^"'^''^^ 

called the ALpSr, ^ ^"* °'^^' constitutes what ii 

2. OF THE FEENCH ALPHABET. 



J i 



Roman Letters. 



i 



ced, 

>r at 

ar- 

by 
I in 

ten 

ier. 



A 
B 
C 

I 

P 

a 

H 

I 
J 

K 
L 
M 

N 
O 
P 

Q. 

R 

S 

T 

U 

V 

X 

Y 

Z 



a 
b 
c 
d 
e 
f 

f 

i 

J 

k 

J 

m 

n 

o 

P 

a 

r 
s 
t 
u 

V 
X 

y 

z 



Italic Letters. 



I 



A 
B 
C 
D 
E 

F 
G 

H 

I 

J 

K 

L 

M 

N 

O 

P 

Q 
R 

S 
T 
U 
V 

Y 
Z 



a 
h 
c 
d 
e 

f 

I 

i 

i 

I 

r; 

n 

o 

P 

9 
r 

s 

t 

u 

V 

X 

y 

z 



Old AppeUaJ,wn. New AppeUation. 



ah — 
bay* 
say 
day 
a — 

eff 

ja/yf 

ask 

e — 

jeef 

kah 

eU 

CTJlVt 

enn 



pay 

/cu% 

heir 

ess 

fay 

u\ 

vay 

eeks 

egrec 

zed 



ah 

be* 

ke 

de 

a 

/* 

gh€ 

he 

e 

je% 

ke 

le 

me 

M 


pe 

ke 

re 

se 

te 

U.9 

ve 

kse 

egrec 

ze 



as in the English word ba^ ^' *'*''^ consonant fs sounded 
o'^,^7^?"^> soft, it is sounded liki,.* in «;.. ._ _ ._ 

*^"^l'!if '"""'•' l^""*^' °0» which is ;sil ways sijft'^^^" "*' * *" ^'^^' 
bee the second note, pigo 4. "^'"^^ly* so"- 

A 



I 






or 1.ETT2RS IN GENERAt. 

PRONUNCIATION, 

PH SOUNDS OP THE FRENCH JnguE. ^ 
3. OF LETTERS IN GENERAL. 

A vow,l is the simnt J ^ "^'^f ^""^ Consonants/ 
articulate soand by S.""" ""^ '^"^ t^^ce forming an 

''^l^^^'^Scl^lu^l^'^' ^*""«* ^ articulated with- 
The vowels are a p 4 ' j 

1 fie nineteen remaining letters h r^ f z • , 



4. 



OF ACCENTUATION. 



I 



'acie"nSf forthev7i!J"^'<^f ='**«»•''"' ""^ be paid tothe 

coZfc^r^i^ ™ *« fi™> -f*. part. p.,. f .Heflrrt 
Words of the thinldecfpnaJ^n I- . ""'''' demed from those Latin 

were „tj inTd" ■S'^X^^f 't^ °^"">""'"' «"" »«* 



OF LBTTEM IM esKMAL. 



4 



u», as in JJtUes-kUres, fout-putsiant, arem-ciel, &c. 
5. OF THE SOUNDS OF THE VOWELS, 

AND OP THEIR COMBINATIONS. 

J"fTu'^f^ "' *« radical sounds of the five vowel, 
case «!qui,C»CK,X"*^?'' r^o-^'-S "^ 'he 

of 1* rl£ ^otnt " " "" •*•='*<' "^ *« «PP-«<« 
syllables make a worf!'y""'''' °"' " "">» 



•* Seventeen eimple BOttDdn. See TittE J. 




THE SOUNDS 



TABLE I. 



6, 



THE SEVENTEEN SIMPLE SOUNDS or THE PRENCH T0NOU,r. 



Sovnds. 




Examples, 



2knd, friend 
pate, paste 
tenir, to hold 
He, summer 
modele, model 
tcte, head 
ixniiet, to imitate 
ecflle, school 
cote, rib 
jettu, virtue 
^ne, yewng 
3mTie,faa 
soitpe, Mv^ 
ange, angel 

long, long 
hrun broum 



Sounded as 



a m amaiewr 
a — bark 
e — battery 

a — • paper 

e — met 

e — there 

i — timid 

o — scholar 

o — note 

(+) 

a -^ shun 

(t) 

OU — 50t<^ 

en — encore 
en — length 
on — fowg' 
an 



it may be well to add tha aUhnni L^^'*^ ^'*"" ^^^ "''^«**''' ? ^rid 
ideaoftheFrench^undsVmt^^^^^ attempted to give an 

correctly learnt only by hoal^tho/fSh1^ipT^^^ ^*?^^ 

nasal sounds cannot be conveyld by any combiZtion Jf r uT¥ 
ters, but n correct notion of the wav hf whSh tt ^"^''^^ '"*" 

may be had by observation nnS^Zf-'^ " r ^^^^ ^^^ pronounced 

it is pronounced inothXnJia^?sK-^^^^^ '" ""u'""i '^^^' ^« 
move^ when spoken i„ FreSr wherTa wT ''''V^' ^^P^,^° "°* 
English. ToSopthemovr„gahhe iS isYw^^ ^^ T^'" ^" 
arriving at the rigi utterance^of FrencrnialS ''^"'' '^' ""^^ ^"^ °^ 



OP THB PRBNCH TONGUE. 



5 



7. 



TABLE II. • 

COMDINITIONS OP LETTERS REPRESENTINO 8SVKRAL OF THB 
SEVENTEEN SIMPLE SOUNDS. 



The Figures refer to Table I. 



;s, as, 
ats*. 



eat,.;. 



il gagm. 
appats . 



kc betted 
charms 



10 



i3... 



14 



•ID • • • • 



u 



eu 



eu 



oa 



an 



monnote . 
ain6 . . . . 
paroitre . 
folie .... 
atitote, . . 
flageolet . 
auteur. . . 
msiTteau . 

geole 

gagetire. . 
eve i'..... 



«e hittie. 



BOUT .... 

nceud. . . . 

c[vieii€ . . . 

il jotie . . . 

Aout .... 

janihc . . . 

ekSiigeant 

mgmbre . . 

entendre . , 

essam . . . 

crainte . . . 

peintme . 
mpoli . . . . 
sywibole .. 
sjwtaxe .. 
pigeon .... 
ombre .... 
a.je^in ... 
parfiim . . . , 



aigu sharp 

4.... 6.-1^^ S^^'i, jay 

annee year 

«sophago asophagtis 

<=wle aide 

hai£ bay 

bal«jie w/uile 

je nsLgeoia ... I did swim 

foiWe [ weak 

vwney 
eldest 
to appear 
folly 

8.... o.^*" a«rore dawn 

ji<ig€olet 

amhor 

hammer 

goo 

loager 

had 

lettuce 

sistei' 

knot 

taU 

he plays 

August 

leg 

affiicting 

membei- 

to hear 

swam 

fear 

in ■< ri* perwiure pi£t/ure 

impolite 

symbol 

syntax 

on <"'"•* " pigfon pigeon 

shade 

un ■{ ~"" ixjeivn fasting 

perfume 
~ Final coriBOiianuj are almost generally mute or silent in French 

are soSk^rrT/'^ '^C "^^ '\ 4"*'^^»^"V'. chants, ch^mp,' 
thfrrf^rJin^ ir f*'-^^- ^^fV **"^* *^« terrmnation ent of the 
third pcreons of verbs w sounded like e mute ilsparknt, pron. ihvarle. 

1 « 



; 






«'«*m.'iir*fc. 



■*te«i^-.-^.it(lftB,ah^ 






6 



TM£ SOUND! 



TABLE III. 

DIPHTHONGS. 



ftacre 

galimatias . 

jedefim 

amitie 

vous riez. . 

hiaiB 

biere 

ciel .' 

jepurifms. 

v«oion I vwlin 

to mew 



miauler . 

reh'wre . . . 

relt^^r . . . 
mieux . . . 

chzowrme. 




hackney-coach 
nonsense 

I challenged 
friendship 
you laugh 
bias 
beer 
heaven 
Ipurified 



binding 

bookbinder 
better 
^ crew of a 

i galley 
meat 

audience 
christian 

passion 

wood 
box 
liver 
marrow 

neighbour 
Jin 



l)esom want 



image . . . 

je remuai 
eternwer. . 

denwe 

nuee , 



cloud 

I moved 
to sneeze 
stript 
cloud 



page. 



1 ftese figures 



refor to the number of the sounds of the preceding 



, ' •Vwaeia, 



ttpleitNM»k«M» 



07 THB FRENCH TONGUE. 



TABLE III. 



11 
10... 
12. . . 
10, . . 
14. . . 
10... 
15... 
10... 
16... 
13... 
1... 

13... 
4... 

13... 

5... 
13... 

7... 

33.... 
11.... 
13.... 
12.... 
13.... 
14. . . . 
13.... 
15.... 
15- . . . 
16. . . . 



DIPHTHONGS CONTINUED. 

Compound Sounds represented by Examples. 



10.... 


u 


5_-. 


e 


10. . . . 


u 


7.... 


• 


10.... 


u 


8.... 





10.... 


u 



eu 
u 

eii,. 
u . 
an. 
u . 
in . 
u . 
on . 
ou . 
a . 

ou. 

e . 

ou . 
e . 
ou . 

« 

t . 

ou . 
eu . 
ou . 
eH . 
ou . 
an. 
ou . . 
in .. 
ou.. 
on .. 



ue menwet 

^oi ilswoit. 

^i ! bwiBson 

uie 



uo 



ueu 



ueu . . 



uan 
uen 



um. 



uon . 

oua . 

oue . 
oue . 
ouee 
ouai. 
oue . 
ouoi. 
oui . . 
ouie. 



oueu 

oueu 

ouan 
ouen 



omn. 
f ouon 



paraplm'e , 
:!mp6twosit6 , 

lueuT 

majcBtwewx. 

nuance . . . . 
inflwewce . . . 

Juin 



tuona 



Touage 

d^nouer. . . 

dejowe 

fille enjouee . 

je jouai 

fouettev 

je lUnouoie. 
cambom's . . 
Vouie 

houeur 



noueux . 

louange . 
Rouen . . 



babottiw. 
jouons . . 



I 



minuet 

he perspired 

bush 

umbrella 

impetuosity 
glimmering 

majestic 

shade 
influence 

June 
let us kill 

wheel-work 

to untie 
frustrated 
cheerful girl 
Iplayed 
to whip 
I untied 
cart grease 
hearing 

scavenger 

knotty 

praise 
Bouen, a city 

baboon 



let us play 



I 



8 



THE -OUNDS OF TH« FRENCH TONgU.. 

9. OBSERVATIONS 



I 



UPON THE TWO FIRST TjHtrria Cor.„ . 

/»-. „ 1 TABLES (SIE ALSO LETTERS M. N.l 

^m, an, do not take the nasal «o„nJ k ' 

doubled, a. in constantmelt^Zni^ tl^^-" 1 »' ",""' 
the end of some foreign names as !^Ar-.f « T' "''™' « 

and^if "•"^""'^""'""^--^e English words /ie. 

ett'szrrdT?n.'"~'"^-"«^:"^^^^^^^^ 

2. ^ before double nn, is sounHprI ?;ir« ^ '^ 
«oy.,.»«»i; also in ,„.^e ~ a^d' „s^^^^^^^ 
»iV, venir, prendre, and «Lir compounds LL*"™'-'' '"- 

- nine, la ^ieme, fa «l^~^„t „ IT^T "^ ''""l'- 

where, however/the e is'sLX^an:^ o^r"'' '' '^'' 

^e» has the sound of the Frpiw.hT,o„„i 'v y^ 
of Normandy. ^<^ i ooun^ed 1 ^13 5"'.?' """^ 

Jyr, m the monosy ab e en. both v^hJrT ^' . 
when a pronoun, in'on, ^? c^^tnTpronXCd'Tn r*^ 
*.«., rien, ceases to be nasal whertherwnrH« . • ' 
diately followed by a vowel or an Imuteas Tn r/»/^.""""^ 
aura, MOT am,-, c'eot«n. ion Komme ma'uJj'-^ '^ 
Hen aise gu'il n'aU rien oub7t' Brnt^ntT""'"-' 
nasal, when they are placed after verbs as rfl '''"'"" 
voire s^ur, Jl-Uon essay e? V a-f-en-au-ioois 

.?t^t^i J~^« na.?=is;es^e"i 

folLid t^'^lTi?A™''^?'« "^T"-* when m or „ is ' 
«e,«»ammk&cr ■■■''" •■'"'"'"'" "'"'""»^' inimagina. 



OP THE T. — OF COSONaNTS^ 



S 



RSM.N.) 

or n are 

nasal at 

in, Rot- 

arde) Aem 

hymetiy 

'usnlem, 

which 



mnemi, 
rbs, /c- 
vienncy 
8 femi- 
vvords, 
>ee let- 

n ene, 
seme, 

Ltown 

town 

but 

1 and 
idon, 
nme- 
?n e?i 
suis 
nain 
end 



3. Whenever m or n la doubled, us immoler, immcratm^ 
innover, tnne, innocent, though in this latter word only one 
n is sounded. 

Un has the sound of « close, as in tine , unQmp, nnantme, 
when followed by a word beginning with a vowel or an h 
mute, as un Aormne, un esprit, aucun ami, commun accord. 

Um is pronounced (mm, in some words adopted from :he 
Latm, as centumvirs, album, quinquennium, ladanum, lau^ 
danum, geranium, Gxcep pensum, factotum. 

£/■ after the consonants y and g is generally silent, as in 
quatre, guerre, &c. See those letters. 

10. OF THE r. 

This letter has the sound of i, in all words derived (roin 
Greek ; lyre, physique, and in y adverb, tn pays, paysan, 
paysage, it is sounded like two i, as if these words were 
spelled ^otW*, pai-i-san, pai-i-sage. Y, placed between 
two vowels, is also pronounced as two i, one of which alten 
the sound of the first vowel, and the other making a diph- 
thong with the second thus, payer is pronounced as if it 
were spelled/?atV«r, monnoyer or monnayer as If mo-naiieri* 

EXAMPLES* 
Ab-ba-ye 
a-bo-yer 



ap-pu-yer 

ba-Ia-yer 

be-ga-yer 

cra-yon 

cro-ya-ble 

6-<;u-yer 

ii et-fra-ye 



to bark 
to support 
to sweep 
to stammer 
peiicU 
credible 
esqmre 
he frightens 



nous ^-ga-yon» 

es-su-yer 

mo-yen 

net-to-yer 

je pa-yois 

je ra-ye-rais 

ro-yau-me 

vo-ya-ge 

vo-ya-geur 



ite entiijeh 
to wipe 
meaTis ' 
to dean 
I was paying 
I would striife 
kingd<m 
voyage 
traveller 



n. OF CONSONANTS. 

; % b, at the beginning of a word or of a syllable, is sound- 
ed as m English. 



Bal 
Ba-bel 
ba-bil 
ba-bouin 



haU 
Babel 
prating 
baboon 



bo-bi-no 
bar-ba-ris-mn 
bi-bli-o-th6-que 
bur-Jcs-que 



bobbin 
barbarism 
library 
burles^ie 



B .3 sounded in the middle of words, as ab^di^quer, sub-ve-^ 

?T' ?> ^"^'' ' ^^^ ^^ ^^® ^""^ of proper names, as Job, Ca^ 
(eb, Moab: also in- the words, radouh, thp mfiHina nf « «,k;« 



li 



I 



«,,£^*^'TfSf' *''*^^^'^' ^«««. .'^«' sometime8«polt bayonnette, biscayen, 
j>aym^ but tho y must be gounUetl as one n ' ^ ' 



mtmKtHmtmm^^s 



10 



Of CONSONANTS. 



m'^ 



inplovid. 



HARD. 
Cal-cul 

ca-co-pho-nie 

cl«-ri-cal 

Cn-co>vie 

co-que-li-cot 

cro-co-di-lo 

cris-tal 

cu-cur-'bi-to 

A-rach-ne 



calculation 

cacophony 

cleiical 

Cracow 

loild-poppy 

crocodile 

cryM^d 

cucnrhite 

ArcuJitie 



tkU 

lii'',dnes5 

cetaceous 

hoop 

Cirr" 

hdir-clotA 
cynic 
cypress 
lesson 



J^, point of U,e comp„, ; b„, ;. ;, „„, ^^ 

C. c i. i ^Zf'^r"" ^"'5"'''' '«''•»« «. 0, «. I, n, T 
' "' " ; "fi.^^Z^^ ''- "-^^ i ^. «. whe.. 

SOFT, 
ce-ei 

ce-lA-c6e 

cer-ceau 

Cir-ce 

ci-li-ce 

•5y-ni-que 

<Tpr6* 

n ki ' ^^'fo** Wesson 

onf ot'f„: ::i,T, 'i:,'^« tt i "•<'"''= "- --^^ »- 

*«c-.A^forf,w7f *' which tfe^?'' rt'"*'''' J'"-'^'"''. 
•inctly heard. But^fore h" 7hTf" "^ ** ''r"" ^ '' *- 

>uc-.i., acci-dent, iJ'Z^lJ^ *^''"'^"'' P'<"'<'"nced, 
but improperly, in «^"^ "" ^'''"*' »»<» ''™» by aome, 

lacs (toila, *«*«'., Ccf^^^f'^Tl^'^^^lS/""'' /"«-: 
nant ; but " ''^^J before a conso- 

arealx-.vJt..l!.:.'".™'5 ^'^t^nct, respects i both Iett«n. 



-^*. 



^^^^ 



OF C01f802fANT8, 






"^/^^fiSrSc:"^"'"'' '"'"«"'' •■»/'"«•. -*«¥<. 

Tone, which is most general like M, 
Ch has two sounds < *" *^» *^a^ > 

l**»eo**;er, which very rarely occurs. 
u t .. '^ I 18 that of A in chimera, 

EXAMPLEA OP sK. 

ch6-ru-bin 



Chat 
che-val 

chcr-chcr 
chi-che 
ar-chi-tec-te 
ar-chi-tra-ve 



Atfse 
Ui setk 
Stiney 
CfcXitect 
architrave 



ca-t6-chi8-mo 
chou-et-t« 
chu-te 
chu-cho-ter 
chyle, &,c. dice 



cateckam 

screecA-oicl 

faU 

fo whisper 



It has also sound in ^cMlle, ZacAee, &p. ^^Wi. mJa 

EXAMPLES OP ch AS *.♦ N^ -^'-^- < 

Cham ' ' ^ 



Achab 

A-ch<S-lo-UB 

An-ti-o-chiu 

A-cha-ie 

A-nar-char-sis 

a-na-cho-rSto 

ar-chan-ge 

ar-chan-gel 

ar-che-typo 

ar-chcn-tes 

pal *^ 

chal-ce-doi-no 
eu-cha-ristie 



Cha-na«an 

Chi-o 

Cho-rS-be 

Cho-ro-fis 

Chal-da-i-que 

Chal-d6e 

cha-08 

rh6-li-doi-ne 

chftr-«o-nd-se 

chi-Ii-ar-que 

chal-co-gra-phie 

ca-te-chu-md-ne 

Za-cha-rio 



Ma-chi- 
Mi-chel 
Ful-ch6 
Ti-cho-B|a-h 

chi-ro-maiJ 
chceur 
choris-te 
or-ches-tra 
i-cho-reux 
cho-r6-ge 
Na-bu-cho-do- 
no-Bor 




ar-cha-u-me 



Yatch 

Utrecht 

Ma-Bs-tricht 



> are pronounced ■? Utrek 



EXAMPLES OP Cht AS *. 

^MasTrik ('^i^^«»^t'»°«»di»«the<. 
Ch has the hard sound of c- in dracAme but Ir aiUn* ;« 

v^rmi^^r ' ^ '^""^^ pronounced violoncAelle 

fnii^'^ ^.a« ""iformly the sound of A:, in all words where it is 
foUowed by a consonant, as Christ, chretien, chkH^chrl 

^»„*J'/!^^'''!!?.«°««<1 of*^ i« heard in words of «r«»V «, .^,-.-. 
Fre^SWr'" '**'" "^ ^"' '^^^^^^ P*>P"»'« and are not enUrely 



12 



OF CONSONANTS. 



D, J, is sounded as in English. 

De-da-Ic labyrinlh 

do du ' plump 

din-don Vurketf 



Dry-a-(Je 

dro-ma-dai-rc 

de-di-ca-toi-re 



Dryad 
dromedary ' 
dedicatory 



D is always sounded in the middle of words., as adjecUf, 
adverbe, admirable. 

It is likewise heard at the end of proper names, as in 
David, Obed, Gad, Alfred, &c. and in some other words, as 
Cid, Sud, Sund, Talmud., ephod, lamed. D final, before a 
word beginning with a vowel, is sounded as if, as quandil 
viendra ; un grand homme ; vend-il ? which are pronounc- 
ed quan-iil-viendra, &c. The d final of the following 
words is always silent in bond, gojid,fond, nid, nceud, muid, 
nnd pied ; except in de fond en comble, de pied en cap, tenir 
pied'd-boule, avoir un pied-d-terre, where it is sounded as t. 

Double d is heard in some few words derived from the 
Latin, as in ad-dition, ad-ducieur, red-diiion, 

F,f, is sounded like the same letter in English. 



EXAMPLE. 



Far-fa-det 
fau-fi-lcr 



hobgoblin 

to oaste (in sew- 

in^) 
edict of the Mufti 
boaster 



fe-bri-fuge 
fruc-ti-fi-er 



febrifuge 
to fructify 



fi-fre 
for-fait 



f(fer 
crime 



fet-fa 
fan-fa-ron 

Final / is sounded in all nouns an(i adjectives ending 
in af, ef, if, of, as bref, brief, chef, fief, nef nerf, grief 
fterf relief, mechef Azof, lof, tof tuf, ouf, vouf mif, veuf, 
b(Buf, and new/ (new) ;/is silent in clef, eteufch^f-d'c^ume, 
CRuf frais, and in these plurals nerfs, ceufs, hmifs, neufs 
(new). In wcw/(nine) when alone, or when it terminates 
the sentence, / is distinctly sounded, but it takes ;he sound 
of V before a vowel, and is silent before p consonant. 

Double /is generally sounded, as one j alone ; however, 
in some few words, as effusion, affadir, effraction, it seems 
more proper to sound both. 

i before a, o, u, the hard sound of ^', in the English 
G, g, has \ wci'd go, 

and before e, i, y, the soft sound of* inpleasure. 



Gan-gr5-no 
Gro-nin-guo 
gai 
go-guc-narJ 



EXAMPLES OF g HARD. 



gangrene 
Groningen 
cheerful 
joker 



gtit-tu-ral 
gom-me 
g!a-ce 
Uor-go-ne 



ffuUv/ral 
glim 

looking-glass 
Gorgan 



tv ConsokAnt*. 



h it seems 



Uieai 

ge-or-gi-que» 
gen-re 
ge-mir 



KXAMPLES op g SOFT 



jay 
georgics 
gender 
to groan 



ge-n^-ral 
gens 

gin-gem-bte 
gym-ni'-qtte 



genet al 
people 
ginger 
gymnastk 



G final 18 hard mjoug, and in proper name*, as jlgair, 
Dong. When rang mng, long, precede a word beginning 
with a vowel, g final s sounded as k. It is silent in fau^ 

iT^if'f'^f ^"'^'•^''''^^"* 5o^.ro•./'«Me, Bcmrg-laJeine, 
&c., and likewise m M^^io-^^e, afe sang frmd, sah^-de' 
dragon, m rang, sang, long, before a consonant, and ai™ 
Ltff °''^'*''°' ^^'^"^-^'^o-, A«^-^ng, efo7^5•, .emo- and 
iourg^mestre i^1 pronounced dowro-t^e-we^/re, and bv 
LTr mTner!' " "''^' '"^ "'* improperly, written in this 
Gif forms a distinct syllable in at-gu^tr, aigue, suraieut 
eigne, amhgu^, contigue, exigue, fnd besaf^e oiill 
sounded as a d.phthong, that is, the tw6 vowefs are heard in 
mgujlh axgmllade, aiguilhn,^u^ in the proper names 
d^Aiguillon, de Guise, h Guide, But the ^f in the nflec! 
tions of more than forty verbs ending in guer, and in manv 
other words, where it stands beforehand i, as Sed 
only to give to ,. the hard sound, is entirely sUenLaa in 
anguille aiguure, aiguade, bague, begue,fiJue, doa^e 
M^e,fupe, nnguenf, langue", longu%, nargu .erC 
morgue, Izshngue, gue, gui, guerir, gulder S 
tanguir^ gmngtteUe, &,c. * ' o''*'*"e'-j gmse, 

f..^"^ !f ^^' *^^ ^''^^ '^""^ «^^^« diphthong goua in some 

msuggerer,suggillation. ■' ' " 

ofword?;:,ti'i'ft't:r''™''5" '=°1^'"«'"'«. S- the middle 
oi woras, retains its hard sound, na n Bero-hen Vnirhi.„ 

egh^e emgmesegment,amyg<lalee. Before Hhereafe^ 

Sri!: n- "'•r°'^^ ™*'^'?''''' ''"J dTBr^o, where 
It IS sounded liquid, as in tprntrUn ^^a ^u °i ' *^"*''^® 

rallv nrnnn„n.L .1 : "J" l^!''"/i^' ^!l4 these words are gene- 

h^ C~ : ■ "^ " •.viiiio-ii iinuioiue, de Broilie. 

B 



u 



Oni-de 

Gno*me > 

gno-mi-de 

gnomi-que 

gno-mon 

gno-mo-ni-que 

di-gni-t6 

i-gno-rant 

com-pa-gnie 



61" Consonants. 



EXAMPLES OF THE HARD SOUND. 



gna-pha li-um 

gnos-ti-que 

ag-nat 

ag-na-ti-on 
cog-nat 
cog-na on 



ag-na-ti-qtie r€g-m-co{e\. 

cog-na-ti-que mag-ufi-sie 

?g-n«8 skg-nant 

ig-n6e stag-na ti-on 

g-m-cole di-ag-„oa.ti.q«e 

ig-ni-ti-on mag^nat* 



EXAMPLES OP LIQUID SOUNDS. 
dignity 
ignorant 



«i gner 
re-pu-gner 



cham-pa-gne ChavipHgn 
Bou-Io-gne Bmlogne 



company 
to sign 

to feel a repug- 
^ . nance 

A IS ASPTRlTOn r»- => 



'Habler 

*ha-ch« 

'ha-ir 

'har-po 

*haut 

'h^-ros* 

'h€-nB-8on 

'hideux 

*hon-te 

*hur-Ier 



A IS ASPIRATED 117 

to romance 



axe 

te hate 

harp 

high 

hero 

hp.dge-hog 

hideous 

shame 

to howl 



ha-bit 

her- be 

heu-re 

heu-reux 

he-ro-ine* 

he-ro-ique* 

he-ro-is-me* 

histoi-re 

hi-ver 

hor-reur 



h IS MUTE IN 



coat 

grass 

hmur 

happy 

heroine 

heroic 

heroism 

history 

wirUer 

horror 



rpi . ""* *'^"* nor r or 

no jL.7;r citreny„ Zt^S.^'— "' 

a 18 never aspirated in the miHHlA%.r „ j 

when that word is the comnonnH^f .u ^,^«^d» except 

likewise fe o«< rf ;; „„„ Tthout elt^ii T/ ',''* '^^ 

placed before i!.e rrc^e^fi^ '1"^^ Z' "''^ T''*" 
«o» ; snr les onze heures, nir even tefo^ IZ ^' " T 
une heure, ' " '^'°'^ ««« in sur lea 



-■(Al 



■KiMl! 



OF CONSONANTS. 



15 



For what concerns h, placed after c or fi-, see the remarks 
on those letters. 

H, after r or f, is always silent, as rheteur^ RAbruu 
rhubarbe, the, Thomas, ihym, 

J, J, has constantly the sound of z in azure, or of s in 
pleasure. 



EXAMPLE. 



^U8 

Ja-mais 
jo-vi-al 



gra/oy 
never 
jovial 



jou-jou 

ju-ju-be 

jeu-nes-sc 



Urtf 

jujtibe 

ymdk 



K,k has always a hard sound, as in the English word 
king. ° 

This letter can hard!y be considered as belonging to the 
French alphabet, as it is found only in some few words 
borrowed from foreign languages, as 



Kan-ga-rwi 
ker-mSs 



kangaroo 
cockmeal 



L, I has two sounds, the 



ki-os-que Turkish pavilion 

ky-ri-elle tedious emuneration, 

first, is precisely the same 

as I in the English words 

lily, law, &c. 
second, resembles that of 

II in brilliant, in which 

case / is called I mouillee, 

(liquid.) 



La-t6-ral 

16-gis-Ia-teur 

li-beHe 



CXAMPLES 

lateral 
legislator 

mi 



OF THE FIRST. 

li-las lilac 

lo-cal local 

lu-ni-so-iai-re lunisolar 

SECOND BOUND. 



It IS impossible to define exactly the peculiar liquid sound 
which / has in Frenchjin combinations of letters such as these, 
ml, eil, (Bil, euil, ouil, aill, eill, euill, ouill, &c. ; it must be 
heard from the mouth of a native. It may not be useless, 
however, to make the following observation, that that liquid 
sound does not in the least affect that of the vowel or com- 
bination of vowels which precede or follow il, ill. Thus, in 
taiUeur, the sound of ta and eur must be pure end distinct ; 
nearly as it the word were thus spelt, ia-ieur ; the liquid 
sound oUll, forming a sort of diphthong with the last sylla- 
Ole. In bouillon, bou must be pure and distinct, thus 



t^fmmmmmmm^m^^.^. 



' --■-■•«4%ri'TiaritMiti;kiiif 



16 



Iff 



II ' 



I 



If 



or COWSONAlCTrf- 






6cureuil 

raerveilleux 

gazouillage 

orgueil 

orffueilleux 

ceiilade 

oreiKie 

p6rilleux 

treiliage 

bouillon 



EXAMPLES. 
6-cu-reu-ie a squirrel 



mer-vh-ieut 

ga-zou-iage 

or-gueu-ie 

or-gueu-ieux 

eu-iade 

o-re-ie 

p6-ri-ieux 

trei-age 

boH-ion 



wonderful 

warbling 

pride 

proiid 

glance 

ear 

dangerous 

lattice work 

broth 



or U e n7\^Alir^!J "^^rly the only known instances of an I 
Sie voweU ^ ' '^'*^^"' ^^^"» immediately preceded hy 

^11. Jl^',) '" 'S'/6y//e, and sille. But It is liquid in famille. 

fllc^ charmitte, souguenille, carillon, pillL j^uia^e ^/""""'''^ 

Double js sounded in the following JorCa?/tt'^^ alli^ 

coZerkfbum^l^^^^^ ^^^^^^on, constellation, 

X «i><5t7/^ • ' ^?/^'"^i?' GaUicisme, intellect, &c. maid 
and in^rff 1 '''^' P''"''^\f^ pellicnle, cquipoller; heUemsme, 
^"««?&c°^ ™''' ^' ^^"^^^^' Bellol/jJolabcUa, l^alZ] 

mJ ""' ''"''''^^P^"^^ ^" ^o«"d with the same letter in Eng, 



Mar-me-la-de 

mar-mot-te 

m^-mo-ra-ble 

nair-mi-don 

Tni-qai-^iie 



marmalade 

marmot 

TfWtHKn'shh'. 

fnyiini(Um 

mimic 



EXAMPLES. 

mo-mie 
ino-nient 

■^TIU SUi-lAiUlA 



mur-mu-re 
mys-te ro 



mummy 

moment 

Jrjuisui/nan 

murmur 

mystery 



OP CONSONANTS 



17 



W: 



A/ final is nasal and not soundcid hi /aim, daim, >kw», renonkt 
parjum ; it is not nasal, and is sounded in Amsterdam, Rot- 
terdam, Sem, Cham, item, Jerusalem, Sedim, Ibrahim, and 
most proper names, except Joachim. 

M, n, are both articulated in amnislie, calomnie, hymne^ 
insomnie, indemnite, (pr. indamnite), somnambule, automnal, 
but are sounded as one n alone in automne, damner, and deri- 
vatives. 

Double??! is sounded as one m, except in words beginning 
with imm, such as immorlel, immensite In compound words 
such as emmancher, emmener, the preposition is heard distinct- 
ly en-man- cher ; Emmanuel is pronounced Emanuel. In 
femme, differemment, ardemment, the e preceding mm is 
sounded a fa-me ; but in lemme, e is sounded e. See Obser- 
vations. 
N, n, is sounded as in English. 

EXAMPLES. 

Nenuphar | non-nc nun, 

Tiational I Ni-ni-vc Nineveh 

nominal | noc-tur-ne noct/v nal 

a man of ninety j nym-phe nymp/i 

iV nasal, see Tables I rind II and observations following. 

Gn have two sounds, which see at letter g. 

The termination eni of the third person of verbs is sounded 
e, ils parlent. Us aimeraient, pr. ilspar-le. Us aimeraie. 

Double « is not sounded except in an-nexe, an-nal, an- 
nuel, an-notation, an-mder, in-ne, in-nove, in-novation, and a 
lew other cases. 

En final, and in all the persons of venir, tenir, and their 
compounds, is sounded like in, ancien, mien, chien, citoyen, il 
vient, il tiendra. 

En is sounded nasally at the beginning of the following 
compound words, enivrer, etiamoitrei^, enorgueiUir, erinuyer, 
ejihardir, enharmonique. 
Pj p, is sounded as in EngUsh. 



Ne-nu-far 
na-ti-o-nal 
)io-mi-nal 
no-na-ge-nai-re 



EXAMPLES. 



Pa-pii-lon 

pc-pin 

pied-plat 

prin-ci-pe 

pro-pos 



biMei-Jly 
pippin 
mean fellow 
principle 
discourse 



pou-pee 

po-pu-lai-ro 

pour-pre 

pur-pu-rin 

py-ra-mi-cle 



doll 

popular 
purple 
purplish 
pyramid 




bantismal. 



n^fioni 



^aptieuar, 



gypsfi, ibeptembre, Scp.uagesime, corruption, rupture, apsides 
Irapsodies, symptome, redemption, redempteur; but is silent, in 



_ ,•- , - .»..*« *w •^ t* 111 

\bdpte7ney' bapiiser, 'baptisiere, Baptiste, e:cenipt/^€xcmpter, 



• ».»*-*.;,,,» 



18 



OP CONSONANTS. 



fj 



and galop. ^^^ '" ^^«*"^> ^«w;>, afrap, /^ttp, strop 

"|iS«SSr' *-"•■■"■"' 

Q has generally the sound of A- i„ /a„^^. 

r ^e, bv ll.r the moet general bc- 

Qu, has three sounds J Ao„ t r """^ ^«^^^- 

Unas, ^ Ao«, before a in some particular 

feu, before e, or t in some others. 



i 



Q.uai 

qiia-li-te 

quel-que 

qui-con-que 

qui-pro-quo 

quo-li-bet 

quin-qui-na 

que-Rouil-Jo 



A-qua-ti-que 

6-qua-teur 

6-qua-ti-on 

qua-cre 

qua-dra-ture 

qua-dri-ge 

qua-dru-pe-de 
qua-dru-gle 

E-qnes-tre 
li-que-fac-tion 
qu«'E teur 
ques-tu-re 
quin-quen-nium 

equi-Ia-te-re 

£-n%-mi I- Ai 1 

e-qui-an-g!e 
e-qui-dis-tant 



EXAMPLES OF k, 

ques-tion 

se-questro 

queue 

a-queux 

a-quc-duc 

e-qui-vo-que 

se-rc-quin-quer 



■wharf 
quakty 
some 

whosoever 

blunder 

pun 

Peruvian bark 
distaff 

&c. &c. &c 



EXAMPLES OF kou. 



aquatic 

equator 

equation 

quaker 

quadrature 

{ancient chariot 
< with fmr 

L horses 
quadruped 
quadruple 



qua-ter-ne 

qua-dra-ge-naire 
qua-dra-ge-si- \ 
mal ^ 

a-qua-ti-Ie 
a-quar-el-le 
li-qua-tion 
in-quar-to 
lo-qua-ci-te 



question 

sequestration 
tail 
watery 
aqueduct 
ambigtiiiy 
\ to ttick oneself 
\ (mt 



quatei-niov, 
a man of forty 

quadragesimal 

a^iatile 
water colour 
liquation 
quarto size 
loquacity 



EXAMPLES OF ku. 



equestrian 

lijuefadicn 

qu£stor 

qicestura 

quenquennium 
S of ejual di- 
\ mensxons 

equdiiicral 

equiangular 

equi-distant 



e-qui-mui-ti-ple 

e-qui-ta-tion 

quin-tu-ple 

quin-tile 

quin-qiien-nal 

quin-de-cem virs 

quin-que-reme 

quin-quei-co 



eoui-muUiple 

horsemanship 

quintuph 

quintile 

quinqueniiial 

qidndecemviri 

r a term of the 
< ancient gym- 
( nasium 



'"waAmi^M^^ 






OF CONSONANTS. 



19 



In quinquagenaire, a man of fifty, and quinquagesime, 
quinquagesima, the first syllable corresponds with the sound 
oiqu in equestre, and the second corresponds with the sound 
of ^TM in aquatique. Q final is sounded in coq, cinq, except 
when cinq precedes a word beginning with a consonant, cinq 
' livres. ^ 

JR, ib sounded aa in English. 



EXAMPLES. 



Ra-re-te 

ras surer 

ra-bou-gri 

re-brous-ser 

ri-gou-reux 

roin-prc 

rou-vrir 

ru-gir 

m-ral 

rus-tre 



scarcity 

to hearten 

stunted 

to recoil 

rigorous 

to Itreak 

to open again 

to roar 

rv-ral 

a boor 



rhylh-me 
sour-drc 
cour-roux 
il coui-ra 
cor-ro-de-ra 

cor-ro-bo- rc-ra 

ir-ra-dia-ti-on 

ir-ro-ra-ti-on 

tor-re-fac-ti-on 



rhythm 

to spiing 

vrath 

he will run 

it will carrode 

{ it will conobo- 

\ rate 
i'lradiation 
irrigation 
ionefaction 



R is always sounded at the end of words after the vowels a, 
t, o, M, except in Monsieur, in which it is silent. 

Er,ier,i\\e terminations of the infinitive of verbs of the 
first conjugation, and of many adjectives and nouns, are pro- 
nounced e and i.e. Parler, marcher, bouger, premier, singVr 
Her, cordonnier, boulanger. 

But in the following words the termination er, is pro- 
nounced air. 







EXAMPLES. 




Cher 


dear 




ou-tre-mer 


ultramanne 


fer 


iron 




bel-ve-der 


belvidere 


ver 


toorm 




Lu-ci-fer 


L/ucifer 


mer 
ficr 


sea 
haughty 




Pa-ter 


; the Lord's 
I jrrayer 


jas-ter 

li-cr 

li-ver 


stamach 




fra-ter 


hair-dresser 


yesterday 
winter 




ma-gis-ter 


{ village school 
\ master 


a-mer 


bitter 




Stat-hou-der 


Statholder 


cancer 


cancer 




Ju-pi-ter 


Jupiter 


en-fer 


hctt 




Al-ger 


Algias 


e-thcr 


ether 




Gcss-ner 


Gessner 


a-vant-hier 


i the day 
\ yestc't 


before 


Ni-ger 


Niger ^ a river 


^r^ w ^^^m ^r ^^^^^ m 


•day 


cuiller 


a spoon 



In terminations like ers, ert, erd, art, ard, arts, art, ord, 
ords, oris, r alone is sounded canard, morts, pervers. 

When the lolio wing adjectives and a few "others precede 
a substantive beginning with a vowel, the r is sounded, that 
isj there is what is called i liaison. 



I 



cmmmmmm 



I 



a soundeu 



a not sounded 



H not sounded 



I 



^0 

Ot COiN'SOiNA^TSi 

un singulier evfinement a sinciUar ev^'^f ^ 
un eniicr abandon an g/f/7Vv !?• 

lunleger Obstacle ^ 2^1 S 

I ^/4^ last to Lp his loo'd "^ ^°"''''^ ^"'^ 

r C'est un homme Uger ct inconstant enli^ m 

th/fi"^/'"'"-*^''?'^'^"*''^^^^^"^"^'*'^'^^ of allthe verbs of 
the first conjugation, may be sounded when n^eS' 

word beginning with a vowel ; in conversation Fh?. Jr -^ "" 
Hon is, however, seldom observed ' *^'' ^''^"*^: 

i2/^. See y^. 

Double r is not sounded, except, 1st, in aberraHn., .ii. 
rer, korreur, errer, torrejier, and^hen-de; v1 [vTs ^ ^^^ 
words beginning with irr, as zrrevocadle, irregule7 1^^^^^^ 
hon,J.c. ; 3rdly, in the future and conditionToft^e ^erC 
acgucnr, counr, mourir, and their derivatives-jwj^'^' 
je mourrais, nous cournons, &c. ^ acquerrat, , 

^\L^T. '''^'' \ ^%^' ''' '" *^^ ^"Slish word sister. 

Su \ , i^^f*^^^^^ rose anaphase. 

6 has the hard or hissing sound at the bpcr;nii,'n,r «r j 
a«d the soft sound, ia the middle, betweenTwelf ™*'*' 



season 

seizttre 

se-samum 

situate 

sojidise 

siUy action 

vicntM reservation 



EXAMPLES. 

sour-noi-se 

sup-po-se?. 

se-dui-sant 

Su-se 

Sy-ra-cu-se 

Syn the-se 



a sullen taojnan 

suppose 

alluring 

Susa 

Syracuse 

Synthesis 



Sai-flon 

sai-sie 

ee-sa me 

si-se 

sou-bi-se 

Rot~ti-ge 

sous-en-tcn te ^ 

In Sbire, Svelte, SganareileamX Sdili ^or JDe'os it hn« 
the^o/f sound ; and, in familiar conversation ^./Z ^' 
Sedan, il est le second de sa closse, are pronoun 'cedt if 
these words were written «^rf«;^ /e^o-o/j Tfort 1 -^ 
mute as inmallSchaffkouse, SclJI^g^ l^l thVl 
Sh m sAenf, a sheriff, is sounded as in EngHsh 
Ace, set, scy, are pronounced as se. s-l sci nf /h« x. ■ 
nitMT nP vvnr^^ o«,i o. ^..,ui. /^«. ^^^/^ ; <?«, at the begin- 



Of C0W80NA: TS. 



u 



res-cinder, sus-ception, sus-citer, sus-cHaiion, vis-cere^ vis- 
ceral, trans'cendance, and a few others. But sc before <r, 
o, w,and /, r, have the hard sound of^A:, as scapulaire, 
scolie^scUrotigue, scribe, esclave, scrupuh, &c. 

S has the hard ground, in the middle of a word, when 
preceded or followed by a consonant, as in Iranse, transirj 
Transylvanie, convulsion, valse, espacc, usiensile, staiisii' 
que, jasmin, dispos, aspirant, prisme, digestion, austcrite, 
obstacle, &c. &c. &c. However, it takes the *o/^ sound, or 
that of 2:, in Alsace, Arsace, Asdrubnl, asbeste, balsamine, 
balsamique, bisbile, Israel, Israelite, Esdras, Thisbe, pres^ 
bitere, transaction, transiger, transitoire, intransitif, tran- 
salpin, Lesbos, Isboseth, Brisgaw, Ryswick, Louisbourgy 
Augsbourg, Presbourg, Philipsbourg, and some few others* 

S takes the soft sound when cetween two vowels, as in 
ba^se. These, bise, rose, ruse, &c. Except compound words, 
in which it has the hard sound of the initial s of the radical . 
word, as in desuetude, entresol, monosyllable, polysyllable, 
parasol, tournesol, preseance, presupposer, resaisir, rcsahcry 
vraisemblable, and some derivatives. 

Final * is heard in as, atlas, argus, bibus, blocus, bolus, 
ajrnus, f(etus, sinus, Phebus, les, us, virus, aloes, bis,jadis, 
trrts, ^atis, lapis, Iti, lis, la Lys, (a river), mais, metis, 
vis, tournevis, Amadis, Adonis, Paris (the shepherd),/?«/Ao.9, 
Athos^ Lesbos, Minos, Delos, Paros, Brutus, Venus, Regu- 
lus, Protesilas, Bias, Gil Bias, Las Casas, Rheims, Sens,. 
Mars, Rubens, Ceres, Damocles, finally in all Latin words 
not in common use, and in proper names, Greek, Latin and 
foreign, &c. But it is always silent as the mark of the plu- 
ral, les hommes, les chats, les livres, les canifs, les chefs, 
&c. in all persons of verbs, tu parlas, tu mangeais, nous 
rions, &c. in all words in common use, repas, des bas, cas, 
appas, irtpas, tapis, souris, propos, clos, depuis, toujourSy 
&c. and in Jcsus- Christ, fleur-de-lis. 

The s final of an adjective, pronoun and adverb, is joined 
to the initial vowel of the next word, and has the soft sound,. 



vous avezj pron : voii zave 



Though there is no s in quatre, yet,, before yeux, it is, in 
conversation, pronounced as if there were one, quatre zieux. 

Finally, double s is commonly sounded as one, as in je res^ 
s(iiisassej assassina^se, AHsmssipi, etc. I'Jiere are some words, 
however, in which the double s is heard, as assation, asso- 
nance, dissonance, accessible, inaccessible^ adtnissible, inad- 



t2 



O' CCNSONANTa. 



^nble, missive, aciasUe «^i..' 
?'« sounded a. i„R„g,i,h. '""^''- 

EXAMPLES. 



Tac-ti-que 
tes-ta-teur 

*0'ta-li.t6 

tpur-te-rei-ie 
*? tu lai-ro 

*'-thy-ma-lB 
chrg-tien 
Jo tie a 
piti6 



tactics 

testator 

theatre 

totality 

turtle 

titulary 

tithi/vial 

^nstian 

thine 

pity 



-par.... r„,^^ 



ti-are 

bas-ti-on 

bi-jou-tier 

Ma-thi-as 

Pon-thieu 

tu sou-tiens 

&«. &c. Slc. 



tiara 

bastion 

jcioelkr 

Mathias 

I*onthieu 

^^ supjmtest 



■«* IS sounded r' ' ^**" <»c. «sc. -^ 

Latin languages, in a|"Cdf 'c^n^r'''''-''"' *« «««k or ih. 

^Sl T" '"--■^" <^^rffl^^?tirS 

-mc, /><'c/.«4T^,S;:'i|J --» of nation, ,„, ^,,^^ 

Par.»:„i EXAMPLES. 



Par-tial 

par-tia-li.t6 
jw-tiel 

pa-tien-ce 

»m-pa-t!en-ce 
quo-tieni 
cap-tieux 
argu-tie 
cau-tion-nc- 
ment 

am-bi'tion 
am-bi-tion-ner 



I 



partial 

partiality 

partial 

impatience 
guotient 
captioiis 
cavil 

bail 

fimbition 
to wish 



patient 

pa-tien-ter 

Gra-Ia-tie 

Be-o-tie 

action 

bal-bu-tier 

in-i-tier 

baJ-bu tia 



patient 

^obear patienthi 
Galalia 
Beotia 
action, 

to stammer 
to initiate 
he stuttered 



baF h» I' '^ stuttered 

in i-t^ ''"™""' '^^^rr^ring 

Venfr ^nUiaied * 

Ve-ni-tien Venetian 



— '" «^"« ysnetian 

^ Ills sounded io :» -• i 
combinations^/ .ho "^^^ '' iheologie tUiUr^. -a- t 



ttl" COMo»»rANti. 



2§ 



mi, imU,comput, chut, idfniuth, indulf luL occimd, nncirmi 
both a and t are articulated irt Le Ch. uiL Vest StW^S 

neither of these letters is heard in Jesua-ChriaL which ia pro- 
nounced Jeaua-Crii ' *^ 
The final t oUept.huit, i^ heard Dt the erid of a sentence. 

Li )^, .%7S. '" "^^- '^'^^^ ^ ^^"^--^ ^- - '"J 

In words ending in ar/, e*<, art, ourt, the < final is silent. 7* 
n T « f "* '? u^^ conjunction et which .s pronounced e; 
Doiible Wis not heard except in atliciame, attiquej'ficwf, 
guttural, and pittareaque. >*»*yt«e, ^..icuai 

V, Vi has the same sound in French as in English. 

EXAMPLES^ 



Val-yc 

val-vu-lo 

\u.c(i6-vil-Ie 

ver-ve 

wi-va-ce 

wis-a-vifl 

*i-vre 



valve 

valvule 

ballad 

poetic Jire 

vivacious 

opposite 

to live. 



Win generally pronounced 



vi-vo-ter 

vi-re-voi-tri 

vi-re-veau 

veu-ve 

veu-va-ge 



U> live poorly 
I guide irregu,* 
\ tar walk. 

itHTidlasa 

ividois 

widoiohood 



as single v in Wolfram, War^ 



Z^h"AT^,^^r''' '' ^^' *^« Bngl/sh^sound'r but'fnK 
ton, the first syllable new is pronounced as neu, in neUraUt^ 

^ , , ^ {ka, '\x\ axe, expeme 
X, X, has the four! ' ' •- - ^ - 

different sounds of"^ 



axe 

sexe 

ri-xe 

lao-xer 

lu-xe 

ex-ceder 

ex-cel-ler 

ex-ces 

«x-cep-ter 

€X-ci-se 

A-lex-andre 



gz, in exhibit, exhale 
aa, in bliaa, moaay 
. z, in Xenophon 

EXAMPLES OF THE FIB8T SOUND, Jt«. 



-rt.a-vi-er 

Xe-no-phon 

ex-il 

ex-or-de 

ex-ub6-ran-ce 
«x-a-men 



axis 

sex 

altercation 

to box 

luxury 

to exceed 

to excel 

sxcess 

ts excepc 

excise 

Alexander 

EX/ MPLE3 OP THE 

Xaverius 

Xetiovhain 

exile ' 

exordium 

ecuberatice 

ex^imination 



Xan-tip-pe 
o-xy-gh-no 
pa-ra do-xe 
flu-xi-on 
exsic-ca-tion 
ex-suc cion 
cx-flu da-ti-on 
ex-su-der 

ex-ci-per 



Xantippe 

oxygen 

paradox 

dejhixion 

exj,i:cation 

exsuctiotv 

exsudation 

exude 



SE'JOND SODND, 

ex-au-cer 

ex-haus-ser 

ex-hi-ber 

ex-hu-mer 



i to plead an ex- 
\ ception. 



gz. 

J to hear favor- 

i uhly 
to raise 
to produce 
to dmnter 




^ifc..^^^. 



EXAMPLES or THE THIBD SODND, i#< 



Aix . Aix 

Aix-la-Chapello Aix-la-ChapcU^ 
Auxerre Auxerre 

Auxoniio Auxonne. 



Soixanto 

Bruxcllew 

Luxeuil 



Sixty 

Brussgfs 

JLuxeuU 



Dnuxieme 

Bixienie 
dixioine 
dix-huit 
dix nouf 



examflks or tub fourth bound, z. 



second 

sixth 

tenth 

eighteen 

nineteen 



dix 6cua 
dix hommcs 
deux aunt a 
buau^ youx 
6i<i. &<*. 



tc-n crovfns 
ten irum 
tioj cUs 
fine eyes 



The first sound of this letter (^s,) ia by far the most general, 
and IS found in words beginning with ea-ce, exci and exa. 

Ihe second sound (^z) takes place in all words beginninir 
with .r or e.v, followed by a vowel, or the letter A, as le Xanthe, 
JLcnocrates, Ximenes, e.vorable, and several others- with 
those alreiidy'iientioncd in the second examples. 

The third sound ss is'only found in the above examples, and 
\x\8ix and dix, vf\\en un;iccompanied by substantives, as in de 
seize atezsix, reste dix, where six and r/u: are pronounced 
with fhe hissing sound ofss in the English word bliss. 

The final x of adjectives, doux, heureux, and such like, ia 
silent before a consonant, and has the fourth sound when be- 
lore a vowel, doux accent, heureiix pcrc. 

The X final of six, dix, is sounded like ss at the end of a 
sentence. Hen a dix/ uke z, before a vowel, il a dixans, and 
IS silent belore a consonant, six livres. 

JC final is silent, ^e veux, f ix, perdrix, feux,JIux, &c. ex- 
cept Aiax, Astianax, bora^v, storax, Halifax, illpponax, 
Uax, climax, thorax, Pertinax, Syphax, index, perplex, Bea- 
trix, Eruv, Fehx, prefix, phenix. Fox, Palafbx, Coysevox, 
lynx, sphi7ix, larynx, syrinv, onyx, Styx and Pollux. 

N. B,—X takes the sound ofsA only in Don Quixote, gcne- 
rj.ily pronounced Don Kishot, or rather Don Ghishot. 
Z, z, is generally pronounced as z in zome, or s in rose. 



EXAMPLES. 



Zi-za-nie 

ze-nith 

zo-no 



tare 
zenith 

ZOI'X 



zig-zag zig-zag 

zin-zo-lin reddish purple 
Zuy-der-zee Zuyder-see 
In assez, chez., nez, and in the second person of verbs 
voiis avez, vous parlez, the termination ez is pronounced is. ' 
In I roper names, espcdelly Spanish names, the same 
termination ez is sounded ece, Alvarez, Senez, and also in 
AJetz. ' 

ZZ in Italian words is either sounded as one z or accord- 
ing to Italian pronounciation, by those to whom it is familiar. 



OP MONOSYLLABLES. 

12. PRACTICAL EXE^ICISES 

OP THE PRONUNCIATION OF MONOSYLLABLES. 



is 



GrM 

ma 
ta 

M 

ia 

(as 

pan 

un plot 

bac 

sac 

arc 

Earc 
al 
cap 
car 
par 
{Mirt 
art 
char 
tlard 
iard 
tard 
(juand 
rang 
blanc 
sans 
dans 
gland 
pan 
cran 
plant 
plan 
flanc 
grand 
en 
il fend 

f;ens 
ent 
main 
il mmt 
il pend 
il prend 
ceint 
cmq 
«ain 
sein 

Buiiit 

Being 
il rend 
il sf nt 



my 
iky 

Aw, Arr, il 
Ike, her, it 
Ured 
step 
n. disk 
ferry -b,:;tt 
sack, bag 
^rch, bmo 
park 
baU 
c^ape 
for 

^, through 
share 
mrt 

chariot 
dojrt 
baoem, 
'ate 
when 
rank 
white 
withmit 
m 

acorn 

skirt of a eoat 
fwtch 
plantation 
plan 
flank 
^reat 
zn 

he splits 
people 
Slow 
hand 
he lies 
he hangs 
he takes 
girt 
five 

icholesovie 
bosom 
holy 

signature 
he retwTis 
he smells, feels 



je vends 

J« 
mo 

ne 

te 

CO 

se 

lo 

do 

16 

n& 

mala 

mes 

tea 

sea 

lea 

pr6 

prds 

pr£t 

ver 

vera 

vert 

il peni 

'1 aert 

pcnr 

fl meurt 

olcurs 

k'ur 

scl 

tel 

quel 

sec 

bee 

chef 

href 

ncuf 

Ebt 

vingt 

crin 

lin 

brin 

pain 

pin 

vin 

fi 

m» 

frit 
lis 
pris 
prijc 



IteU 
/ 

me 
not 
thee 

this, that 
'himself, etc 
'the, htm, it 

il 
oreadth 

torn 

bid 

my, pi. 

%, pi. 

his, her, its, pL 

^he, them 

meadow 

% Jar 

rtudy 

worm 

tojoards 

green 

M loses 

he serves 

fear 

he dies 

tears 

their, them 

saU 

svth 

which 

dry 

beak 

chief 

short 

new 

East 

twenty 

horsC'hair 

flax 

sprig 

bread 

pine 

vnne 

fv 

son 

fried 
lily 
taken 
price 



zo 


Ot UI 


SSVLLABLESf. 




ris 

• 


laugh 


pont 


bridge 


nz 


rice 


lonff 

foZMl 


long 


ni 


'fteUhety noi' 


bottom 


.nid 

• 


nesi 


il8 font 


they da 


SI 


f 
he did 


jonc 
non 


rush 
no 


mis 

• • 


put 


gond 


• hinge 


r 


folds 


noirr 


name 


mreati 


plomb 


lead 


viT 


vile 


TiM 


naked 


vif 


lively 


du 


of the, sing. nr. 


sot 


fool 


ildut 


he otoed 


m 


soon 


bru 


daugUcr-in-law 


elos 


s/iui up 


brut 


rough 


nos 


our 


ilbut 


he drai^ 


yoa 


four 


cru 


raw 


gros 


^ig 


il crut 


he believed 


ttop- •'? 


too muck 


je fu9 


Itoas 


ttot 


irot 


jus 


juice 


croc 


hook 


lu 


read 


or 


gdUl 


il hit 


Ilc read 


bord 


tdge \ 


plus 


more 


fort 


strong 


tu 


thou 


tort 


wrong 


vu 


seen 


je sors 


J go out 


flux 


jlux 


80lt 


fate 


glu 


bird-lime 


port 


port 


due 


duke 


il monl 


he bit'CS rvi^. 


sue 


piia 


vol 


theft 


sur 


upon 


choc 


shock 


mur 


wall 


roc 


rock 


nul 


no, none 


bloc 


block 


bout 


end 


troc 


exchange 


JO»ig 


yoke 


dot (pr. dote) 


doiory 


nous 


we, us 


on 


one, people, they 


vous 


you 


bon 


good 
Oound 


clou 


nail 


bond 


cou 


tieck 


ton 


?y . 


coup 


blow, stroke 


son 


hn, her, its 


trou 


hole 


ils sont 


they are 


mou 


soft 


mon 


my ; 


tout 


aU 


don 


gift 


toux 


cough 


dont 


ofiohich, etc 


pou 


louse 


done 


therefore 


cour 


yard ^ 


front 


forehead 


il pleut 


it rains 


rond 


round 


peu 
il veut 


Utile, fev) 


blond 


light (hair) 


he is willing 




13. ON DIS 


SYLLABLES. 




OR WORDS OP 


TWO SYLLABLES. 


A-bua 
a-chat 


alncse 
purchase 


a-ge 
ai-greur 


age 
a-cidity 


ac-teur 


actor 


a-me 


soul 



OF DISSYLLABLES. 



f 



lavf 



?i-t)neau 

ar-deur 

ar-gent 

AS-tre 

au-cun 

a-veu 

a-vis 

au-tre 

bal-con 

ban-que 

bar-que 

ba-teau 

ba-ton 

bcau-te 

be-gue 

be-te 

beur-ro 

bi-ble 

bla-me 

bon-heur,^/. bo- 
nheur 

bon-te 

bos-quet 

bou-quet 

bour-geon 

i)oar-ra 

bra-sseur 

bri-gand 

bruu-que 

bru-te 

bu-ffet 

bu-reau 

bus-te 

ca-deau 

ca-fe 

ca-hot 

ca-non 

■ca-ve 

cau-se 

cer-cle 

ci-seau 

cl'-ment 

cli-raat 

cIoi-s8n 

co-hue 

co-ramun 

oom-pas 

com-tc 

con-ge 

«on-tfi 

co-quin rog7ie 

<'or-deau ling 

<*ote fide 



ring 

ardout 

motmj 

nofie 

confession 

advice 

otJicr 

balcony 

bank 

a bark 

boat 

■stick 

beauty 

stavimcrer 

beast 

butter 

Mble 

blame 

happiTiess 



goodness 

grove 

nosegay 

bud 

surly 

brewer 

robber 

abi-upt 

brute 

cupboard 

office 

bust 

present 

coffee 
jolt 

cannon 

cellar 

cause 

cirde 

cMs"! 

clement 

climate 

partition 

rtrsb 

common 

compasses 

earl 

fwliday 



cou-ple 


couple 


cou-reur 


runner 


cou-ssin 


cushion 


cou-vent 


convent 


cre-ine 


cream 


cri-mc 


CTiinc 


crot-te 


dirt 


crou-tc 


crust 


da-nifi 


lady 


dan^seur 


dcmper 


de-bit 


■ sale 


de-bout 


i standing up 
i right 


de-mi 


iudf 


de-p6t 


deposit 


de-sert 


ttrilde)-7iea 


dessert 


iessert 


dis-cours 


speech 


dou-Ieur 


pain 


e-cu 


crown 


en-clin 


■inclined 


«n-fant 


child 


e-poux 


spouse 


es-poir 


hope 


e-taia 


pewter 


<ex-ce8 


excess 


fes-tin 
fe-te 


feast 
, festive^ 


fi-lou 


pickpocket 


fla-con 


decanter 


flam-beau 


jlambeau 


flu-te 


flute 


fo-rei 


forest 


fou-drc 


tkunderboU 


four-mi 


ant 


fri-pon 


knave 


fu-iieur 


My 


gaie-te 


cheerfulna* '• 


gar-^on 


boy 


ga-tcau 


ctike 


ga-zon 


turf 


gen-dro 


son-in-law 


gen-re 


gender - ' 


gi-got 


leg of mutton •"> 


gla-fon 


piece of ice ' "> 


g9il-te 


luncheon 


gout-te 


drop 


grS-ce 


famour 


gron-deur 


grumMer 


gra-au 


ffi ««ii 


gue-ro 


little 


guer-re 


war 


gueu-Ie 


vwulA (of a bcasi) 




fui-Ujr 
ai-no 

• hal-le 
*- har-pe 
^ha-te 

' hau-teur 

• Jhansaid 

• hd-tre 
hom-me, pr, 

mme 
hon-neur,;w 

nneur 
' Iron-te 
hor-recrr 
ho t» 
fcu-maift 
ira-pie 
ju-ge 
jour-nee 
Jai-teux 
la-qoais 
lar-cia 
lar-gear 
R-queur 
lo-gis 
lon-gucur 
mar-bre 
mar-chand 
ma-xi 
m&-re 
meu-blo 
mon-de 
mons-tre 
mou-l» 
mou-!in 
n»-gaud 
nou-veau 
eeu-vr» 
on-guent 
or-dre 
ou-bli 
pa -rent 
par-rain, pr. 

pa-naioj 
pS-te 
pa-te 
pat-tc 
pS-che 
pe-che 
^e-cheur 



^F 



DISSYLLABLES, 



ho- 
ho- 



guule 
fuitred 

market'haU 

harp 

haste 

height 

chance 

beech 

> honour 

shame 

horr(n^ 

taTtMord 

human 

impious 

judge 

day 

milky 

footman 

theft 

breadth/ 

Uquor 

dwelling 

length 

marble 

tradesman 

husband 

mother 

furniture 

world 

monster 

mould 

miM 

siUyfeUow 

new- 

wm-k 

ointment 

order 

oblivion 

ixlatioiu 

godfather ~ 

dmbgh 

pie 

paw 

fishing 

sin, 

fisherman. 



pe-€heur 

pei-nc 

pein-tre 

pe-re 

peu-ple 

peu-reux 

pin-te 

plu-me 

por-trait 

pour-pro 

prin-ce 

pro-neau 

ra-gout 

r6-gle 

r^-gno 

rone- 

ren-te 

r^-vo 

ri-re 

rou-te 

ru-se- 

fla-bre 

sa-hi^ 

sa-tint 

sau-ce 

sau-teur 

se-jour 

si-gnn' 

sirgne 

sotn-bre 

sou-hait, 

sou-pe 

sou-ri& 

su-cro 

8us-pect 

ta-cne 

ta-che 

tam-bour 

tom-beau 

to^me 

tou-pie 

tour-nevMT 

trai-neau 

tro-ne 

trou-peau 

veu-ve 

vj-gno 

ze-le 

z4-le 



sinTier 
trouble 
painter 
father 
people 
fearfut 
pint 
feather 
picture 
pwrjii 
prince 
prune 
ragout 
rtUe 
reign 
queen 
annuity 
dream 
laughing 
rtiad 
tiiek 
sabre 
salute 
satin 
santce 
fumbter 
residence 
signal 
sigyi 
dark- 
wish 
soup 
smile 
siugar 
sstspidousa 
spot 
task 
drum 
grave 
volume 
top 

turner 
sledge 
throne 
fiock 
widmo 
vine 
zeal 
zealmi* 






A-bi-mc 

o.-bre-ge 

a-bri-cot 

ab-so-Iu 

ab-sur-de 

ac-tri-cc 

a-lTai-re 

am-pou-Ie 

ap-pe-tit 

fi-pnj-te 

a-rai-^nee 

ar-moi-rc 

ar-tis-te 

as-si-du 

a-tro-cc 

au-ber-ge 

a-voi-ne 

aus-te-re 

ba-bio-Ie 

bas-ses-se 

ba-ti-nient 

be-le-mcnt 

ber-ge-re 

bo-ti-se 

bicn-fai-sant 

bien-se-ant 

bien-ve-nu 

blan-cha-tre 

bles-su-re 

boi-sc-rie 

bor-du-re 

bou-lan-ger 

bou-ta-de 

bou-ti-que 

bras-sc-rio 

bra-vou-re 

breu-va-ge 

bro-de-rie 

brou-et-le 

brii-lu-re 

brus-quc-mcnt 

ca-de-nas 

catn-pa-gne 

ca-re-me 

car-ross-e 

cein-tu-re 

ce-pen-dant 

cham-pi-gnon 

*»H<*_».»«_11 

" HZ.". p*w iiCr 

cha-pel-Ic 
cJha-pi-trc 



abyss 

aSi-idgment 

apricot 

absokih 

absurd 

actress 

business 



appetite 

as2)erity 

spider 

cabinet 

artist 

assiduous 

atrocious 

inn 

oats 

austere 

bauble 

baseness 

buUding 

bleating 

shepherdess 

stupidity 

beiievolent 

becoming 

welcome 

whitish 

vjiound 

wai'oscot 

edging 

baker 
whim 

shop 

breiohoiise 

valour 

drink 

evibroidery 

wheelbarrow 

burning 

bluntly 

padlock 

cohntry 

lent 

coach 

girdle 

hmoever 

mushroom 

chapd 
chapter 



WORDS OP THREE SYLLABLES. 29 

14. WORDS OF THREE SYLLABLES. 

qiuick 

cart 

chtistisement 

warmly 

copper 

fuel 

shons, stockings 

hand-barrow 

ka/rpsichord 

seicer 

colic 

college 

hill 

''olumn 

colouring 

comedy 

comedtan 

merchant 

company 

companion 

behaviour 



c;j 



char-Ia-tan 

char-ret-to 

chati-ment 

chau-de-mer.t 

chaudi^-ro 

chau-fia-ge 

chau-ssu-re 

ci-vie re 

cla-ve-cin 

cIo-a-qiKJ 

co-Ii-que 

co-lle-ge 

co-lli-nc 

co-Io-nno 

co-lo-ris 

co-me-die 

co-me-dien 

co-mmer-fant 

com-jKi-gnie 

com-na-gnon 

con-dui-te 

con-que-rant 

con-que-te 

cons-tam-mcnt 

con-tl-gu 

cor-do-nnicr 

co-ri-ace 

cor-ni-chon 

cou chet-te 

cou-ro-nnc 

cou-telas 

cou-tc-licr 

cou-tu-re 

cra-moi-si 

cre-du-Ie 

cri-ti-quc 

cru-au-t6 

cui-si-ne 

cul-bu-to 

cu-re-dent 

de-com-bre,8 

de-gou-tant 

de-jeu-ner 

de-meu-rc 

deg-ho-nneur 

des-po-te 

dis-ci-ple 

dis-grS-ce 

dro-guis-te 

droi-tu-re 

6-cha-faud 
9 



conqueror 
conquest 

constantly 

contiguous 

shoemaker 

tough 

girkin 

couch 

crown 

hanger 

cutler 

seam v 

crimsan 

credulous 

critic 

cruelly 

kitchen 

tumble 

tvotlir-pick 

rubbish 

disgiisting 

breakfast^ 

abode 

dishoiumr 

despot 

p^ipil 

disgrace 

druggist 

uprightness 

sca^old 



^iM't^mmmim 



30 

6-che-veau 

6-cu-me 

em-pe-reur 

em-pla-tre 

em-plet-te 

en-clu-mc 

en-ga-geant 

en-ne/iM 

en-sei-gne 

6-pa-giieul 

e-pi-ce 

fe-pi-cier 

6-pou-se 

cs-ca-lier 

es-pa-ce 

es-pc-co 

es-quis-80 

es-tra-gon 

«-tei-gnoir 

6-tour-di 

6-vd-che 

e-veil-Ie 

ex ces-sif 

ex-em -pie 

fa-bu-leux 

fa-fa-de 

fai-en-ce 

fa-ri-neux 

farou-che 

fi-Ias-se 

fleu-ris-te 

foi-bIes-80 

fo-Ia-tre 

fou-droy-ant 

four-his-scur 

four-ru-re 

fram-boi-se 

fri-su-re 

froi-ssu-re 

gi-ro-ffe 

go-be-let 

gou-Iu-ment 

gu6-ri-son 

gui-mau-A'c 

ha-lei-ne 

' har-di-ment 

' ha-ri-cot 

hor-Io-ge 

hor-ri-blc 

ho-tes-ae 

i gnorant 

iin-mcn-sc 



WORDS OF THREE BYLL ABIES. 



ladder 
skein 

froth 

emperor 

plaster 

purchase 

anvil 

engaging 

enemy 

sign 

spaniel 

spice 

grocer 

vn/e 

stair-case 

space 

kind 

sketch 

stragon 

extinguisher 

thoughtless 

bishoprick 

awake 

immodrrate 

example 

faimUms 

front 

delft-mare 

m^aly 

fteixe 

flax 

florist 

weaJcness 

playful 

thundering 

sword-cutlier 

fur 

raspberry 

curling 

bruising 

cloves 

goblet 

speedily 

cure 

marsh-malhw 

breath 

hoidhj 

Ii\ench bean 

dock 

hmrid 

Imtdlady 

ignorant 

immense 



im-puni 

in cer. -die 

in-co-nnu 

in-g6-nu 

i-nnu-main 

in-sec-to 

ins-truc-tif 

i-voi-re 

i-vro-gne 

ja-quet-te 

jour-na-Iier 

lai ti6-re 

lan-^ou-reux 

len-til-Jc 

li-ma-fon 

ma-ga-sin 

mal-a-droit 

ma-noeu-vre 

mar mi- ton. 

mas-cu-IJn 

me-con-ttut 

me-raoi-re 

mena-ger 

men-son-ge 

me-pri-se 

me-thod'e 

mo-des-tie 

mon-ta-gnard 

mou-tar-de 

raur-mu-re 

na-tu-rel 

nau-fra-gc 

n an-moina 

no-bles-se 

noi-ra-tre 

o-bli-geant 

om-bra-ge 

o-ppro-bre 

o-ra-geux 

or-fe-vre 

or-phc-Iin 

pa-moi-son 

pan-tou-flo 

pa-pe tier 

pa^ra-sol 

pa-ren-te 

pa-rois-se 

j.)as-sa-ble 

pois-sar-de 

poi-lri-ne 

por-tie-re 

pos-tu-re 

po-ta-gc 



unpunished 
conflagration 
urucnovm 
ingenuons 
inhuman 
insect 
instrudive 
ivory 
drunkard 
jacket 

journeyman 
milk woman 
languishing 
lentil 
snail 

warehouse 
awkward 
labourer 
scullion 
nmsculine 
discontented 
vtemo'ry 
thrifty 
falsehood 
mist^akc 
inethod 
modesty 
hightander 
mustard 
mutynur 
natural 
shipioreck 
nevertheless 
nobility 
blackish 
obliging 
shade 
disgrace 
sUrrmy 
goldsmith 
orphan 
fainting-fU 
slipper 
stationer 
undn'ella 
kinswoman 
parish 
tolerable 
Jishwoman 
breast 
coach door 
posture 
porridgr. 






OF GKriBER. 



$1 



I 
on 



r 



J 



pous-m^-re 

pr6-tex-te 

prin-ces-sc'^ 

pro-mes-se 

pro-tcc-fcgur 

pu-6-riI 

pui-ssan-ce 

que-reMe 

ra-pie-re 

ra-tid-re 

re-3ol-te 

r6-8er-ve 

re-ssour-ce 

re-trai-te 

r6-ve-rie 

rou-gea-tre 

rus-ti-que 

scan-da-leux 

8cru-pu-leux 

se-an-cc 

8er-ru-rc 

sif-fle-ment 

»im-ple-ment 

80-bri-quet 

8o-len-nel 

8o>nnet te 

80- no-re 



(fust 

preleTict 

princess 

promise 

protector 

childish 

power 

qiiarrel 

rapier 

rat-trap 

crop 

reserved 

resource 

retirement 

meditation 

reddish 

rural 

scandal^" 

scraped us 

sitting 

lock 

whistling 

plaiidy 

nick name 

solemn 

little bell 

sonorous 



sou-cou-po 

8oup-9o-nneux 

spec-ta-cle 

Bplen-di-de 

Buc-ces-seur 

su-pre-me 

symp-tA-me 

tein-tu-re 

ten-dres-se 

te-ne-breux 

the-a-tre 

the-ife-ro 

toi-let-te 

lour-ne-vis 

tou-te-fois 

tri-che-rie 

tri-pm-phe 

trom-pet-te 

tu-mul-to 

va-can-ccs 

ver-get-te 

ver-mis-seau 

vic-toi-re 

vi-gou-reux 

vil-la-geois 

voi-tu-re 

ze-phir 



15. OF GENDER. 



saucer 

suspicious 

sight 

splendid 

successor 

supreme 

symptom 

dying 

tenderness 

dark 

theatre 

tea~pot 

toilet 

scretc-dri-ver 

•nevertheless 

cheat 

triumph 

trumpet 

tumult 

holidays 

brush 

small worm 

victory 

vigorous 

countryman 

carriage 

zephyr 



# 



There are but two genders in French, the masculine 
and feminine. 

The mascu'Jne gender expresses the male kind, as un 
homme, a man ; un lion, a lion. 

The feminine gender denotes the female kind, as une 
Jemme, a woman ; une lionne, a lioness. 

The French language, has no neuter ; consequently, inan- 
imate objects are either masculine or feminine. Foreigners 
experience great difficulty in that respect, for, as the article 
pronoun and adjective which refer to a noun, must agree 
with It in gender, as well as in number, much attention 
must be paid to ascertain the former. To enable them to do 
this, no general rules can efficiently be given, on account 
of the numberless exceptions which occur. AVe think that 
ear and practice are the safest and most correct guides 
which can be Ibllowed, and, in fact, they are the only ones 
which the French themselves have, who hardlv ever »««Lo 
a mistake, if we except the uneducated ; w'e, therefore 
strongly recommend them to the English learners. Unwil- 
hng, however, to withhold from them any part of the as- 



■'"*■-"■■' --^"yMiitf"' 



d2 



Of GfcNDIiR. 



Bisfance they may look for in a grammar like thk we will 
give eomo general rules with their exceptions. 

16. GENERAL RULES. 

*T0 ASCERTAIN THE GEXDER OP N0UN3 SUnST.AN^VES IN 
FRENCH, WITH THEIR EXCEPTIONa. 

1. God, his angels, cherubun and seraphim, are of tjic 
mascuhne gender. ' 

2. All diminutives of animals, when there is but one 
common denom ... --on lor both sexes, are of the masculine 
gender, whatevv ' ray be the gender of the root from which 
Tiiey are derived, ^.s un lionceau, un sonriceau, un perdreau 
un corm/las, un carpillon, un coideuvreau, un vipereau, un 
becasseau, &c. except U7ie hecassine ; but these two latter, 
although derived Irom the word becasse, and belono-ino- to 
the genm, are not of the same species. In other caJe8,°the 
dimmutives lollow the gender their sex indicates, as wn 
poulat7i, line potdiche, un cochet, une pouh'lc. 

3, Diminutives pf inanimate objects generally follow the 
genaer of their roots, as hatelet, maisonnetle, globule, from 
bateau, muison, globe, &c. ; but un corbillon, un soliveau, 
un cnicJion, une savonnette, un trousseau, from la corbeille 
others r' ^"^"^^^' ^^ ^"^'^''' '^""^ '^ trousse, and many' 
4. All the names of the days, months, and seasons of 
me year, are of the masculine gender, except automne, which 
IS of both genders ; ^vhen, however, the diminutive mi (half^ 
is prefixed to the name of a month, the compound word thv.a 
takes the feminme gender, as la mi-mai, la mi-aouL la mi-ca~ 
rcme ; mi sl.anding for demi, f ; la .%. Jean, la St, Michel 
and other saints' days arc feminine ; fete de being understood 
as la f6te de St. Jean, ' 

'of trees, except yeuse, a sort of oak. 
of shrubs, with some exceptions, 
of metals, without excepting platine, formerly 
feminine, "^ 

of minerals, a few excepted, 
of colours, vithout excepting 
VIsabelle, le Feuille-mort%, &c. though they have 
La feminine termination 



m 
u 

'A 



' oUnountains, except when the words j'Vfo?z/a'^/ie c6te ^ 
are understood ; les Cordillieres, les Alpes.'' ' ' 



as 



TO 

g Of winds, except la bise, la tramontane, la bnse, and 
g '{ les moussons. 



■J 



of towns, except those which necessarily take the I ? 
arucie /a bdbre them, as la Rockellc]la Fertc- Z 
sur-Aube, &c. and others. j " 









Of OENDfiK. 



8^ 



cf 






fit,!; o i"^'« •?^"^'^Hy^' ^"^ proportional numtew, adjec- 
S ?"k infinitives of verbs, prepositions and adverbs, all 
m^r/' y^ • ""'l^ substantively, ar^ tnaflculihe, as le tiei^s, le 
HIl ^^79^*^^^, le quadruple, le beau, le sublime, le boire, 
i^lfanger le mieux, h pour, le cmdre, unparatHle, (a cwn- 
panson,) &,c. except la moitie, and the elliptical formrof 
speech w«e courbe, tme tangente, tine perpendiculaire, mie 
paraime,une antique, used for Une Ugriecmrbe, unehZe - 
fangente &c Antique is feminine, for the mrhe reaefn^ 
tlie word medattle, or - atue appearing to be understood. 

8. Names of mrtues are of the feminine' g'^Vider, except 
courage, mente. * ' c-^v-c^;. 

n. GENDERS OF NOUNg, 

TO BE KNOWN FROM THEIR TERMINATION. 

fo.^;'^il® termination in an e mute, is called a feminine 

Si STnkW "^ '' .^^"^^ masculine. This distinction 
arises probabHr from the circumstance that most nouns of the 
leminme gender end with an e mute, thus la table, la nviere, 
lu^e, lnjytanie, latete, lafenetre ; but to this general rule 
^ere are innumerable exceptions, which we will notice as 
we speak of other terminations. 

10. A^aweg of states, emjaires, kingdoms and provinces are 
01 Ae gender which their terminations indicate ; except 
le Bengale, le Mexique, le Pelop, nese, le Maine, U Perch e. 

Slh'n^"^' /' ^'^'^'^ ^' ^^^^^' ^ Pramhe-comte, and 
perhaps a few more. ' 

r^llur^^^ "^ n^lu°^ ^"""'^f' ^''^^"' P^»n*«' and flowers, follow 
pretty generally the gender of their terminations, but there 
&re too many exceptions to be introduced here. 

18, TABLE, 

SHOWING THE GENDER OF ALL WORDs WHICH i>v .'TOT 

END IN e MUTE. 



MASCVLINE, 

^ -tie 

r Aparte, arrete, benfi-"* 
II J dicitg, comte, ct,o, I ,. 
"] ^te.pate, lraite,16 f ''« 

l th^.Lahe .J 

40 S iUbi, biribi, lundi, gui, ) 

i grand morci, etc. . , J '^ 
'*-" "'-•-"j~ujj cjirui, etc .... , . -01 
30 ? ®''8°> vertigo, indir"> > 

( etc \, i '<> 



FEMININE. 



( amitie, inimitie, moi- > 
\ tie, pitie \ 



I absiirdite, beauts, cha- ' 
I rite, cite, dignity, I 
j fidfilite, generosite, ** ^'"" 
I etc. etc 



J Fourrai, merci, gagui, ". 
\ apres-midi 1 



loi, 101, parol 

albiiigo, virago.... #, 



4 
3 



34 



OF OEMDER. 




nn 



MASCULINE, 
fichu, cr,u, ecu, tissu, 
etc 

aloyau, anneau, etc. 
otc 



i bref, chalef, chef, fiof, > 
^l grief, reJief. ....... 5 

claim, essaim, a bat- i 
faiin ^ I 

*"0 J pan, etc 'J 

bam, baise-niain, aO 
vtvnt-main, garUc- 

200-^ wain, tourne-main, j. 
cssuie-main, gain, I 
frem, basin, etc.. ..J 



-u 

-au 



-of 
•aim 
•an 



FEMlNINi), 
bru, glu, tribu, vcr- i 

tu I 

cau, pcau, surpeau^ \' 
sansipcau li 



clef, ncf, soif. . . 
faim, male-faim, 
maman 



4^ 
4 

3 
n 



-in fin, main, nonnain. . 



5 



. i scion, bastion, bes- 
* i Hon, Ixion 



f 



3() 



1 



i'v 



gabion, taudion, mil- 
lion, Jion, ardelion, 
fourmillion, tremi- 
on, capion, turnion, 
ramion, lampion, 
scptentrion, brim- 
v^ borion, gavion, etc. 
[ alcyon, clayoH, cray- 
on, rayon, sayon, 
trayon, lamproyon, 

Aniphictryon 

1 brise-raison 

fpcson, bison, grison, 
I groiaon, horizon, 
II < sison, tison, oison, 
poison, contre-poi- 

\^ son, buson 

basson, caisson, ca- 
vesson, taison, poig- 
son, cosson, buisson, 
fnson, herisson, niau- 
disson, iiourrisson, 
palisson, polisson, u- 
nisson, saucis.son, 

CfMjrson J 

arcanson, eehanson, } 

tenson, pinson. j 

I Caaranfon, cave^on, 1 

20 j cour^on, pinf on, su- J 

con, etc \ 



} 



-cion 
-sion 
-tion 
-gion 
•nion 
-xion 
-bion 
-dion 
-lion 
J'-mion 
-pion 
-rion 
-vioa ^ 



succion, cession, fric- ' 

tion, gestion, re- 
' gion, opinion, re- 
flexion, fluxion, etc, 
etc. etc '. . 



MIOO 



rebe..ibn, dent-delion, . 
alluvion r 



-von 



3 







-aison cargaison, etc. etc 

""garnison, guerison, 
-csoh ..-;..-« *—kF--.. . .' 

-ison ■< 



-uson 



15^ 



prison ,trahison, cloi- 
son, froison, moi- y 
son, pauioison, loi- I 
son, camuson. ..... j 



30 



11 



-sson 



1 



paisson, boisson, moi 
6son, cuisson, salis 
son, mousson. 



oi.) 
lis-> 



G 



\ 



-nson i chanson f 



-con 



ifafon, contrefa? oa, i 
malfafon, Icron, } 
ranron \ 



5 



JF GENDER. 



' 1 



$3. 



4^ 

■i 

3 



5 



MIOO 



11 



900^ 



MASCULINE, 
bridon, gueridon, etc. . 
tendroii, jeuno ten- 
dron, baron, etc. . . 
abattls, ap^jciitis, iris, 

tournc-vis, etc 

bois, niois, carquois, 

harnois, etc 

adent, chiendent, Ji- 
ondent ^laquedent, . 
curc-dc.. Occident, ( 

trident, etc 

acharnement, assorti- ) 

nient, etc c 

ballet, billet, bosquet,") 

minuit, conduit, re- f 

duit, etc. billot, bru- 

.K.Iot, complot, etc. 

bout, gout, ragout, 

etc 

paix, choix, 
priXjCtc 

courroux,.,, „,„vv.. 

art, dapart, cham{)art, 
rempart, eflbrt, port 
sort, tort, etc 
fer, ver, hiver, etc. air, 
eclair, etc, tour, con 
tour, foUi tc. 
bonheur, malhcur, ^ 
labour, honneur, I 

deshonncur, coeur, J 
anticceur, crdvc- i 
coeur, choeur, chou- f 
fleur, pleurs, equa- 
teur, secteur, etc. 
etc 



FEMININE, 
dondon. 



-doi , 

-Ion ^laideron, ijxiuiQu, to-} 

-ron I tillon ....^,f.,.. . . . J 

-18 S "'«^^i«> soiiris, chau- { 



^ ve-souris, vis, iris 
-ois fois 

-dent ^ dent, surdent, gont. , 
-gent I 



1 

3 



6 



1 
3 



-mcnt jurncnt. 




-ct 
-uit 
-ot 
-out 

-ix 
-aux 
-oux 






foret, nuit, dot, glout. 



Spaix, croix, noix, poix, } 
voix, perdrix,chaux, } 
faux, toux ) 



-art < hart, part, mort, ma- > 
-ort I leinort } 



•er 

-air 

-our 



(cuiller, mar, chair, > _ 
i cour, tour ^ ^ 



aigrcur, ampleur, ar- 
dour, blancheur, can- 
dour, chaleur, chan- 
-eur •< ^^^^^"'*> clameur, cou- 
' Icur, douceur, dou- 
leur, epaisseur, er- 
reur, fadeur, defa- 
veur, ferveur, fleur, 



70 



passe-fleur, eans-fleur, fraicheur, frayeur, froideur, fureur, grandeur 
grosseur hauteur, horreur, humeur, laideur, langueur, largeuf lentenr' 
liqueur, longueur, lourdeur, lueur, maigreur, moifeur nofrceur Sr' 
paleur, pesanteur, peur, primeur, profoSdeur, puanteur, pudeur, hnpul 
deur, rigueur. raideur, rondeur, rongeur, rousseur, rumour saVeur 
«enteur, soeur, souleur, splendour, sueur, teneur, tex^eur, tr/deurXr: 
peur, touffeur, tumeur, valeur, non-valeur, vapeur. verdeur, vigueur 
and moeurs ; besides basseur, rancoeur, tremeur, three wards vJw JS' 
mah.'wg tnthe whole the number of sdenty-six. "'^ "^^ oosoiece, 

l^iere are a great maiijr proper names of females, which, though thev 
may not have the femmme termination, are of that gender as the 
^^J^ 't'^, "^L"P.' ^3 «^«% comprehend ; such are.' amomr 
'=/~/V:~""^""' ^ ^^' i.eres ^nieiis, Venus, Junon, Lfidon, etc.' Amons 
chn^ti^nn^mes^, Sara, Deborah Elizabeth, Agnis, etc. and manyol" 
these are contr. tions, as Fanchon for Fanny, Usm, Louison, Marion, 





M 



30 



OP GSNDEA. 



■;l 



i 



STfl^^'/tS!"'' *''^'™' '"^'"' '^'"^' ^-«»'. <**-. 

As this list of exceirtions will be found pretty accural*. >ll «*K« 

19. A TABLE OF SUBSTANTIVES, 

THAT ARE MASCULINB m ONE SIGNIFICATION AND PEMININH 

IN ANOTHER. 



m 



MASCULINE. 

Assistant, helper 
eagle, a great genius 
an angel 
an alder tree 
barb, a Barbary horse 

Bard, a poet 

redbreast . 

a sort of privateer 
a scroll or ornament 

pairUing t 

a caravan, a boy 
comet, a standard bearer 
a couple, a man and vnfe 
Croat, a Croatian soldier 
a crape 
an echo 

ensign, an officer 
example, model, instance 
a gimlet, a piercer 
a large vat 
keeper, warden 
hoarfrost 
the rolls, a register 
gules in heraldnj 

fnide, director 
diotrope, sunflmoer 
iris, the rainbow, iris of\ 
the eye t 

lacker, a kind of varnish 
a book 

a hat of otter's hair 
handle of a tool 
a labourer 



Aiilo 
aigle 
ange 
aune 
barbo 

bardo 

berco 
capw) 

cartouche 

coche 

eornette 

couple 

cravate 

cr6pe 

6cho 

enseigne 

exemple 

for6t 

foudro 

garde 

givre 

greffe 

gueulo 

^uidie 

heliotrope 

iris 

laquo 

livre 

loutre 

manche 

manoeuvre 



FEMININE. 

Aid, hdp, support 

a standard 

a kind of thm-nback 

an ell, a sort of measure 

beard 

5 a slice oj bacon, horse- 

i ai'numr 
caw-parsnip 
caper (a fruit) 

cartouch, cartridge 
a notch, a sow 
a woman's head-dress 
a brace, a pair, two of a sort 
a cravat, neckcloth 
a parhcake 
Echo, a nymph 
« sign post 
a copy for writing 
a wood a forest 
lightning, thuTiderboU 
wai^Ji, hilt, nurse 
a S'nake {m fieraldry) 
a graft ' 

the mouth of beasts 
reins in driving 
heliotrope, ^asper 
ispng-crystal, a proper 
i name 
lacca, gum-lac 
a pound 
an otter 

a sleeve, English cha^ind 
the working of a ship 






' i. 



^.?^?:-r:Pf *H",.*^'''? it«to be remarked, that th« Fr.«.l, ^.-,i 
on the K" When a hS'theli'* ^'S^^^'if.^r "" the'right"ha"nd"and 
masculine ; when tSal "^^^J^X^L^^'^^t^t,:^;^,^^^ ' '' 



■«?I?-5V' 



all other 
idered as 
(d in this 



JMININR 



^^ 



■asure 



'ess 
'ofasort 



. ■ 



'bolt 
ry) 

' yrvpvf 



hanrul 
Up 



md and 
eft, it is 



mascumne. 
memoir, a bill 
tkanks 
mood., Tnode 
a pier, or mov/nd 
moultl, cast, form, 
a ship-boy 

the philosopher's stone 
ofice, prayers 
ombre, a game at cards 
singular is mas. 
page of a prince, etc. 
a merry a-ndrew 

a hamPs breadth 

pantomime 

Easter, Easter-day 

a comparison 

pendulum 

le Perche, in France 

summit, highest pitch 

anybody, nobody (a pro- 

noun) 
spad£, at cards 
gnatsnapper, a bird 
a plane-tree 
a stove, a canopy 
po't, a military statim, 
punto at cards 
purple colour, purples, 

(a disegse) 
a pretence 

quadril at cards 

the calling back a hawk 

rest, relaxation 

a glass coach 

a sort of pear-tree 

Satyr, a sylvan god 

serpentarius 

nap, slumber 

a smile 

apmier 

holder, a book-keeper 

a tour, Piim, trick 

triumph 

trumpeter 

space 

a vase, vessel 

a hat uf vigonia wool 
a veil 



OP G£NDBR. 



xnlmoiro 

inerci 

mode 

n.61e 

nioule 

mousse 

osuvra 

office 

ombre 

orgue 

page 

paillasse 

palme 

pantomime 

p^ue 

parallele 

pendule 

perche 

periode 

person ne 

pique 

pivoine 

plane 

poele 

poste 

ponte 

pourjire 

pretexte 

quadrille 

reclame 

relache 

remise 

sans-peau 

satyre 

berpentaire 

Bonime 

souris 

Suisse 

teneur 

tour 

triomphe 

trompette 

vague 

vase 

vigogne 
voile 



fEMININE. 

memory 

pity, mercy 

fashioti 

mole, moon-calf 

muscle, a shell-fish 

moss, a plant 

action, an aiUhor's work 

ponlry, larder, buttery 

shade, shadwo 

plural is feminine 

page in a book 

a sti'aw bed 

S the anch of a palm- 

( tree, victory 
a dumb shmo 
the passover 
a parallel 
a clock 

pole, perche, a fish 
period, epocha 

a person {a noun) 

a pike 

peowy, a flower 

plane, an instrument 

a frying-pan 

the post for letters 

the laying ofeggi 

purple fish, purple die 
pretext 

S party of horse in a tour- 
i 1. zment 

a catch-uvrd (in printing) 
harbour ° ' 

a coach-house, a remittance 

a so'rt of pear 

a satire, a lampoon 

snake-root, dragon's wort 

sum, load, name of a river 

a mmise 

Smtzerland 

tenor, purport, content 

tmoer, rook at chess 

a Prump 

trumpet 

a wave, surge 

\Jhe slime in ponds, lakes. 
C etc, 

O' vi^on, or llama 
a sail 



D 



I r 



'ti 



'W 



f 



I 



^ VOCADULART. 

20. A VOCABULARy, 

FRENCH AND ENOLldH. 
IN TWENTY-THREE CHAPTERS. 

♦,• In the following Vocabulary, tho Gender ha. been affixed only 
to those Nouns that are not included in tho prfeedir Rules. 



OP THE UNIVERSE IN GENERAL. 



Dieu 



God 



J6sus-Christ 


Jesus Christ 


Trinit6 


Trinity 


Saint-KspriC 


Holy Ghost 


ansa 
arcnange 


fftigel 


archangel 


prophgto 
Messio 


prophet 
Messiah 


sauvour 


skviour 


r6dempteur 


redeeiner 


Vierge Marie 


Virgin Mary 


ap6tre 


apostle 


6var]^61iste 


evangelist 


martyr 


martyr 


saint 


saint 


paradis 


paradise 


ciel 


heaven 


enfer 


hell 


diable 


devil 


nature 


namre 


univers 


universe 


monde m. 


world 


616ment 


element 


terre 


earih 


eau 


-water 


feu 


fire 


a if 


air 


firmament 


sky 


6toile 


star 


plandte 


planet 


coniSte 


comet 


constellation 


coTistelJation 


soleil 


sun 


rayon du soleil 


sun-beam 


lure 


moon 


eclipse 


eclipse 


orage m. 


Uorm ■ 


tonnerre f?i> 


thij/nAjfY 


telair 


lightning 


brouiUard 



pluio 

arc-en-ciel 

ondeo 

neigo 

grdio 

glaco 

gel^e 

degel 

roseo 

creature 

globe m. 

sphere 

h6misph6re wi. 

horizon 

degr6 

longitude 

latitude 

points cardi- 
naux pi. 

orient, on est 

Occident, vu, 

ouest 
septentrion, 

ou nord 
midi, ou sud 
climat 
region 
continent 
Europe 
Asie 
Afrique 
Amerique 
empire m. 
royaurae r^, 
r^publique 
pays 
colonic 
principautd 



ram 

rwinboxa 

shower 

snow 

hail 

ice 

frost 

thaw 

deio 

creature 

globe 

sphere 

hemisphere 

horizon 

degree 

longiinule 

latitude 

cardinal points 

east 

west 

north 

south 

climate 

region 

continent 

Europe 

Asia 

Africa 

Atnerica 

empire 

kingdom 

republic 

country 

colony 

■j Hncipality 

province 
skir^ or county 



▼OCABULABT. 



eti only 
los. 



oainis 



iy 
unty 



lie 

preuqu'iie 

p^ninaule 

Chorsondio 

cap 

nromontoiro m 

iflihme 7)1. 

montagno 

mont 

colline 

sommct 

pente, ou pen 

chant 
hauteur 
valine 
vallon 
abiine m, 
deaeri 
plaine 
marais 
rive 

nvage m, 
cote 
rocher* 
roche* 
roc* 
^cueil* 
banc* 
r6cif» 
brisans* 
cime 
pierre 
pont 
chauss6o 
gu<S 
qu/^.i 
row to 
sejitier 
foss6 
gravirr 
sable m. 
Bablou 
pouflEidra 
ocean 
mer 
golf m. 
baie 
rade 
ansn 
canal 



} 



idand 

pcnitisnla 

C/iersonesw 
cape 

promontory 
istkmus 
umntain 
ntount 
hill 
summit 



> declivity 



eminence 

valley 

dale 

abyss 

desert 

plain 

niarsh or fen 

banl {of a river) 

sfuyie 

coast 

rock 

rock 

rock 

shcal 

sand bank 

reef of rocks 

brfokers, surf 

top 

stone 
bndge 

caus.^my, road 
ford 

wharf or quay 
road 
path 
ditch 
gravel 
sand 

small sand 
dust 
ocean 
sea 
mdf 
bay 

road {for ships) 
creek ' i 

channd I t>^U] l)e 



d^troit 
courant 
mareu 
flux 
reflux 
vague 
flots pL 
ondcs 7/1. 
hSvre m. 
port 
luc 

rividre 
flenve ?;/_ 
crabouchuro 
TuiBfieau 
4 rdemcnt 
' Sluge m. 
inorHation 
^cluso 
diguo 
6tang 
vivier 
reservoir 
abreuvoir 
bain 
citerno 
fontaine 
sourco 
J puit3 
pompe 
bateau 
barqua 
bac 

coche d'eau m. 
gabaro 
navire m, 
vaiflseau 
paquebot 
flamme 
€tincelle 
chaleur 
fum^e 
incendie r%. 
chaufTage m. 
chiibon 
cht'.ifbon de terre 
cha :bon de bois 
braise 



\ 



strait 
current 

tide 

."ying 

cbbin^ 

wave 

billotos, wavu 

waters 

haven 

ha boViT 

hke 

river 

great river 

mouth of a rwtr 

brook 

ov^rfloxo 

dt iige 

inundation 
flood-gate, shiic* 

dyke 

pond 

fish-pond 

bason 

horse-pond 

bath 

cistern 

fountain 

source 

well 

pump 

(Jt/Ot 

bark 

, ferry-boai 
barge 
lighter 
ship 
vessel 

packet-boat 
blaze 
spark 
heat 
smoke 

confiagraiion 
fuel 

coals 
pit coal 
charcoal 
small coal 
turf 






fcu,7.tr"llteto 22'^° "■"""'' « French th.«m<, idea, a. 




r 



i. 



w 



Mi - 




40 

bob 

bilche 

fagot 

coupeaux pt. ' 

cenure 

sme 

feu 

atmosphere 

vent 

zephyr 

vapeur 

lumiere 

tenebresjp^, 

chaleur 

froid 

nue, nnee 

nuage m. 

nielle 

humidite 

serein 

tourbillon 

orage m. 

tenipdte 

ondee 

calme m. 

eternit6 

temps 

siScle m. 

epojque 

periode m. 

date 

an, ann6e 

mois 

Janvier 

fevrier 

mars 

avril 

mai 

juin 

juillct 

aout 

septembro 

octobre 

novembre 

decembre 

semaino 

jour 

journee 

aujourd'hui 

demain 

hior 



h 



mmirr'''imtifim^imm!^fm 



VOCABULARr, 




wood 

fog of wood 

faggot. 

chips 

(tsfies 

soot 

fire 

atmosphere 

wind 

zephyr 

vapour 

Ug\t 

darkn^iss 

heat 

cold 

cloud 

cloud 

blight 

dampness 

mildew 

whirlwind 

storm 

tempest 

shower 

calm 

eternity 

time 

age Or entury 

epoch 

periou 

date 

year 

month 

January 

february 

march 

april 

may 

June 

July 

august 

September 

October 

november 

december 

week 

day 

day 

to-day 

to-morrow 

yesterday 



lundi 

mardi 

mercredi 

jeudi 

vendredi 

samedi 

dimanche 

heure 

demi-heure 

quart-d'heure 

aurorb 

auhe 

matin 

matinee 

midi 

l|apres-midi 

Tapres-din^e 

soir 

soiree 

crepuscule m. 

nuit 

minuit 

minute 

seconde 

moment 

instant 

saison 

printemps 

etc 

iiutomne 
hiver 
carnaval 
car6me m. 

mi-oar^me 
fiSque 

pentecote 

la Saint Jean 

I'avent 

aoel 

fete 

equinoxewt, 

solstice m. 

canicule 

fenaison 

moisson 

Vflndange 

tonte 

semailles^/, 

conge 



vumday 
tuesday 

Wednesday ^ 
thursday 
friday 
Saturday 
Sunday 
hour 
half an lunir 

< quarter of an 
\ hour 

aurora - 

dawn 

mining 

forenoon 

noon 

< the afternoon 

5 evening 

twilight 

night 

midnight 

minute 

second 

moment 

instant 

season 

spring 

summer 

autumn 

winter 

carnaval 

lent 

midlent 

easier 

whit-sunday 

midsummer 

advent 

Christmas 

festival 

equinox 

the solstice 

the dog-days 

hay -harvest 

harvest 

vintage 

sheanng-time 

sowing-time 

holiday 






^fr 



:ii} 



wmssmmsm 



i 



fenre humain 
ommo 
femme 
sexo 
enfant 
garcon 
fille 
vierge 
virgmite 
eniance 
jeunesse 
adolescence 
virilite 
vieillesse 
decrepitude ' 
jeune homftic 
jeune fille 
vieillard 
g^ant 
nain 

pigmee m, 
man 
femme 
veaf 
veuve 
orphelin 
orphelino 
heritier 
heriticre 
maitre 
maitresse 
hote 
hotesse 
domestique 
servai^e 



VOCABULARY. 



n. OP MAN. 



vrmnkvnd 
rnan 



voisin m. 

.'oisine/, 

compagnoa m. 

compagne/. 

corps 

membre vu 

tronc 

tete 

crane m, 

front 

visage w. 

traitii ii, 

ceil 

yeux pi 

sourciJs pi. 

paupiore 



woman 



sex 

child 

boy, youth, la4 

virgin 
virginity^ 
infancy \ 
youth ^ ' ' 
adoieschice 
manhood 
\ old age 
decrepitude 
young man. 
young girl 
old man 

giant ' 

dioarf 

pigmy 

^usband 

loife 

vjidower 

widow 

orphan (boy) 

orphan {girl) 

heir 

heiress 

master 

mistress 

laMlord 

landlady 

ma/n servant, 

maid Servant 

t neighbowr 

f companion 

body 

member 

trunk 

Jiead 

sktdl 

Jorelvcad 

face 

features 

eye 

&yes 

cyc-brows 

eye-lid 



nez 

mmnv narines/>/. 
bouche 
16vres pi. 
dent 

gencives pi, 
machoire 
langue 
palais 
joues pi. 
fossette 
menton 
barbe 
^empes pi, 
oreille 
cheveux pi 
cou 
gosier 
sein 
poitrine 
ventre m, 
ceinture 
cote 

hanchc 

reins pi 

genou 

J arret 

rotule 

jambc 

moUet 

pied 

talon 

orteil 

bras 

coude m. 

aissellc 

epaule 

main 

poing 

poignet 

doigt 

pouce 

ongle m. 

cote 
cerveau 

CGrvp.llf*. 

squelette vi, 
coBur 
{joumon 
tbie VI. 
rate 



it 



i (^'■ti. 



il; 1^ 



•Mse ' 

Tiostrils 

•mouth 

lips 
, tooth 
• i^ums 
, jaw-bone 

tongue 

palate 

cheeks 

dimple 

chin 
. beard 

temples 

ear 

hair 

neck , . 

bosom 
chest 
belly 
waist 
side 
hip 
loins 
knee 
ham 
knee-pan 

cSlfoftheVif-'^:' 
foot 
heel 
toe 
arm 
elbow 

the arm-pit 
shoulder 



;»om 



in 
(1 



t*i 



'i!r'.>h 



ciwroifiA. 



D5> 



hand. 

f'St 

v>rist 
finger 
thumb 
nail 
lid 

brain 

skeleton 

heart 

lungs 

liver 

spleen 



■ -Mi 

in Mff 

•-K'li - 





I i 

I f 






H 



eatomac 

entra,i]le8,pl. 
sang 

humeuro pi. 

ghnde 

poil 

chair 

peau 

pores 7?i.pl. 

nerf 

artdro 

veine 

08 

moeJIe 
ride 
bouton 
sante 

temperament 
embonpoint 
roaigreur 
teint J 

'ougeur 

pSIeur 

j)ort 

demarche 
geste m, 
vivacite 

enjouement 
gaietg 

beaute 

charmes m. 

attraitsj?;. 

appas^if. 

agrement 

laideur 

taille 

voix 

jjarole 

silence m. 

action 

mouvement 
repos 
grimace 
ria, rire w.. 
souris, sourire 
[m. 
numeur 
soupir 

gemissement 
flommeil 



stonuicA 
entrails 
blood 
humowrs 
gland 
hair 
flesh 
skin 
pores 
nerve 
artery 
vein 
bone 
marroio 
wrinkle 
pimple 
health 
constUuUon 
plumpness 
leanness 
\ complexion 
redness 
paieness 
carriage 
gait 
gesture 
liveliness 

spnghtliness 

gaiety 

beauty 

charms 

attractions 

beauties 
pleasantTiess 

(ieform.Uy 
figure, size 
voice 
speech 
silence 
action 
motion 
rest 

grimace 
laughter 
smile 



■t. ; 
II 



songe m. 
r6«'e ny 



temper 

sigh 

groan 

(Iroicsincss 
sleep 

dream 

dream, 



VOCABUtARY. 



/ souf}ic m. 
I haleine 
I respiration 
I eternuement 
I vue 

ouie 

odorat 

gout 

toucher 

sentiment 

obsc»rite 

ombre 

son 

bruit ' 

odeur 

puanteur 

saveur 

sensations pi, 



breath 
breath 

respiration 

sneezing 

sight 

hearing 

smell 

taste 

touch 

sense 

darkness 

shade 

sound 

noise 

smell 

st'ie'h 

flavo'.''- 

s^nsatiom 



ciiatouUlemont tickline ** 

niaiair .,1 * 



plaisir 
I j«ie 
douleur 
faim 
soif 
degout 
maladie 
mal 

incommodite 
infirmite 
indisposition 
mal de dents 
mal de tete 



pleasure 

j^ 
pain 

hunger 

thirst 

distaste 

disease 

coviplaiitt 

illness 

infirmity 

illness 

tooth-ache 

head-ache 



mal aux yeux bad, sm-e eyes 

migraine megrim 

yertigew. dizziness 

evanouissement swoon 

d^mangeaison itching 
pesanteur heaviness 

engourdissement numbness 



msomnie 
coup 

conire-coup 

egratiffnure 

ecorchure 

entorse 

foulure 

enfliipn 

tumeur 
mcurtrissure 
contusion 
blcsBure 



sleeplessness 
bUno 

counter-blow 
scratch 

excoriaMon 

sprain 

strain 

tumour 
bruise 
contusion 
toound 



^'W 



T*S»"-'^«»«fip!S;5^: 



VOCABULARY* 



43 



cicatrice 

ulcere m. 

gangrene 

coupure 

brulure 

cor 

durillon 

enrouement 

rhume m. 

toux 

coqueluche 

surdite 

frenesie 

folie 

rage 

goutte 

convulsions pi. 

yapeurs pi. 

&6VTQ 

frisson 

accds 

delire m. 

crise 

medecine 

medecin 



III. 



ame 

esprit 

genie m. 

raison 

entendement 
jugement 

sens 

pensee 

idee 

imagination 

fantaisie 

caprice m, 

voionte 

liberte 

bel esprit 

opinion 

sentiment 

verite 

erreur 

vraisemblance 

apfmrence 

meprise 

bevue 

science 

connaitjsancc 



scar 
ulcer 

mortificatio7i 

ctU 

bum 

com 

callosity 

hoarseness 

cold 

cmtgh 

hooping-f qrfi 

deafness 

frenzy 

lunacy 

madness 

gout 

convulsions 

vapour 

fevers 

shiverins; 

fit Z' 

delirium, 
crisis 
physic 
physician 



chirurgian 
apothicaire w. 
axkjoucheur 
sage-femme 
consultation 
ordon nance 
remede w. 
drogues j!?Z. 
poudres pi. 
pillules pi. 
saignee 
lancette 
gouttes pL 
bain 

regime m, 
sirop 
agonie 
mort 

cadavre m. 
vie 

guerison 
rechute 
symptome m. 
convalescence 



surgeon 

apothecary 

man-midvnfe 

midwife 

consultation 

prescription 

remedy ' 

drugs 

poiulers 

pills 

bleeding 

lancet 

drops 

bath 

diet 

syrup 

agony 

death 

corpse 

life 

recovery 

relapse 

symptom 

convalescence 



OF THE MIND AND ITS FACULTIES. 



soul 

mind, talent, wU 

genrus 

reason, sense 

understanding 

judgment 

sense 

thmght 

idea 

imagination 

fancy 

caprice 

loiU 

liberty 

mt 

opinion 

sentiment 

triUh 

error 
likelih/}od 
appearance 
mistake ,i« 
ov^sight ,^' a\ 
science 



knowkdf, 



penetration 

sagacite 

disposition 

inclination 

capacite 

memoire 

souvenir 

oubli 

stupidite 

passions j?Z. 

affections pi. 

amour 

amours pi. 

haine 

desir 

probabilite 

apprehension 

csperance 

confiance 

timiditb 

hardiessc 

assurance 

colore 

courroux 



penetration 

sagacity 

disposition 

inclination 

capacity 

memory 

remembrance 
forgetfulness 
stupidity 
passions 
affections 
love 
amours 
hatred 
desire 
probability 

apprehension 
hope 

confuJence 

_ 7 

snaihc 

bashfnlness 

boldness 

confidence 

anger 

maih 



¥■ 



VOCABULAUT* 



'ii 



k 



U 1! 

f < 

u 



m 



t'tt 



fluent 

rage 

ressentiraent 

vengeance 

depit 

deplaisir 

tristesse 

chagrin 

peine 

uesespoir 

tloute m. 

soupfon 

envie 

jalousie 

pitie 

misericorde 

compassion 

terreur 

epouvante 

indignation 

vertu 

charite 

justice 

temp6rance 

sobriete 

force 

modestie ; 

civilite 

pudeur 

golitesse 
onn^tete 
complaisance 
douceur 
bonte 
amitie 
union 
Concorde 
crainte, peur 
patience ■ 
prud'^nce 
economic 
habilete 
Industrie 
soin 

diligence 
exactitude 
honneur 
probite 
desinterease- 

sagesse 

Constance 

bienveillance 



fury 
'rage 

■resentment 

revenge 

spite 

displeasure 

sadness 

gmf 

sorrow 

despair 

doubt 

suspicion 

envy 

jealously 

'pUy 

vwrcy 

compassion 
terror 
fright 

indignation 
* virtibe 
charity 
justice 
temperance 
sobriety 
fortitude 
' modesty ' 
civility 

bashfiUness 

politeyiess 

Iwnesly 

compUiisa'ivce 

sweetness 

goodness 
friendship 
' union 

concord jjiMiirn 
fear -at ►!,.;- 

patience, ^untv^i 
prudence 
cconony 
skill 
industry 
care 

diligence 
exactness 
honour 
probity 

wisdom 

constancy j ■ < 
bena'okncB 



emulation 

faveur 

valeur 

bravouro 

courage m. 

finesse, ruso 

adresse 

chastete 

innocence 

liberalite 

generosite 

reconnaissance 
frugalite 

prosperite 

adversite 

mcEurs pi. 

bonheur 

recompense ' 
prix 

pr< sent 
tlon 
pret 
grace 

reputation 
vice m. 
defaut 

imperfection 

avarice 

avadite 

orgueil 

paresse 

laineantisc 

tranquillito 

paix 

luxe m. 

mollessc 

impurete 

debauche 

dissolution 

libortinage m, 

desordre m. 

dere^Iement 

mepris 

raillerie 

nioquerie 

medisance 

calomnie 

crime m. 

malice 

mechgjiceto \ 

troa,ipenes j 

perjure m. 

friponneric 



fmiUaivm 
favour 
valour 
' stoutness 
courage 
cunning 
skill 

chastity 
innocence 
liberality 
generosity 
gratitude 
frugality' 
prosperity 
ndversitif 
manners 
happiness 
reioard ' 
prize 
present 

loan 

grace 

fame 

vice 

defect 

imperfection 

avarice 

greediness 
pride 

idleness 
• slothf Illness 
tranguHlity 
2Kace 

luxury, pomp 
•^^' effeminacy 
'^ lewdness 

revel 

dissoluteticss 
' libertinism 
[disorderly life 

licentio7isness 

contempt 

jest 

mockery 

detraction 

cahimny 

crime 

toickcdness 
deceit 
perjury 
knavery 



■•| 



VocaAulart. 



fourberie 
enchantement 
injustice 
tort 



usure 

achat 

vente 

troc 

sage m. 

depot 

contrat 

inarch e 

basBesse 

impudence 

effronterie 

audace 

tem6rit€ 

poltronnerie 

opiniatrete 



oDstmation 

cruaute 

dispute 

querelle 

brouillerie 

babil 

caquet 

nonchalance 

lachetc 

prodigalite 

gourmandise 

impolitesse 

incivilite 

dissension 

impatience 

imprudence 

negligence 

malhonnetete 

deshonneur 
exil 

bannissement 



nourriture 

alimens pi. 

vivres pi. 

provision 

repas 

dejetiner 

diner 



gouter 
collation 



roguery 
mickcrafl 
injustice 
wrong 

llSVfV 

purchase 

sale 

baiier 

pledge 

trust 

contract 

bargain 

meanness 

impudence 

ejfronteiy 

audaciousness 
temerity 

cowardice 

stiMoiness 

obstinacy 

cruelty 

dispute 

quarrel 

broil 

babbling 

prating 

carelessness 

sluggishness 

prodigality 

gluttony 

rudeness 

incivility 

dissension 

impatience 

imprudence 

negligence 

rudeness 

disgrace 

exile 

banishment 

IV. OF MEATS 

nourishment 



pusillanimite 

Irahison 

perfide 

punition 

ch&timent 

leg^rete 

co(]uetterie 

badinage m. 

larcin 

vol 

ftiponnerie 

tromperie 

ivrognerie 

iVresse 

assassinat 

meurtre m. 

niensongo m. 

faussete 

cohte m. 

serment 

malheur 

folic 

extravagance 

coutume 

usage m. 

pratique 

habitude 

licence 

exces 

tour 

bagatelles pi. 

faute 

faiblesse 

inconstance 

ingratitude 

ambition 

faible m. 

affront 

outrage m, 

insulte 

AND DRINKS. 



Id 

pusiUanimity 

tretichery 

perjidiousnesa 

pnnishmeni 

chastisement 

levity 

coquetry 

sport 

robbery 

theft 

roguery, cheating 
deceit 

drunkennjess 

ebriety 

murder 

manslaughter 

lie 

falsehood 
tale 
oath 

misfbrCiit^ 
foUy 
madness 
custom 
use 

practice, custom 
habit 

licentiousness 

excess 

trick 

trifles 

fault 

weakness 

inconstancy 

ungralefulness 

ambition 

foible 

affront 

outrage 

insult 



food 

victuals 

provisions 

meal 

breakfast 

dinner 
\ formerly a Ughi, 
■ i meal bet/ween 
I dinner and 
J supper 



souper 

festin 

regal 

pain 

croiite 

mie 

farine 

son 

pfite 

Jevain 

morceau 



supper 

feast 

treat 

bread 

crust 

crumb 

fiour 

dough 
leaven, 
bit, marsd 



I 



J' i 
lit 



II'! 



II 




46 

tranche 

bouchee 

viandc 

bouilli 

rot, rdti 

bcBuf 

mouton 

agneau 

veau 

ix>rc 

venaison 

volaille 

gibier 

gigot 

andouille 

saucisso 

jambon 

lard 

moutarde 

soupe 

potage m. 

bouillon 

consomme 

ragoiit 

fricassee 

jus 

sauce 

poisson 

salade 

sol 

huilo 

vinaigre m. 

verjua 

anchois 

epices pi. 

poivre m. 

gingembre m. 

muscade 

macis 

girofle m. 

(clous de) 
canello 
oublies pi, 

V. 

habillement 

hardes 

habit 

habit complet 

veste 

gilet 



VOCABULART. 



slic«* 

moutA/iU 

meat 

fresh boUed beef 
roast meat 
beef 

mutton 

lamb 

veal 
Sork 

venison 
fowls 
game 

a leer of mutton 
chitterlings 
sausage 
ham 
bacon 

mustard 

soup 

pottage 

broth 
I gi'avy soup 

ragout 
fruassee 

gravy 

sauce 

fish 

sallad 

salt 

oil 



sucro m. 

cassonado 

tlessert 

fruit 

pSit6 

g&teau 

tourte, tarte 

biscuit 

DJacaron 

crdpes 

confitures pi. 

gel6e 

marmelade 
conserve 
tablettes pi. 
dr&gecapi. 
pralines pi. 
fromage m. 
beurre m. 
lait 
cr^mo 
oeuf 
coquo 
blanc 



vinegar 
Verjuice 
anchovies 
spices 

pepper 

ginger 

nutmeg 

rnace 



> dffves 



jaune m. 

boisson 

liqueur 

th6 

cafe 

chocolat 

hmonado 

ponche m, 

y\n 

biero 

eau-de-vio 

nectar 

ambroisio 

cidre m. 

Eoire 
ydromel 



iugar 

m^ist sugar 

dessert 

fi-uit 

pie 

cake 

tan 

biscuit 

macaroon 
pancakes 
sweet/nieats 
jeUy 

"marmalade 

preserves 

lozenges, cakes 

sugar-plums 

bunU, almonds 

cheese 

buMer 

milk 

cream 



cinnamon 
wafers 



«gg 
shell 

white 

yr^k 

drink 

liquor 

tea 

coffee 

chocolate 

lemonade 

punch 

wine 

beer 

brandy 

nectar 

ambrosia 

cider 

perry 

mead 

syrup 

dregs 



OF THE DRESSING APPAREL, ETC 

chtJi^s s^*;i^ p«*" 

doublure 
couture 

pantaloa 



Uacket, round 
i jacket 
waistcoat 
Mnnel waistcoat 



under waistcoat 

sleeves 

pockets 

button 

lining 

seam 

breeches 

pantaloon 



VOCABULARY. 



47 



5r usset 
rap 

sole 

velours 

serge 

basin 

flanello 

6toffe 

manteau 

surtout 

redingote 

linge m. 

toile 

batiste 

mousselino 

linon 
chemise 
jabot 
cravate 
bas pi. 

jarretidres pi. 
lainc 
fil 

coton 
maille 
trou 

chaussons pi. 
guetrea pi, 
souliers 
escarpii. pi, 
semelle 
bottes pi. 
boucles^Z. 
cuir 

chapeav 
pemique 
,iupe 
jupon 
satin 
afTetas 



_aze 
c^ifluro 



maison 
h6tel 



hotellerie 

chiteau 

palais 
eouronne 



fob 

cloth 

silk 

velvet 

serge 

dimity 

flaniiel 

stuff 

doak 

surtout 

great coat 

linen 

linen 

cambric 

muslin 

lawn 

skirt 

fnU 

cravat 

stockings 

garters 

wool 

thread 

cotton 

stitch 

hole 

socks 

gaiters 

shoes 

pumps 

sole 

boots 

buckles 

leather 

hat 

20lg 

petticoat 

under-petticoat 

satin 

taffelAj 

gauze 

head-drefs 



coifle 
collier 

boucles ) 

d'oreillcs pi. 3 
gants pi. 
mitaines pi. 
tablier 

mules pi. 1 

pantoufles ;?/. j 
bague 
bijou 
bracelet 
dentelle 
blonde 
eventail 
manchon 
agrafe 
epin^^le 
aiguille 
etui 
d6 

masque m. 
voilo m. 
tabati^ro 



cap 

necklace 

ear-rings 

gloves 

mittens 

apron 

slippers 

ring 
jewel 
bracelet 
lace 

blond lace 
Jan 
muff 
clasp 
pin 
needle 
case 
thimble 
Tnask 
veU 
S7iuff-box 



ot! ^H-: 



uliuf 



./0(| 



lui 



tabac(en poudre) snuff 
tabac (a fumer ) tobacco 
bourse purse 

argent money 

porte-feuille m. pocket-book 



ciseaux pi. 

crayon 

mouchoir 

lunettes pi. 

lorgnette 

conserves pi 

bouquet 

canne 

cordon 

epee 

montre 

boite 

chaine 



scissars 

pencil 

handkerchief 

spectacles 

opera-glass 

spectacles 

nosegay 

cane 

string 

sword 

watch 

box or case 

chain 



VI. OP A HOUSE AND FURNITURE. 



house 
mansion 
hotel, lodging 

house 
inn 
castle^ country 

Stai 
palace 
ermcn 



trone m. 
sceptre m. 
aile 

pavilion 
londements pi. 
mur, muraille 
batiment 
matSriaux ph 
piorre 



thro7ie 

sceptre 

wing 

pavulion 

foundation 

wall 

building 

materials 

st/me 



t 



ink .. 



I Sif 



* r 




!IA 



i; i' 




brique 
mortier 
chaux 
plfttre m. 
ciment 
tuile 
ardoise 
charpente 
poutre 
'"^BoUve 
6chelle 
cave 
eel tier 
tonneau 
futaille 
boutique 
atelier 
magasin 
Vestibule m. 
Balle 
ialon 
escalier 

office 



cuisine 

rarde-mangerm. 

)ouIangerie 

)raBserie 

ingerie 

ecurie 

remise 

puits 

6tage m. 

appartement 

cnambre 

antichambre 

salle a manger 

salon de com- 

pagnie 
cabinet de toi 

lette 
chambre d 

coucher 
galerie 
cabinet 

boudoir 

garderobe 
porte 

porte-cocliere 
seuil 

gon(i 



I 



vqqARutARV. 



brick 

•timiar 

time 

plaster 

cement' 

iile 

slate 

timber toark 

beavi 

joist 

ladder 

vaiUt 

cellar 

cask 

vessel 

shop 

Work-shop 

uoarehouse 

hall 

parlour or sitting 

room 
stairs 
pantry^ IniM&r^s 

room 
kitchen 
larder 
bakehome 
'brewhouse 
laundry 
stable 

coach-house 
well 
story 

apartment 
room 

anti-chamber 
dininij room 

? dratoing-room 
> dressing-room 






bed-room 

gallery 
closet 
lady^s sitting 

room 
wardrobe 
door 
gate 
threshold 

hinge 



marteau 

serrure 

cl6, or clef 

verrou 

fenStre 

vitre 

volet 

balcon 

store m. 

grenier 

toit 

gouttiSre 

mallo 

boit<; 

caisae 

cassette 

coffre m. 

logement 

amcublement 

cheminee 

atre m. foyer 

soufflet 

pelle 

pincettes pi. 

fourgon 

garde-feu vi. 

bouilloire 

couvercle m. 

poele 

potion 

casserole 

fourneau 

allumette 

pierre a fusil 

briquet 

four 

clou 

essuic-main 

bassinoire 

panier, cor- 

beille 
faience 
poterie 
pot 

cruche 
lampe 
lanterne 
savon 
amidon 
balai 
banc 
eacabeau 
plancher 



kn^ker 

lock 

key \ 

b(dt 

window 

glass 

shutter 

balcony 

blind 

garret 

roof 

gutter 

trunk 

box 

chest 

casket 

coffer 

lodging 

furniture 

chimney 

heart 

pair of bellows 

shovel 

tongs 

poker 

fender 

boiler 

lid 

fn g-pan 

skiUett 

saucepan. 

stove 

match 

flint 

steel 

oven 

nail 

towel 

warming-pan 

basket 

ielft ware 

earthenware 

pot 

pitcher 

lamp 

lantern 

soap 

starch 

broom 

seat, form 

stool 

floo^ 



VOCABULARY. 



49 



plafond 
iambris 
cloison 

lapisserie 

tapis 

)U 

alcove 

chftlk 

chevet 

oroiller 

paillasse 

matelas 

draps pi. 

couvertures pi. 

courte-pointe 

rideau 

(ringle 

^nneai; 

sofa 

fauteuil 

sidge m. 

chaise 

coussin 

armoire 

commode 

trumeau 

toilette 

iniroir 

peigne m. 

pomade 

Eaudre 
ouppe 
parfum 
tableau 
dessin 
colons 
portrait 
passage m. 
miniature 
chandelier 
bobdche 
chandelle 
bougie 



ville 

village m. 
boorg 
rue 
^refour 



1 

\ 



(draibing-room) 
faor 

cedmg 

wainscot 

partition, 

AangingSj tapes- 
try 

cai'pet^ clotk 

bed 

alcove 

bedstead 

bolster 

pillow 

straw mattras 

mattrass 

sheets 

bcd-dotltes 

counterpane 

curtain 

curtainr-rod 

ring 

sofa 

arm-chair 

seat 

chair 

cushion 

press 

chest of drawers 

pier-glass 

toilet 

looking-glass 

comb 

pomMum 

pmoder 

puff 

perfume 

picture 

drawing 

colouring 

portrait 

latidscape 

miniature' 

candiesticli 

socket 

candle 

wax-light 



cire 

moucheites pi. 
porte-mou- 
chette tru. 
eleignwr 
vergettes pi, 
buffet 
cabaret 
tasso 
soucoupe 
theiSru 
cafeti^re 
chocolatidre 
sucrier 
jatte 
table 
nappe 
serviette 
assiette 
plat 

couteau 

cuiller, ou cuil- ) 
Here \ 

salifire 
huilier 
moutardier 
aiguiere 
coupe, tasse 
gobelet 
verre m, 
bouteille 
bouchon 
tire-bouchon m. 
carafe 

biblioth^(]^ue 
bureau 
tiroir 
cachet 
lettre 
enveloppe 
adresse 
signature 
sonnette 
estampe 
m6daille 



VII. OP THE CITY. 



town^ city 

village 

borough 

stieet 

cross-way 



E 



passage m. 
place 
cul-de-sac 
pyramide 
ob^lisque m. 



vsaz 
snuffers 

> snuffer-stand 

extinguisher 

brush 

cupboard 

stimd 

cup 

saucer 

teojtot 

coffee-pot 

chocoUUe-pct 

sugar-bason 

bowl 

UibU 

doth 

napkin 

plate 

dish 

knife 



spoon 

sait-cellar 

oil cruet 

mustard pot 

ewer 

cup 

goblet 

glass 

bottle 

cork 

corkscrew 

flagon, decanter 

library 

bureau 

drawer 

seal 

letter 

cover 

direction 

signature 

beU 

print 

me^al 



passage 
square 
blind aUeu 
puramid 
obelisk 



i 




'II 



r. 



V i 




io 

pavi 

niiiigeau 

marehd 

denrfiespi. 

boucherio 

poiflBonerie 

^riperie 

Edifice m. 



VOCABULART. 



frontispice 

colon ne 

pilastre 7*t. 

uaso 

pi^destal 

•tatue 

Arcade 

portique m. 

aqueduc 

d6me m, 

paroisge 

■alio de com^dio 

th6dtre m. 

coulisses pi. ^ 

dficorations 
toile 
foyer 

orchestre m. 
parterre m. 
logs 

amphitheatre 

panuiis 

billet 

couvent 

monastdre m, 

cellule 

hermitage m. 

soKtude 

retraite 

university 

college m. 

ecole 
pension 
parlement 
chambre des 

pairs 
chambre des 
communes 
prison 
cachot 
hdpital 
inhrmerie 
tayerne 



I 



pavenuTU 

kennel 

market 

provisions 
meat market 

fiih market 

ra^fair 

edifice 

front 

frontispiece 

column 

pilaster 

base 

pedestal 

stains 

arcade 

portico 

aqueduct 

dome 

parish 
play-house 

theatre 
^ scenes 

decorations 

curtain 

green-room 

orchestra 

pit 

box 

first gaUery 

upper gallery 

ticket 

convent 

moTiastery 

a2 

hermitage 

solitude 

retirem£nt 

university 

college 

school 

boarding-school 
parliament 



house <^ lords 

hov^e of com' 

mons 
prison 
dungeon 
hosjntal 
infirmary 
tavern 
pubUc-house 



auberge 
cans 

cnseigne 

affiche 

pont 

arche 

pilier 

bateau 

quai 

bourse 

banque 

agiotage m, 

douane 

posto 

petite poste 

tresorerio 

amiraute 

arsenal 

faubourg 

boulevards pi. 

'♦imparts pi. 

barridre 

guinguette 

forge 

verrerio 

fonderie 

carosse m. 

imperialo 

portiere 

glaces pi. 

timon 

roue 

esfiieu 

equipage m. 

narnois pi. 

r^nes pi. 

bride 

licou 

selle 

bat 

arfon 

sangle 

etriers pi. 

eperons pi, 

berline 

cabriole* 

chaise 

fiacre m. 

chaiTof^^te 

fourjjuii 

remise 

i *~""" 

I cuur 



inn 

coffee-house ^ 

sim 

bill 

bridge 

arch 

pillar 

boat 

qnay 

exchange 

bank 

stock-jobbing 

ciistom-house 

general post 

twopenny post 

treasury 

admiralty 

arsenal 

suburbs 

bulwarks 

ramparts 

turnpike 

tea-garden 

forge 

glass-house 
foundry 
coach 
roof 

door of a coach 
vnndoivs 
coach-pole 
^wheel 
axle-tree 
"ouipcge 
narness 
reins 
bridle 
holier 
saddle 
pack-saddle, 
saddle-bow 
girt/i 

stirrup 

spurs 

berlin 

curricle 

chaise 

hackney-coach 
cart 

toaggon 
coaai-house 
razor 
strap 



YOCABULART. 



51 



moule 
machine 

viii, 

boulanger 

barbie r 

forgeron 

relieur 

libraire m. 

chaudronnier 

brasseur 

boucher 

6b6ni8te 

charpentier 

charron 

sculpteur 

chimiste 

horloger 

confiseur 

carroasier 

tonnelier 

corroyeur 

coutrlier 

fourbisseur 

teinturier 

distillateur 

droguisie 

graveur 

mar6chal 

poissonnier 

fondeur 

fruitier 

fourreur 

jardinier 

doreur 

ver-ier 

vitrier 

gantier 

orfdvre 

epicier 

armurier 

chapelier 

aubergiste 



movM 
machine 

OP TRADES, 

baker 

barber 

blacksmith 

book-hinder 

bookseller 

brazier 

brewer 

butcher 

cabinet-maker 

carpenter 

toheelwnght 

sculptor 

chyviist 

dock-maker 

confectioner 

coach-maker 

cooper 

turrier 

cutler 

sioord-cutler 

dyer 

distUler 

druggist 
engraver 

farrier 

fishmonger 

founder 

fruiterer 

furrier 

garderier 

gilder 

glats-mnker 

glazier 

glover 

goMsnith 

grocer 

gun-smilk 

hatter 

innkeeper 



moulin 



miU 



ARTS, PROFESSIONS, ETC. 



joaillier 

menuidier 

serrurier 

ma^on 

couturidre 

maitni d'hOte] 

mercier 

metinier 

peintre 

patissier 

paveur 

colporteur 

parfumeur 

medecin 

plfitrier 

plombier 

potier 

imprimeur 

sellier 

lingdre 

cordonnier 

pelletier 

forgeron 

chirurgien 

apothicaire 

arpenteur 

tadlenr 

tanneur 

bijoutier 

tourneur 

entrepreneur 

tapissier 

horloger 

tisserand 

perruquier 

ouvrage 

ouvrier 

ouvrifere 

manoeuvre 



jeweller 

joiner 

locksmith 

bricklayer 

maniuormaktr 

steward 

mercer 

miller 

painter 

pastry-cook 

pavior 

pedlar 

perfumer 

physician 

plasterer 

plumber 

potter 

printer 

saddler 

sempstress 

shoe-maker 

skinner 

smith 

surgeon 

apothecary 

surveyor 

tailor 

tanner 

jeweller 

turner 

undertaker 

upholsterer 

watch-maker 

weaver 

hair-dresser 

work 

workman 

workwoman 

labourer 



IX. OF THE COUNTRY, HDSBANDRY, FLOWERS, TREES, ETC, 



campagne 

chetnin 

sentier 

boue 

fange 

poussi^re 

bourbier 

ornidre 



country 
way 

foot-path 
mud 



mtre 



dough 
carUrvt 



hameau 

enclos 

chateau 

terre 

cour 
u-^„^ ^ 

colombier 
laiterie 



hamlet 

dose 

castte 

estate 

yard 

■pvtuiry-ycBrd 

pigeonrhouM 
dairy 




■VdRHSI 



tin 






Ml 

|i|J 



ti 



li,-: 




52 

fmiterie 



Sfcrterre 
eur 
iria 

primevdre 

narcjsae m. 

jacinthe 

tuljpe 

viofetta 

pen86e 

^glantier 

marguerite 

»nip6riale 

inartagon 

lis 

miijcruet 

Oreille d'our» 

ftn^mone 

renoncuf« 

jonquillo 

giroflfie 

ceilfet 

campanirfo 

gantel6e 

rose 

jasmin 



amande J 
pomme 
abricot 
cerise 

guigne 

chfitaigno 

niarron 

groseillesp^. 

groseilJe 

figue 

raisin 
prune 

reine-claude 
citron 

ananas 



vo<;abulart. 



stable 
frutt-loft 



Jlorixt 

parterre 

flower 



X. 



h'artlfn ^^^^ 

Ijardina^e;^. gardt^ng \ 

I'LOWEKS. 



camlip 

narcissus 

hyacinth 

tulip 

violet 

^artsease 

sweet-briar 
daisy 

turk*s cap 

mountain lUu 
lily 

mcuy-lily 
\auricula 
anevioTie 
^anunculvj 
jonquil 

stock-giUiflower 
carnati&rt 



J beUfli 



ower 



rose 
jasmine 



tub6rei.Tso 
r68eda 

ch6v-e-feuille 
scringat 
Hias 
souci 

amarantbe 

pavot 

coquclici^ 

ponceau 

bluet, barbeau 

tournesol 

camomille 

belle-de-nuit 

eternelle 

imiT.ortelle 

balnamine 

ancolie 

passe-rose 

nepatique 
JHcd d'alouetts 
pivoine 
scabieuse 
julienne 
J pJanche 
I plate bande 



tuberose 
f^tignivTiette 
m. hoTuey-suckU 
sennga 
lilac 
marigold 

amaranth 
poppy 

I toild-poppf 

blue-bell 

sunjlovjer 

canioniitr. 

great nigMshadr 

f cassidony 

balsam 

columbine 

hollyhock 

hepatica 

lark spur 

piony 

scabious 

rocket 

bed 

JUnoer-border 



XI. FRUITS, 



atmond 

(pple 

ajyricot 

cherry 
\ black heart 
I cherry 

chesnut 

large chesnut 

currants 

gooseberry 

fig 

filbert 

gra-, es 

plzt/. 

green-gage 
lemon 
pine apple 
medlcir 



( melon 
I mure 
' bfugnon 

noisette 

orange 

p^che 

poire 

citrouille 

coin 

framboise 

fraise 

noix 

6pine-vinette 

gfdnade 

olive 

cerneaux 



melon 

muWerry 

nectarine 

hazel-nuti 

orange 

peach 
pear 
punipion 
quince 
raspberry 
strawberry 
Kalnut 
barberries 
pfymegranate 
olive 
fresh or unripe 



\ 



.„_> J. 



m^ 



den 
itniTig 



rose 

numette 
y-stuJUt 
iga 

'gold 
ranth 

y 

Vovm 
^eU 
lower 
mur. 

nightshatU 
'any 

n 

bine 

ock 

ca 

mr 

IS 



VOCABVLAHr. 



Xn. OF HERBS AND PtANTS. 



border 



ne 
ui 



f 
ry 

note 
unripe 



itluds 

artichaut 
ftisperge 
citroa 
bofiiiio 

fdVt) 

haricot 

boiree 

oettorave 

bourrache 

bardatie 

primprcnelle 

chou 

carotte 

c61cri 

cerfouil 

cIioux-flGurs pi 

mlches ;//. 

crosson 

concombre m, 

dent-de-lion 

IMitienco 

ch' oree 

fonouil 

fougSro 

ail 

calebasse 

cigufi 

herbo 

raifort 

joubarbo 

Herre m. 

poireau 



'4 '''i-id'l 

- guimauve 
marjoiaine 
reseda 
menthe 
gui 
mousso 



arbre w, 

arbrisseaii 

ecorce 

branchc 

fcuille 



aloe 

Angelica 
artichoke 
asparagus 
plant 
basil 
'jean 

I'\mch bean 
beet 

beet-root 
borage 
burdock 
bumet 
cabbage 
carrot 
celery 
chervil 
cauliflowers 
coin^sala^ 
cresses 
cvcuviber 
dandelion 
dock 
endive 
fennel 
jci-n 
garlick 
gourd 
hemlock 
herb 

horse-radish 
house-leek 
ivy 
leek 
lettuce 
licorice 
malUncs 
marshrmallows 
viarjoram 
/.. gnionette 
mint 
mislefoe 
moss 



moutardo 

capucine 

ortio 

ognon 

persjl 

pinais 

pois 

pari^taire 

plantc 

plan tu in 

pavut 

pommo de 

courgo 

pour pier 

rave 

radifl 

roseau 

rue 

jonc 

rhubarbe 

safran 

saugo 

sariette 

ciboul^i 

6ciia. Ate 

oseille 

veronioue 

epinaras pi. 

tanaisie 

ivraie 

estragon 

charoon 

thym 

serpolet 

trdfle m. 

navet 

val<5riane 

veg^taux pi. 

legumes m. pi. 

vervcine 
absynthe ' 
niil!e-feuille 



must^d 
nasturiiut, 
f utile ' 
onion 
parsley 
parsnip 
peas 
peUUory 
plant 
plantain 
poppy 
tcrrt potatoe 
pumpkin 
purslain 
radish 

Spanish radish 
reed 
rut 
rush 
rhubarb 
saffron 
sage 
savery 
scullion 
shallot 
sorrel 
speedwell 
spirage 
tansy 
tare 
stragon 
ihisUe 
thyme 
totld thyme 
clover 
turnip 
valerian 
vegetables 
vegetables 
greens 
vervahi 
wor.iwood 



yarrow 



XIII, OF TREES AJNB SHRUBS. 



tree 

shruA 

bark 

branch 

kaf 



I graine 



e2 



abricotier 

cerisier 

chStaignicr 



seed 

SUCA'&f' 

apricot-tree 

cherry-tree 

chesnut-trca 



J: 



Iff 



54 

citronnier 

coignassier 
liguier 
noyer 
oranger 

-pommier 
poirier 
prunier 
arbousier 
fr6ne 
tremble 
hdtre 
bouleau 
buis 
gen6t 
fiureau 



grange 
lUte 

chaumiere 

seigneurie 

dime 

m^tairis 

sillon 

pre, prairie 

arpcnt 

fosse 

champ 

paturage m. 

terroir 

pare 

naie 

bruySre 

dunes 

landc 

commune 

pl< le 

^arenne 

fondrlire 

marais 

platebande 

serre 

serro chaude 

bouliugrin 

berceau 

bosquet 

grotte 

vignoble w. 

!i'«XC 



VOCABUtARr* 



lenton-tree 

quince-tree 

fig-tree 

ioalnut~tree 

07ange4ree 

peac/i-tree 

apple-tree 

pear-tree 

plumb-tree 

arbutus 

ash-tree 

aspen 

teeck-tree 

birch-tree 

box 

broom 

elder-iree 



orme 

sapin 

coudrier 

houx 

lilas 

tilleul 

myrte 

ch6ne 

osier 

romarin 

egiantier 

epino 

buisson 

aubepine 

vjgne 

saule 

if 



XIV. PROMISCUOUS WORDS 

barn 
hit 

ihalched-house 



elm. 

fir-tree 

hazel-tret 

hoUy 

lilac 

lime-tree 

myrik-tree 

oak 

osier 
rosemary 
sweet brier 
thorn 
thorn bush 
■wUte-thom 
vine 

willow tree 
yew-tree 



taitlia 
hallicr 



ntcnor 
tithe 
farm- 
furrow 
Meadow 
acre 
ditch 
field 

pasture-grownd 
soil 

park 

hedge 

heaih 

dawns 

waste If.nd 

common 

plain 

warren 

bog 

marsh 
border 
green-house 
hot-house 

bowling-green 

bower 

grove 

grotto 

vineyard 

Tturstiy 

coppice 

thicket 



pa_,'sage m. 
perspective 

cascade 

canal 

agriculture 

labourage m, 

betail 

fumier 

terreau 

recolte 

moisson 

vendange 

houblon 

grain 

ble 

orge 

avoine 

riz 

seigle m. 

millet 

lin 

chanvrc m. 

ch^nevis 

epi 

gerbe 

tige 

tuyau 

paille 

chaume m. 

fcin 

tburrage vi, 

^•^rmier 

paysan 



landscape 

prospect 

view 

cascade 

canal 

agriculture 

tillage 

cattk 

dung 

rtuyidd 

crop 

harvest 

vintage 

hops 

com 

wheat 

barley 

oats 

rice 

rye 

miVet 

flax 

hemp 

hemp'Seed 

ear (of corn) 

sheaf {of com) 

blade 

straw 

stubble 

hav 
fodder 
fanner 
peasajU 





TOCABULART. 




laboureur 


pUmghman 


faucheur 


mower 


moissonneur 


reaper 


berger 


shepherd 




XV. OF QUADRUPEDS. 




bdte 


beast 


daim male 


buck 


animal 


animal 


daim femsile 


doe 


animal do- 
mestique 


i domestic animal 


chevreuil 
chevrette 


roe-buck 
roe 


bete de somme' beast of burden 


lion 


lion 


monturc 


saddle horse 


lionne 


lioness 


cheval 


horse 


lionccau 


lion's whelp 


cavalle 


mare 


tigre 


tiger 


jument 


mare 


til. sse 


tigress 


6taIon 


staUion 


ours 


bear 


poulain 


cvU 


ourson 


bear's cub 


pouliche 
bidet 


my 


zebre m. 


zebra 


pony 


giraffe 


cam^l-leopard 


ane 


ass 


leopard 


leopard 


anesse 


shc-ass 


cameleopard 


camel-leopard 


anon 


young ass 


rhinoceros 


rhinoceros 


mulet 


mule 


hipropotame, m. rivei-horse 


mule 


she-mule 


elephant 


elephant 


bSte h cornet} 


homed beast 


chameau 


cumel 


boBuf 


ox 


dromadaire m. 


dromedary 


buffle ,t. 


buffalo 


lama 


lama 


taureau 


Ml 


buffle m. 


buffalo 


vache 


cow 


hi^ne 


hyena 


genisse 


heifer 


panth^re 


panther 


veau 


calf 


once 


ounce 


bouvillon 


bullock 


licorne 


unicorn 


renne m. 


rein-deer 


elan 


elk 


brebis 


e%oe 


loup 


wolf 


mouton 


wether 


louve 


she-wolf 


belier 


ram 


louveteau 


wolf's cub 


agneau 


laiTib 


lynx 


lynx 
fox 


cnevre 


she-goat 


renard 


bouc 


he-goat 


taisson 


ock 


chevreau 


kid 


blaircau 


./udger 


cochon 


hog 


castor 


beaver 


pore 


m 


hermine 


ermine 


pourceau 


pig 


marte, zibeline 


marten, sable 


tiuia 


sow 


ecureuil 


squirrel 


cochon de lait 


sucking pig 


'herisson 


hedge-hog 


cochon d'ir.de 
verrat 


guinea pig 
boar 


K>rc-6pic 
outre 


porcupine 
otter 


sanglieir 


loild boar 


raton 


racoon 


laie 


wild sow 


furet 


ferret 


marcassin 


young wild boar 


li^vre 


hare 


b6te fauve 


deer 


'hase 


doe-hare 


cerf 


stag 


ievraut 


leveret 


biche 


hind 


lapin 


rabbit 


faon 


faton 


chien 


dog 


doim 


fellow-dear 


chienne 


bitch 



55 



Ih? 



.ti' 



i 

levrier 

tevr^tte 

dogite 

niitin 

!imier 

bicli&h 

pkhset 
Ciuen d'arr6t 



VOCA^ULAHV; 



greyhound 

grcyhcnind biuh 
fnUl dog 
fmsHjff^ 

piifod-hou^ 
Ikp'-dhg 

terrier 

^gged-dog 
pointer 



S^en^n ape ^ 

'"agot, babouin «J«^«;i 



gazelle 
belette 
putois 



oiseau 

oiselet, oisiHon 
volaille 
coq 

poule 

poulet 

poussin 

cochet 

poulan'e 

chapon 

c^q-d'Inde, 

dindon 
dinde 

dindon neau 
oie 

jar 
Olson 
canard 
cane 



] 



antelope 

v^easel 

jhle-cat 

XVI. 

bird 

little bird 
fowl 
cock 
hen 
cMcken 

V'^rig chicken 
cockerel 
puUei 
capon 



I fouine 
loir 

rat 

souris 

tortue 

detail, bestiaux 

troupeau 

pStre, berger 

bergere 

vacber, bouvier 

porcher 

chasge 

chasseur 

J>raconnier 

fibier, venaison 

tasU 

^ibeciere 
tire 

, tireur 

/ garde-chasse 



OF BIRDS. 



pole-cai 

dormouse 

ftuirmot 

mole 

rat 

fnouse 
tortoise 
caUle 

flock, herd 
shepherd 
shepherdess 
cow-herd 

sioine-herd 

hunting 

hunler 

poacher 

ganie 

gU?i 

pouch 
shooting 
shooter 
gojnekeeper 



turkey-cock 

t^rkey-hcn 
young turkey 

goose 

gander 

gosling 

drake 

duck 



o.neto„,o„ot,» «fe«„^ 



pigeon 

coiombe 

serin, canari 

perroquet 
perruque 
moineau, paa- \ 
screau \ 

niifyndeile 
martinet 



pigeon 

dove 

canary bird 

parrot 

panoquet 

sparrow 

• callow 
marten 



rossignol 

chardonneret 
pinson 

Vrfrdier 

bouvreui] 

iinot, linetf" 

rou 'regorge /...., 

iMerJg ni. 

gnvQ 

geai 

pie 

aiouette 

bergeronnotte 
alcyon, ou 

martin-p6oheur 
pivert 

rnesange 
pluvier 
foitelet 
vanneau 
butor 

hecfigue m. 
ctourneau 
sansonnel 
bruant 
coucou 
j ireux, grollc 
f corbeau 
I cotnexMo • 



nightingale 

goldfinch 

chaffing 

greenfinch 

bullfinch 

linthet 

J f breast, robin 
olackbird 
thrush 
jay 

■>tiagpie 

lark 

"^oagtail 

J king's fisher 
woodrpecker 

at 

plover 
toren 
lapwing 
bittern 
beccafico 
starling 
starling 

ysllow-hammer 

— -rtzrif 

rook 

raven 

row 



— ■ iii^Miiiiiini 



rOCABULART. 



57 



hibou 

chouetta 

buse 

choucas 

aigle 

aiglon 

epervier 

emouchet 

milan 

faucon 

cormoran 

plongeon 

neron 

cicogne 

outarJe 

pelican 

autour 

vautour 

friffon 
uppe 
niouette 
perdrix 

bartavelle 

perdreau 

caiile 

cailleteau 

faisan 

faisandeau 

b^casse 

b6cassine 



poisson 

csturgeon 

turbot 

saumon 

rouget 

brochet 

carpe 

truite 

perch c 

cabillaud 

morue 

raie 

tanche 

6peri«n 

maquereau 

sunculet 

carf^let 

barbeau 

alose 

tole 



mol 

screech-owl 

buzzard 

chough 

eagle 

aglet 

esparroiio-hawk 

rnusket-hawk 

kite 

fulco-n 

cormorant 

didapper 

heron 

stork 

bustard 

pelican 

goshawk 

vuUure 

griffin 

lapwing 

gull 

partridge 
{ large red par- 
\ tridge 

young partridge 

quail 

young quail 

pheasant 

yonng pheasant 

woodcock 

snipe 



ortolan 

tourterelle 

g^linotte 

francolin 

ramier 

marceuse " 

sarcelle 

grue 

courii9 

foulquo 

poule d'eau 
paon 
paonne 
paonneau 
cygne 77?. 
autruche 
pintade 
tbu-de-baesan 
pingoin 
chauve-souris 
chasse anx 
oiseauz 
appeau 
gluaux 
trebuchet 
filets 
oiseleur 
oiselier 
voliere 



sturgeon 
turbot 
salmon 
roach 
-' pike 
carp 
troiU 
perch 
haddock 
stock ^sh 
skate 
tench 
smelt 
mackerel 
mullet 

41 

!" 

barbel 

shad 

soU 



XVri. OP FISHES. 

fish sardine 

then 
plie 

congre m, 
merlan 
merluche 
hareng 
seche 
limande 
lamproie 
homard, lan- 

gouste 
ecrevisse de 



etc/ 



ortolan 
turtledove 
godwU 
francoline 
wood-pigeon 
sea-ducK 
teal 
crane 
curlew 
coot, mdorcocJCf 

or lien 
moor-hen 
peacock 
peahen 

young peacock 
swan 
ostrich 
pi dado 
gannet 
razor-bill 
bat 

fowlivg 

bird-call 

lime twigs 

bird trap 

nets 

bird-catcher 

bird-seller 

aviary 



sprat 

tunny 

plaice 

conger 

whiting 

haddock 

herring 

cuttlefish 

burt, bret-fish 

lamprey 

lobster 



mer 
Ecrevisse 
crab m. 

chevrette 

angiiille 

anchois 



crawfish 
crab 



pTHu/tt 

shrimp 

eel 

anchotv 



^ 



VOCABULAB f. 



ull 










goujon 

Tfiron 

lotte, barbotto 

loche 

morue sal6e 
barbue 

maraoin 

espadon 

porcelaine 

tortue 

huitre 

pStoncIe 

moule 

baleine 

cachalot 

requin 

dauphin 



pOT' 



gudgeon 
winnow 
eel-pout 
S loacA, grownd- 
( ling 
saU-jQh 
briU 
^ sea-Jiog^ 
\ poise 
saw-fiih 
seu'snail 
tortoise 
oyster 
cockle 
muscle 
whale 
cachalot 
shark 
dolphin 



chien marin "sea-dog 
loup marin sea^olf 

hSmson de mer sea^urchm 



froi 

fretin 

laite 

(BUfs 

museau 

oules 

nageoiw 

ecailles 

coqutllea 

arrdtes 

pinces 

appsit, amorce 

p^cheur 

pSche 



yomigfisk 

soft roe 

spawn, hard roe 

snout 

gills 

/ins 

I scales 

bones 
daws 
bait 

fisherman 
fishery 



pdche a la ligne anglvn^ 



grenouille 

•erpent 

couleuvre 

vip6re 

soorpion 

aspic 

basilic 

dragon 

tarentule 

crapeau 

I6zard 

sangsue 

Hmace 

ver 

ver-luisant 

ver^oquin 

ver-a-8oie 

escargot 

escarbot 

grillon 

perce-oreille 

teigne 

ciron 

fourmi 

charan^on 

cloporte m. 



or 
argent 



m. 



XVIII. o^ 

frog 

serpent 

adder 

viper 

scorpion 

aspick 

basilisk 

dragoft, 

tarantula 

toad 

lizard 

leech 

dug 

worm 

glo7o»worm 

vine-grub 

iiik-worm 

snail 

beetle 

cridcet 

ear-wig 

moth 

hand worm 

ant 

weevil 

wood-louse 



REPTILES AND INSECTS. 



tique 

pou 

lente 

puce 

punaise 

chenille 

papillon 

mouche 

abeiile 

frelon 

bourdon 

gu^pe 

taon 

cousin 

cantharide 

haneton 

sauterclle 

cigale 

araignee 

toile d'araign6e 

essaim d'abeilles 

miel 

cire 

rayon de miel 

ruche 

fourmiliSre 



tick] 
huse 
nit 
flea 
bug 

caterpillar 

butterfl/y 

fiflj 

bee 

hornet 

drone 

waMf 

oxfh/ 

gnat 

Spanish-fly 

cockchafer 

grasshopper' 

bahn-cricket 

spider 

cobweb 

swarms of bees 
h/mey 

wax 

honeycomb 

hive 

ant-hill 



XIX, OF METALS, &c. 



gold 
silver 
piaiina 
silver'giU 



cuivre 
ainun 

laiton 
bronxe 



copper 

latten 
bronze 



I 



TOCABULART. 



59 



similor 

fer 

ill d'archal 

acier 

fer-blanc 

6tain 

ploinb 

mercure 

vif-argent 

■oufre 

nitre 



blanc 

noir 

bleu 

vert 

gris 

orang6 



Jiamant 

topaze 

emeraude 

saphir 

escarbouclo 

rubis 



piruMeck 

iron 

wire 

steel 

irovriinrnd 

pewter 

lead 

mercury 

quicksilver 

sulphur 

nitre 



salpAtre 

bitume 

antimoine 

arsenic 

alun 

couperos*/ 

vitnol 

carmin 

pastel 

ocre/. 

vermilion 



XX. OP COLOURS. 



vHte 

black 

blue 

green 

grey 

orange colour 

XXI. OF PRECIOUS STONES. 

diamond 



rouge 

jaune 

brun 

pourpre 

6carlate 

indigo 



topaz 

emerald 

sapphire 

carbuncle 

rubv 



am^thyste 

cornalme 

onix 

agathe 

corail 

perle 



taltf ye 

bitumen 

antimony 

■arsf}iic 

alum 

copperas 

vitriol 

carmine 

pastel 

ochre 

read lead 



red 

ytXUno 

brown 

pv/rple 

scarlet 

indigo 



amethyst 

cornelian 

onyz 

agate 

coral 

pearl 



XXII. OP THE PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES, 



France 

Italie 

Espagne 

Portugal 

Turquie 

i\lle!nagne 

Suisse 

Prusse 

Polc^ne 

Boheme 

Hongrie 

Hollande 

les Pays-BaB 

Angkterre 

Ecosse 

Irlande 

Russie 

Danemarc 

Suede 

Norvdge 

Tartane 

Arabia 

Perae 

Inde 



France 

Italy 

Spain 

Parlugal 

Turkey 

Germany 

Sioitzerland 

Prussia 

Poland 

Bohemia 

Hungary 

Holland 

the Netherlands 

England 

Scotland 

Ireland 

Russia 

Denmark 

Sweden 

Norway 

TartoTu 

Arabia 

Persia 

India 



Chine 

Mogol 

Bengale 

Malabar 

le Japon 

Barbarie 

Egypte 

Biledulgerid 

Zaara 

Nigritie 

Guinee 

Ethiopia 

Zanguebar 

Monomotapa 

Monoemugi 

Caffrerie 

Abhyssinio 

Canada 

Pensylvanie 

le Maryluid 

la Caroline 
la G6orgie 
le P6rou 



China 

Mogul 

Bengal 

MaSibar 

Japan 

Barbary 

Egypt 

BikdulgerU 

Zaara 

NigriMa 

Guinea 

Ethiopia 

Zanguebar 

Monomotapa 

Monoemugi 

Caffraria 

Abyssinia 

Canada 

Pensylvania 

Maryland 

Carolina 

Georgia 

Peru 



«0 



VOCABULJLRT. 



!* ^*T*S«i»y Paraguay 
le Breaii BrazU 



Pranyais, e 
Italian, ne 
Espagnol, e 
Portugais, e 
Turc, que 
Allemaod^ e 
Prussien, ne 
Suisse, esse 
Polanais, e 
B<ih6miea, ne 
Hongrois. e 
HoUandaiB, e 
Atttriciiien, ne 



xxnr. COMMON 



French 

Italian 

Spanish 

Parlnc^nese 

Turkish, Turk 

Crerman 

Prussian, 

Swiss 

Pole 

Bohemian 

Hungarian 

Dutch 

AutSlrian 



laGuiane Ouiana 

ist, Dominiguo St. Doitango 
laJamaique Jamaica 

NATIONAL NAMES. 

Fiamand, e 
Anglais, e 
Ecossais, e 
Irlandais, e 
Riuse 
Danoi^; ? 
Su6dois, e 
Norvegien, Tie 
Persan, e 
Chinois, e 
Americain, e 
Japon, e 
Lapon 



Memisk 


■ 


English 


M 


Scotch 


1 


Irish 


■ 


Hussian 


■ 


Dane 


1 


Swede ^ 


H 


Norwegian 


■ 


Persian 


■ 


Chinese 


■ 


A7nericcn 


fl 


Japanese 
Laplander 


1 " 




J " 




I'H 




1 /a 


k 


1 ^ 


» 


A ' 




I 



fil:' 

it 



111 



I'M 




■ ~ '^>g waife ?^J4.^; 



tNTRODUC A ION TO THE EXERCISES. 



61 



Introduction 

TO THE 

EXERCISES. 

22. OF THE PREPOSITIONS o/, from^ tO, AND OF THfi 

ARTICLE the, a. 

*the English definite article the, is rendered by 

le before a noun masculine ? • ,i • , 
la Ivfore a noun feminine \ ^" *^« ^"^g"^^'"- 

and tes before nouns of either gender, in the plural. 

The indefinite a or an is rendered by U7i before a noun 
masculine, and by une in the feminine. 

EXAMPLES* 



Le livre 
la rue 
les plantes 



The wood ; 
bois m. 

the foot ; 
pied m. 

a histon' ; 
histoire f. 

a night ; 
nuit f. 

a crown. 
ecu m. 



' . i/ook 
(he street 
the plants 



un homme 
nnefemme 
un neros 



a man 
a woman 
a hero 



EXERCISES. 

the forest; the houses ; the men ; the court ; 
foret f. m arsons pi. homvies pi. cour f. 

the arras ; the room ; the garden ; the windows ; 
bras pi. chomibre f. jar din m. fenetres pi. 

rt novel ; a foreigner ; a walk ; a day ; 

roman m. ef ranger m. pivmetiade f. ^owr m. 

<Ac sun ; //i<: moon ; ^Ae stars ; a body ; a card ; 
SflZeiZ m. Imie f etoi/« pi. cy/-;p5 m. carte f. 



23. The prepositions of and /rom are rendered literally 
by de and to by a. 

When followed by the definite article, they are rendered 
in this manner : 

of the r^^* before a noun masculine singular beginning with a 
and I consonant or h aspirated 
from ike » '^^ ^'^ before a noun feminine singular 



i)y 



j de V before any noun beginning with a vowel or h mute 



lies before any noun in the plural. 



* Observe that you must not say de le, a. le, de les, a ks, but that the 
article and preposition are contracted into one word, tki, art, des, aux. 

F 



62 



■IS- 



IKTRODUCTIO.X 






.h„1f ""•^^- ">«'« Prepositions a,, followed by a or «„, 



'"'"^ll^^^'^SE 



Duparc 
<Je la riviere 
de I'esprit 
des carrosses 
au pare 
ft la rividre 



EXAMPLES. 

of the park 
of the river 
of the mind 
of the coetches 
to the park 
to the river 



a I'esprit 
aux carrosses 
<i'un jour 
^'une nuit 
a un jour 
I a une nuit 



Tho y . 1 EXERCISES. 

7%e palace of the kins- nf th. 

paloism. roil:. -^ ^^^ T^^V ^/ <A. man r 



to the mind 
t^) the coaches 
of a dtiy 
of a night 
to a day 
to a night 



honiine h m. 



of the 



from a balcony ; 
balcdn m. 

'2/'<A<? gardens; 
jardins pi. 

to the master ; 
maitre m. 

of the houses; 



io the m^n- to the mew, 



?en; tothekim- fn th« 
hommes pi. ^ ' *^ ^"'^ Q^een ; 

, , , courtisans pi. 

'^^ lady; o/i!/igsoul- «/■/*, i, 
<fewief, Snt-f '^'^t'^ horse; 

, ®^'' *• cheval m. 

. - ; 0/ a carpet. 

wiJl be both rendered thus f ' ' '*'' ""'"' 3'<'«^. and /Lv. 

singular. 



to a princess ; 
princesse f. 

of a table; 

to a cat; 
chat m. 



of or 

from 



my 

thy 

his, her, or its, 

our 

your 

their 

my 

thy 

his, her, Us 

OUT 

your 
^their 



m. 

Cmon 
ton 

by de } ^°^^ 
j notre 



by rt 




f. 

Tna 

ta 

sa 

notre 

voire 

leur 

ma 

ta 

sa 

noire 

vat/re 

^e-Xi/r . ieurs 



plural, 
m. and f. 
mes 
tes 
ses 
nos 
vos 
leurs 
Tries 
tes 
ses 
nos 
vos 



TO THE EXERCISES. 



63 



And likewise, when followed by the demonstrative 
this or that, thesf or those : 

fee before a noun masculine beginning witli 
of or from this or | a consonant or h aspirated 

that, by de -i eel before a noun masculine beginning with 

to this or that, by d a vowel or h mute 

\cette before a noun feminine 

of or from these or those, by dc ces \ before nouns plural of either 
to these or those, by a ces j gender. 

EXAMPLES. 

a leur travail to their work 
de cette terrrasse from this terrace 
do ce lieu of that place 

de cet honimu of this man 
de ces arbres of these trees 

EXERCISES. 

Of my clothes; of thy handkerchief; of his pocket: fr<m ymir 
halnls pi. mouchoir m. poche f. 

letters; 0/ owr treasure; to their house; of this stc*^ple: of that 
Uttres pi. tresor m. Hudson f. doche,' m. 



de mon p6re 
n ta mfire 
de son frere 
de notre ville 
a votre maison 



of my father 
to thy mother 
of his b)-other 
of our town 
to your house 



of this tower; of these models; from, 



hero ; 

heros m. h asp. tour f. modeles pi." 

your relations; the top of this mountain; 

paretis pi. sommet m. montagne f. 

from these pleasures; of our duties; to their 

platsirspl devoirs lA. 

his acquaintances; to my ncighbour-s. 
connaissances pi. voisins pi. 



my 



to 



sister ; 
sxur f. 

to my friend 
ami m. 
connexions ; 0^ 
liaisoiis pi. 



25. OF ELISIONS. 

The apostrophe (') marks the suppression of a voice/ 
before a word beginning with a vowel or /4 mute, as in 
/ eghse, for /a eglise, etc. This suppression is called elis- 
ion : « e are the only two vowels which are thus cut off : 

n^te^off?"' '^'^" ''^"'^■^^' ^'^•^-'^•^^' -^d-- 

The a is suppressed only in la feminine, both when an 
article and a personal pronoun. 

But the elision ofe occurs, not only in the definite article 
and personal pronoun le, but also in many monosyllables 
such asjc, me, te, se. de. ce. ne, auk. nnH I ^h'^ .^^Z^l^h 

^L/etc.'"''^ ^'' ^'^rce^we, quhique, puisqv,, jusque^^t 



i-i: 



Gi 



INTRODUCTION 



of^ 



in Tamitid 
..rherbo 
• . I'oiseau 
..I'honneur 
. g''ai 

. . il m'oublio 
. -jo t'aimft 
. . il s'habillo 
..V0U8 I'aidcz 
. . vous I'obligez 
. . c'est vrai 

Uii cuuj)-d'cBi] 
. . n'oubliez paa 

^qu'nttendez- 
' ' i vous 

in s'il arrivait 
s'ils pouvai- 

ent 
parcequ'il 

faut 
quoiqu'il 

fassc 
puisqu'on 
vous dit 
S jusqu'a 
( domain 
5 vi\qu'ilob 
I tiendra 
d^gqu'on 

saura 

quelqu'un 

vient 



EX/MPLES OF ELISIONS. 

] 



for « 



la araitiS 

la her bo 

le oiseau 

Ic honneur 

j^ai 

il ine oublio 

je te aime 

il sfi habillo 

vous le aidcz 



the fricndskip v 

tfie erass 

the. bird 

the fumour 

I have 

he forgets me 

I Iwe thee 

he dresses himself 

yo-u, help kim 



vous \a obhgez ymi oblisc her 
ce est vrai it ii tnie 

un coup dt oeil a glance 
no oubhez pas do not forget 
qucattcndez- \ tchoi do you et- 
{ vous J pea? 

r si il arrivait if it happened 
I si ils pouvaicnt if ticey could 

I parceque il faut 
I quoiqu<? il fasse 



■ for^ 3 [)uisqucon 
\ vous dit 



because it is 
requisite 

whatever he 
^ may do 
since they tell 

yo% 

jusque a domain till to-mmrow 

J vu que il ob- since he loill ob- 
i tiendra tain 

des qu6' on saura \ ^^ ^"^ ^^ ^^ " 

, \ known 

quelque un vient smedorfy cowiffs 

The e of the preposition enire is not cut off eenerallv 

before eu^, dies, autres, good writers prefer leavinf 'r hus 

entre eux entre dies, entre autres ;hui in the Mo W 

compound words there must be an elision : ^^^^^^'ng 

Entr'acte an interlude ^ fon^rmr^ta 

Bentr'aider t<, h^lp amtl^ , I se entr'nid.. 

tntrouvnr to half open J ( entrcKJuvrir 



EXERCISE. 




ThesoxxX; the heroine; 
anie f. heroine f. 

loves ^e;-; /love this 
<« lal: je aime 



the mind ; 
esprit m. 

man ; you 

homme m. roi<5 



^®'?.^ .^Sf^! '• . ^e goes away ; it was the golden 



he loves ^z/ra ; 
il aiyne 2 ^e 1 ; 

understand me ; 
entendez 2 vie I • 



she 
elle 

ho es- 

iles- 



ii'ific »i ce i 



A^ 



I 



se en-va ce etaU de or2 



•\f liut yu 



i^ge 1; * ne oUer 



Sf\ 



I 



to THtJ fiXfincl8ES» 



65 



if he coiijeu ; (/"they picasr ; xchat has ho saitl 1 tiU 
ii vienl; ' ils vetUent; qtu a-t-il dit? jusqiu 
tluntgh he Bays ; iince he knows ; •when, he saw ; 

saiti Iwsque viti 



thrre ; 
^as Id I 

night ; tAmtgfi, he says ; since 
ait soir m. quoique disc ; piiuque 

between them j fiomclwdy is come. 
entrc cux ; queUpie nn est vcnu^ 



26. OF NEGATIONS. 

The negation nof, is rendered by ne-pas, of which ne is 
J)laced before the verb, and the pas afier. 

J^ever is rendered by ne-jamais ; nobody by ne-personne ; 
nothings by ne-rien, which are placed in the same order ai 

EXAMPLES OF NEGATIVE PHRASES, 

ii.R. 'the " Bhows the place of the vorb. 

'je no suis pas, etc. lam not, etc 
nous 'a'avons point ice /<«■?'« wot 
il neJOTte jamais he 'never plays 
I ■ vous ne diles rien i/Wi. say nothing 
''^^ ' je ne vais personne / see nobody 

.. S I do not see. or t 
je ne vois govitto J ^^^ ,^^^ -^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

(^jc ne i?a/s nullepart /^o «o where 
In compound tenses, the negations are always placed 
before and after the auxiliary verb ; as nous n'avons point 
parle, we have not spoken ; on n'aurait jamais cru, one could 
never have believed. 

EXERCISE. 



tiever 

nothing 

nobody 

not a jot 

no wJiere 



\ ne pas 
( ne* point 

n 3 "jamais 

ne*rien 

ne* personne 

ne'goutte 
ne*nullc part 



I do not say ; 

* dis 



1 have not said ; I have never seen ; 
ai dit ai Vii> 

falsehood); I do ludhing; I have done 7W<Am^ ; 
fais ai foAt 



I never (tell a 
mens 

is he not ar- 
est-il ar- 

he 



rived 1 does tiot he come % I sec nothing ; has ho never seen 7 
rive " 2 vient I vois a-t- vu 

never losci; his time ; that (is worth) nothing ; I met nobody, 
perd temps m. cd-a vaut rcnco?Urai 

27. OF WORDS WHICH ARE ALIKE IN BOTH 

LANGUAGES. 

There are many words which arc alike in both languages, 
and others which differ only in their termination. 

The expressions, which are perfectly alike, are particu- 
larly those that have the following terminations : 



•al 



as 



C animal- cardinal fntAl. rrenetnl- IoCbI- moral natal, orirnnal. 



I 



\ principal, etc. 



r2 



f r 



<6 



iNTRoftuCTIOPf 



3"™V°"'""""' -°«'"'»™. di<«e„ce, .,„,„,„„; 

prtci^ce,'"lE; ote "'"' J™"«' '")"««•. office, ori«c,, 
™™io. „„„„, „,..^,„, ^,^„p,^^,^_ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

?»"• ''""'°^^' -=-. -">"S0, ».gc, page. p,um.g., 
Jelu|«, c.r' "^'' """S'' "'^"S^. forge, rouge, ref„ge, 

4ffle,t;^k,»g;V-'". •■•-tile, &ci,e, f„gUe, „„bUe, 

tot';%inrra";ine''r"'' ■>"»-. ">-hi„e, ,„ari„e, 
r^S";,''':;?"' '*^'™. "«-". opinion, pa.do„, ,„e«i„„, 

(S"^™^.:'"^"''' ^''P""'. !•«">■-«, piquant, 
f fi'"u"o*nrifeS'''™°'''. -Sment, „„.=„., «,„,»„., 

-«^ iWo -airr 

aire as military 



-me 
-ion 
-ant 
-flnt 



-cy 

-ty 

-ous 

-our 

-or 

-ine 

-ive 

-rie 

•cracy 



-oire 

-cc 

-te 

•eux 

-eur 

-eur 

-in 

-if 

-rie 

-cratie 



N. B, Adjectives in 



f-eux 1 



gtory 

clemency 

bcmtty 

dangeiwcs 
favour 
error 

clatidesline 
expressive 
fury 

aristocracif 



militaire 

gloire 

clernenee 

beaute 

dangereux 

faveur 

erreur 

clandestin 
expressif 
funo 
aribtocratie 



make their feminine in \ '-Iv^ 

ine 



EXERCISE, 



i-u 



The beauty of that fable : iho. U . 

^- cette t\ "f'T rr^' ■•" . ^'^^^i '^»« utility of 

r. n. m. art. m, f ^j^ 



to Trip, EXJJRCISES. 



vi 



ouhle, aolu- 
kce, trace, 
cc, lance, 
Eloquence, 
ce, oriiice, 
spectacle, 
nado, ro- 
plumagr, 

I, refuge, 
module, 

, nubile, 
marine, 

[ueetion, 

piquant, 

leraent, 

mge of 



•cience; the atrocity tf thin action; the vide •c of h\a Mfmont: 

/ . ^- <^f^ f- f, ses pi. ' 

the nv of that machine ; pn audacioua conspirator ; the 

celte f. 2 m. 1 

absu' * that opinion ; the military evolutions : an industriou* 

^; ^<te f. pj. 2 |,1. 1 2 

nfttion; ^ :.nportant victory ; an alimentary pension ; a dartgcrotir 

! V - f. 1 2 f. 1 'J 

*m^i figurative expression; a famous general ; his constant 

, '^ ^^ m. 5a 2 

generosity 5 ho is incapable of attention ; his impudence is visi'Je' 
I. 1 U est s(m ' 

his fidelity is ii, iubitable ; she is very attentive; your clemency is 
''^ „ ^- elle est tres- f. voire f. 

admirable ; the destruction of his fortune was the consequence df 

f. sa ( fid f, 

his tenlerity ; she is very scrupulous ; his Condition is horrible : his 
'^ f- iris { sa r. ses 

parents are very miserable ; this history is incontestable ; your 
pi. sonttres' pi. cetle f. ^otre 

facility is prodigious; his perfidy is odious; it was a horrible 

^' sa \. f. ce et ) 

famine ; the sublimity of his sentiments is still preferable to the 

^- f. ses m encore 

energy of his expressions ; it was a decisive action ; the cattiaire 

se» f. c'etait f2 f. 1 m. 

was terrible ; that obstacle is inv: :;ible ; this instrument is not 

c^^ cet m. 

harmonious ; the prosperity of the wicked is not durable ; your 

f. viechans pi. ^os 

insidious presents are not acceptable ; his memory is truly extra- 

Pl- 1 sont pi. f. vraimerU 

. .dinary ; that is his principal occupaUon ; a central position : his 
ce est sm l^ f l f. 2 f. i saii 

extravagance is visible ; these arguments are insoluble. 
^' ^•' m. pi. 



ity of 

art. 



PART I. 

OP WORDS CON.SIDERED IN THEIR NATURE AND INFLECTIONS. 

Their are in French nine sorts of words, or parts of speech, 
namely : 



1. Substantive, or Noun, 

2. Article, 

3. Adjective, 



4. Pronoun, 

5. Verb, 
C. Adverb, 



7. Preposition, 

8. Conjunction, 

9. Interjection. 







■-»«-.i*J™»M^<.«^.-,. 



48 



lNTROT>UCflO.\ 



CHAPTER I. 



29. OP THB SUBSTANTIVE, C7 NOUN. '^ 

The substantive ia a word which serves to name a person, 
or thing, as Pierre, Peter ; livre, book, etc. 

There are two sorts of* substantives, the substantive pro^ 
per, ox proper name, and the substantive common, also called 
appellative. 

The pi'oper name is that which is applied to a particular 
person, or thing, as Cesar, Cesar ; la Tamise, the TAames. 
1 he substantive common is that which belongs to a whole 
class of objects. The word /iOTwme, man, is a substantive 
common, as it is ajjplicable to any individual, that is to 
Pierre, or Paulj or Jean, 

or these nouns some arc collective, and others abstract. 
Collectives express either a whole mass, as une armee, 
an army : uneforet, a forest ; or a partial assemblage, a- 
une quantite di, etc. a certain quantity of; la plupar' most 
part, etc. 

Mstract nouns are the names of qualities abstracted from 
their subjects : as, surface, rondeur, science, sao-esse: sur- 
face, roundness, knowledge, wisdom, etc. '^ 

Ifl substantives are to be considered Gc?i(/cr and Jf umber. 

30. OF GENDERS, 

There are only two genders the ...asculine and feminine. 

The masculine belongs to the male kind, as un homme, a 
men ; un lion, a lion, etc. 

The feminine belongs to the female kind, as ime fcmme, 
ft woman ; une h'onne, a lioness, etc. 

This distinction applies also, in French, to inanimate ob- 
jects, wh'ch are either masculine or feminine, as, un livrc, 
a book, is masculine ; une table, a tablojis feminine, etc. 

31. OP riUMBER. 

There are two numbers ] the singular SlXiA the plural. 
The singular expresses one single object, as un homme, 
un livre. 

The plural announces wzore objects than one, as des horn- 
mes, des livres. 

Some nouns have no plural, such as names of passions, 
senses, metals : Vivrognerie, drunkenness ; Vouie, hearing ; 
le courage, courage ; IW, gold j Vargcnt, silver. 



■-»». ' ..J -iKa^'-Si^. -; . . , 



TO THE EXERCISES. 



69 



Some have no singular *, les annales, annals ; les anceires, 
ancestors ; lesumoucheties, snuffers ; lets tpinards, spinach. 

Proper names have no plural, as Londres, Paris, Milton, 
etc. 

32. OF THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL OF SIMPLE 

SUBSTANTIVES. 

GENERAL RULE.. 

The plural is formed in French, as in English, by the 
addition of an s to the singular. 

EXAMPLES. 
Singular. Plural. 

le roi the king I Us rois th j kings 

la reine the queen j les reines the queens 

EXCEPTIONS TO THE GENERAL RULE. 

1. Words ending in s, x, z, in the singular, remain the 
same in the plural. 

EXAMPLES. 

Singular. Plural, 

le fils t/w S(nb los fils the scms 

la voix </V voice les voix the vaices 

le nez Che nose les nez the Twses 

2, Words ending in aw, eu, ou form their plural by- 
adding an X, 

EXAMPLES. 
Singular. PlunJ. 



bateau 
feu 
bi; m* 

VOBU 



boat 

fife 

jewel 



bateaux 

feux 

bijoux 

vaerQx 



boats 
fires 
jewels 

VOW6 



3. Words ending in «/, ail, change their terminations 
into aux to form the plural. 



Singular, 
chevalt horse 

travaiU work 



EXAMPLES. 

Plural, 
chevaux karscs 

travaux tvorks 



♦Those in -ou, that take x in the plural, are uiou, caillou, bijou, genou, 
hibou,joujou,j)ou; Ihe others now follow the general rule and takes, as 
chu, dmis; vetrou, verrmis, &c. 

+ Several nouns in -ol^ as bal. cal, pal, regal, carnavcd, local, &c. 
follow however the general rule, simply taking s. 

J Those in -ail, making their plural in aux, are particularly bail, sous- 
bail, coraU, email, soupirail, travail, vantaU, ventail; the rest, as atti- 
raii, dckiil, eveniail, gouvenuiii, porlail, serail, &c. i-^Av tho g«norai 
rule. 



I 




70 




INTHODUCTION 



oomnun^ CZ^'eiZis^""'' '"^'"'''' '^'"'' »"»»'*' 

adopt the o„ror Sh.; " V' '"."^ l^^" "Ption^l to 
having, in "he new edtrTl'"'''.*''^ ^'^""^ Academy 
first or hogZbv It hi, W 'i^'-diotionary, adopted the 
example. '^^' '"'' '"=^" "'""gh' right to folliw their 

5. The following siv 1^? ' ^™?' '^"'''> *««' *«'« 
formation rfthrplui^:"^"'*"" ''""' irregular asUo u,e 

Plural. 



ail 

betail 

aieul 

ciel 

ceil 

bercail 

33. 



Singular. 
garlic 
cattle 

grandfather 
heaven 
' eye 

shezpfold 



\ 



aulx 

bestiaux 

aieux 

cieux 

yeux 

Juis no plural 



heads of garlic 

cattle 

ancestors 

heaiiens 

eyes 



OP THE FORMATION OP THE PLURAL OF 
COMPOUND SUBSTANTIVES. 

both taT^thet X'r tXf ''^" ^'^"'^^^ ^"^ --' 

7m chef lieu rniinf,r »«„, 

poundfd o a nourLd'antZr" '" TiT ""'''» ™"'- 
*, and the other does no^ fnl" V"?,^ "'^ *''"'" '^'^«» 'he 
gnlar, as : ' ' '" ""^« ■«"'' '•«n>ain i" the dn- 

TheTer"^'' }^^^^ S-'-^ 

the'^r^Lt^rnSioSr-'-"'-^'-'- -i- ^- 

-'^owo-e ^o;.o.e i^an elliptical form of which th^ fnii 
IS 025eaw a rouo-e o-orirr - ^.. ^ wnicn the full sense 

means *. o^'X'^r^; /l^^'T^fJ-''^' <^on«equent!j , 
sign of the ,Mural. HdhfnfZl' i ""''„?«»"<" assume the 

—'■"*"* ».?/;!£;•;• ssa. -sjj," - 



'i 



^^ 



plural by 
moments, 



% 



ti 



TO THE EXERCISES. 71 

andtt ;:S:";.f ;"k ^"^ -™ -^ "« ^^^ of - 

ruleTz^'&r'^"' ■""5' ^^ ^^'-W'^ed into a precise 
wW^hTnd i^l?. If , T"°' ""^ affixed to those words to 

or? ? L °' Plural'ty cannot Ije attached. 

^. *Jneolthe components of a compound suh^tinfi™ „. 

a towef 



«w essuie-mains 
itn ess7iie-mam 
un passe-par taut 
un avant-coureur 
un vice-amiral 



des essuie-mains 
des essuie-main 
des passe-parUynt 
des aoant-coureurs 
des vice-amiiaux 



a master key 
a fore runner 
q Vffu"'ir'"^" a vice admiral des vice-amii aux 

d. vviien the component words are taken from th^ T «♦;« 
or irom any foreign language, no . is added to tl Tuvlt 
deste-deum des post-scriptum 

ctar^da-r"^ desvade-me?um 

4. In all words compounded orpo7ie and a noun gwh^fan 
tive, no s is to be added to the latter. *"" 

^mporte-elendard standard bearer des vorte-el^^^^.^ 
un porte-epec s,vcrd bearer S iTle^S 

unporte.nu>ucMtes snuffers stand deslort^Zl^ttes 
^^ EXERCISE. 

The fl„we„^„f t„e g^^„, , ,He ^^^e. of ..e ,an^„.,. . ,h. 

i^" "s ^ ^ "•= ^- °'r stf' ^ *'^^^ i™'°^ 

nlarne. t^.^ u . ^^r.itn, a^' charmant 

^S' '^S: Jj?' '^' "^'!!!^^^ °^' '^«''« g«"«r^I«; the work« of 
tL. , ., ^^ — travail 

«;" f±S" '"" S^^;- "f *«"«■» ^ the (■«„„d men) of 




■ ■: I \ 




n 



INTRODUCTidT^ 




[W f 



those times ; the presents of my parenls ; the tcctli of your comb? * 
ces temps-Id -^ tries — dent voire peigne 

the playthings of our children ; the heads of these nails. 
joujou nos enfaiht icte ccs don. 

CHAPTER tL 

OF THB ARTICLE. 

34<. The Article is a small word prefixed to substantiveSj 

to determine the extent of their signification* 

rie before a masculine^ 

The French article is \ , f bstantive ' tlie plural is Us fof 

1 la before a temmine | both genders. 
(^ substantive j 



substantive 
EXAMPLE. 



Singular. 
/<? jour ' tJie day 



la nuit 



the. night 



Zt'S jours 
ks nuits 



Plur:.l. 

the days 



the nights 



EXERCISE. 
77te sun, the moon and t/ie stars are the glory of nature* 
soleil m, lune f. etoile f pi. sont = f. art' — f. 

Tlie king, the queen, and the princes are well pleased. The rose, 
roi m. rdne f. — m.pl. tres-satisjaits — f. 

tJie violet, the tulip, the nave' the hyacinthe, the gilliflower, 

violette f. tidvp f. nan jacinthe f. girojlee f. 

^jasmine, theXily, the h, ackle, the ranunculus are the 
jasmin m, lis m. chtvrc-fewdlc m. renonaule f. 

delight, of i'/i^ sight Poetry, painting and music are (sister arts) 
deliccs f pi. vae f. art. poesie f, art. peinture f. art musique saur f pi. 

The day and the night are equally necessary. 
jour ra. %wlt f. egaknent necessaire. 

OF THE ELISION O^ THE ARTICLE le, la. 

35. The articles le, la form but one word with the noun 
following, if the latter begins with a vowel or an h not aspi- 
rate. This suppression of a letter is called Elision. 

EXAMPLE, 



I'argent 
I'histoirc 



instead of 



le argent 



the money 
the history 



la histoiro 

36. The same elision takes place also with regard to the 
preposition de, when it precedes a word beginning with a 
vowel, or an h not aspirate. 



OF THE ARTICLE. 



n 



gage d'amUie 
^parole d'honneiit 



The soul of man 
dTne f. art, homme h, m. 



EXAMPLE. 

token of friendship, 
word of honour 

EXERCISE. 

without cultivation is like a diamond 
sans culture f est convme diamant m. 

(in the rough) The history of Spain is sometimes verj' interesting. 
lyrut k. in. Espagne qv^lquefois tres-interessante, 

(Look at) 'he amaranthe and the anemone; what beauty! Self- 
Considerez amaranthe f. f qtietk = f. art. amour- 

love and pride are always the offspring of a weak mind. 
propre art. orgneU totijours partage m. faiiile 2 esprit m. I. 

Honesty, innocence, honour, and the love of 

art. HonnUete h m. art. art. honneur, h. ni, omgw art. 

virtue are (very much) esteemed. Summer, autumn, and 

vertu f. tres- estimes art. ete art. automtie art. 

winter are very changeable. France is separated from Italy 
hiv^ h.m. variables art. — separee de Italie 

by the Alpes, and from Spain by the Pyrenees (An- act) of 
2)ar Alpes pi. art. — — pi. a£te 

ambition. She was struck with horror He is full of vanity. 
• EUe etait frappee de — II est rempli orgueil 

In a fit of humour. 
dans %n accis ■ 



CONTRACTION OP THE ARTICLES le, la, IcS, AND 
PREPOSITION de, d. 

37. It has been observed page 37, that the articles /e, la, 
les are contracted into one word with the preposition de, a, 
when they are used in connexion before a word beginning 
with a consonant or an h aspirate. 



EXAMPLES. 



Du roi 
du heros 
au roi 
au heros 
des rois 
des reines 
aux rois 
aux reines 



is instead of 



de le roi 

d^ le heros 

d le roi 

d le heros 

de les rois 
de les reines 
d les rois 
d les reines 



of the king 
of the hero 
t*t the king 
to the hero 
of the kings 
of the queens 
to the king.* 
to the queens 



EXERCISE. 



I'ho top of the mountains and tl'e bottom of the valiies are 

sonmH m. montagnc. fond ni. " valUe 



74 



OP THE ARTICLE* 



m»«, s^aj; „.^. ^^^i,^ /rajd«,r f, ,rt foj' 

*° P^iSl 1 "Zr- »" "■« fee. ™en »/"'-p,X 
«« » -u / , -^ dmue odeur f. art oZaw/J 

^::s::.^s;^ ^^ ^-^- ^^^^^ -j^,-^ to the hUt:; 

Be and dsre never contracted with la, 

EXAMPLES. 
I?./am«. oftthe queen ( a la reinc to the queen 

Nor are de and « contracted with le, before a masculine 
Biibstantive singular, beginning with a vowel or A mute 

EXAMPLES. 
^.«i^/^ to the mind | dV/i^mme toman 

/o,.^*'rn'*^*'*'''" "^^^^ "^^^"^^ P^^^« either when the adjective 
tout, all, every, mtervenes between de or a, and the article. 

EXAMPLES. 



de tout ie mojide 
tie tens ks hommes 
a tojil le vionde 
d tous les hommes 
<k toutes les vertus 
d toutes les maisons. 



of every body 
of all men 
to evory body 
to all men 
of all virtues 
to all houses 



-f. art./«-^f. art. «j»-j( art. /«ra<^« f. •* art. S 

""^.t^^^-art-ir- "Sl s :j* ''™ "■«' -" 



I 



r 





r 



Ui 



OF THE ARTICLE. 



7ft 



w that which contributes moBt to Uie fertility of tho soil. More 
est cc qui contrUme le phis = terre f. Plus 

or less pain h the lot 0/ every body. The history 
ou, moim dc peine partage m. tmd art. monde m. = 

of man under all the circumstances of life, is the study of the 
art. som toHles art. circoyislance f. art. vie f. etude 

wise. Playfulness doe^ not become all ages, nor 

^age m. a.rt.EnjoiccmcfU m. ♦ «« sied ni a taut art— m. pi. ni a 
all dispositions, 
art. caractere m. pi. 

OF THE ARTICLE. 

3S. In French, the article always agrees in gender and 
number with the subatantive to which it relates. 

EXAMPLES. 

the book which I am looking for 
the woman whom I see 
the men that study 



le livrc queje cherche 
IsLfemme que je vois 
les homvies qiii etudient 



EXERCISE. 

The father and tho mother, the brothers and the sisters, tho 

;;crem. mere f. //erem.pl. sosursf. plurt 

uncles and the aunts, and several other relations were 

oncles m. pi. art. tante f. pi. plusiews autres parent m. pi. etcient 

present. What we value is health, frugality, liberty, 

prcsejis. Ce que no'usesthiumsc' est SiXi. sante f.art. =f. art. =f. 

vigour of mind and body ; it is the love of virtue, 
f\xt.vigimir f. art. vnUcorps m. ce amour m. art. f. 

the fear of the gods, fidelity to all mankind, 

craintetdc dieu m.T^] . tkxt. =i. cnvcrs ent. mond£ m. axt. 
moderation in prosperity, fortitude in adversity, 

f. dans art. =f. art. f(yrce f. art. . =f. art. 

courage, good morals, and the abhorrence of flattery. 
— m. art. bonnes mamrs f pi. /lorrmr f. h. m. art. =f. 

OF THE PARTITIVE ARTICLE. 

39. Some, signifying a little of, a small portion or quan- 
tity of, a few, is rendered by du, de la, des, de P before a 
vowel and k not aspirate ; but some is hardly ever used in 
English, whereas du, de la, des must always be expressed 
in French. 

EXAMPLES. 



Je mange du pai7i 
II prem de la pei7ic 
Nmis mangeons du hachis 
Klie congoJt de la hainc 
Vous avez dc Vamitic 



I eat bread 
He takes pains 
"W^e eat some hash 
She conceives a hatred 
Ycu have friendship 



76 



OP THE ARTICLE. 



^'' 



Vous prenez de Vhumeur 
Novs cueillons dcs parnmes 
lis vsndent des oranges 



You get into an ill humour 
We gather apples 
They sell oranges 



EXERCISE. 

TlvJ^l^- "^ ^'^-^"^ ^"*^ ^""^''- Ofi«r him s^me 

donnez-mot pmnm. pr. part, iewm' m. Ofrez-lui 

S;.^ Take sm^ salt. (There is) mustanl, We 

havesc/megirkins. Shall I ofler you some fowH Shall I 

avons cor7i2chonsi^l Vous offrirai-je pouletm. VoL 

^rli'^e ♦ " ''^'' ^'"'' "^ \ ^*" *^?^« ^"^''^ P>«^^^«) ^'^^'^ 
sermiai-je ♦ —m. Jcjrren4rai voUmliei^s 

h^Jn^^' ^^""g n»e«^/«e bread. Pour me out 5c>»t€ beer. 
Am/^(m ra. ^;,^«r/^z-7«^ Versez-moi * Here f 

n?J!t "^^ '^'"^- J^''^ '^' *^^- P"t (i'^ it) 5«wi^ sugar 

and milk. I hear some noise, 

pr. art. lait m. J'tntcnds bruit m. 

has . pride. Have you any 
a pr. art. orgueilva. Avez-vmis pr. art 

Put some 
Meikz 

Eat some 
Mangez pr. art. 



jMcrc m. 

hails. She 
gi-ele f. s. Elle 



Mettez-y 

It 
// tovibe 

ink and pens 7 

ericre f. pr. art.. ;>Zitwt€S pi. 

, 9p , a^'i vinegar in the sallad. 

nuue, h m. pr.a.rLvinai^rem.dam saladei. 
lobster. He has received some gold and 

iwmard m. h, a^j^, /? a regu ' or xsx. 



silver, 
pr. art. argeiii m. 

40. Dm, de la, des de /' are not used generally after a 
negation, nor before a noun preceded by an adjective. In 
those cases, de alone is used without any distinction of 
gender or number. 

EXAMPLES. 

Je ne mange pas de pain I do not eat bread 

II ne prend jamais de peine hfi takes no pains 
lis vendent de bonnes oranges they sell good oranges 

EXERCISE. 

Do not give me any bread. We have good girkins* I will not 

Ne me donnez pas avons Ifons Je ne prendrai pas 

take broth. We drink excellent wine. She has no 

houiUo7i Notts bnvons vin EUe n'a pas 



pride. 



Have you no ink 7 Do you not take salt 1 We never drmk \?ine, 

Ne prenez:-voM^ pas ' jamais 
Do you never eat fruit 1 

ne viangez-voiis jamais 



OF THE ADJKCTIVB. 



77 



CHAPTER III. 



OP THE ADJECTIVE. 



same 



V" 



bon poro good father 
beau livre Jlne book 



41. The adjective is a word, vhich is added to a substan- 
tive to express its quality, as, 

I bonne mtire good mother 
bello imago fine image 

These words bon, bonne, beau, belle, are adjectives, because 
they express the qualities ofpere, mere, livre, image. 

A word is known to be an adjective, when itrcan be pro- 
perly joined with the word personne, or the word chose. 
Thus, habile, skilful, and agreable, agreeable, are adjectives, 
because we can say personne habile, skilful person, chose 
agreable, agreeable thing. 

In French, the adjective agrees in gender and number 
with the substantive to which it relates. This difference of 
gender and number is generally marked by the termination 
of the adjective. 

42. OF THE FORMATION OF THE FEMININE OF 
FRENCH ADJECTIVES. 

J311 adjectives ending, in the singular, in e mute, are of 
both genders. 

EXAMPLES. 



An amiable man 
An amiable woman 



Un homme ahnable 
Unefcmme aimadle 

Adjectives ending, in the masculine, in e, i, u, t, d, form 
their feminine by the addition of an e mute. 



EXAMPLES. 

m. / 

prudent prudente 

sense senses 

poli polit? 

tortu tortuc 

instruit instruite 

grand grande 

Adjectives in -e/, -eil, -ien, -on, -ef, -as, -es, -ais, -os, 
-ot, -ul, -il, form their feminine, by doubling the final con- 
aOiidni, ixiid adding e mute. 

g2 



prtident 

sensible 

polite 

crooked 

iceU-informed 

large 



IB 



OP THE ADJECTIVI!, 





m. 

bas 

cas 

gras 

las 



basse 
CMse 
artLsse 
l&ase 



cruel 

pareil 
ancien 
bon 
net 



EXAMPLES* 

/ 
cruel/e 
pareilfc 



ancKen7t£ 

bonTtc 

nette 



cruel 
like 
anci^ I 
goo.' 
clean 



= 50^ 
= 3| 

= 80 S- of each termination. 
= 18 I 



Imo 

cracked 
fat 
tired 



ezpr^s expres5e express 
profds imofeBseprofessed 



monk 
ornun 



m. 
6pais 
m^tis 
gros 
sot 
vieillot 

nul 

gehtil 



34 J 

ei)aiBSfi 

mHiase 

groase 

soUe 

vieillot/e 

h\i\le 

ntilfe 



thick 

mongrel 

big 

siUy 

oldish 

no 

geideet 



Adjectives Ending \uf, change this letter into ve. 

EXAMPLES. 

bye/ hthve short 

^tif active active 

nai/ naitje ingenuous 

neu/ nevLve new 

Adjectives end.ng in -x change -x into se, 

EXAMPLES. 

hontetw; honteu5(? ashamed 

yertuem; vertuease virtuous 

' jaloua; jalouse jealous 

Adjectives ending in eur, derived from verbs, and which 
might be more properly called substantives, were it not that 
they have a feminine, form that feminine in various man- 
ners ; they are few in number, and change as follows : 



complimenteur 

connaisseur 

demandcur 

flatteur 

menteur 

parleur 

r6veur 

moqueur 

trompeur 



Eur, EusEk 

— teuse fond of compliments 

connaisseur, judge 
oiie icho asks 
flattering 
deceiving 
talker 
dreamer 



— sscuso 
— deuse 
— tteuse 
— teuse 
— Ieuse< 
— veuse 
— ueuse 
— peuse 



etc., etc. 



sneering 
deceiver 



baillcar 

demandsur 

defendeur 



EUR, ERESSE. 

bailleresse 

deresse 

— — dercsRfi 



donor 

plaintiff 

defendfivJ. 



nation. 



tl 



which 
)t that 
iman- 



' 



01? rut ADjfeCTiVt* 

onchanlour tercsse 

pdcheur cheresge 

vengeur .— M^rgresge 

etc. etc. 



n 



dtarvtcr 
sinner 



CUR, RICEk 



accuBateu^ 

act«<ur 

bienfaiteur 

admirateur 

seducteur 

protecteur 

conservateur 

conductour 

amuassadeur 



' — trice 
— trice 
— trice 
— trice 
— trice 
-tri<© 
— trice 
— trice 

^^^^w^ewr, docteur, impnmmr, professmr, have no ferai- 

»hp Vilv^ adjectives ending in cur, form their feminine by • 
the addition of an c; they are about twelve in number : an- 
feneur, ctteneur, exUrieur, interieur, inferieur, meilleur, 
mtneur, majmr, posterieur, mperieur, ulterieur prienr 



accuser 

■actor 

benejactttr 

admirer 

seducer 

protector 

preserver 

leader 

ambassador 



She is decent, 
EUe — 

is too ripe 
trop mur 



EXERCISE. 

This house is well situated. 
Cetle maison f. bien situe 
She is tall and well farmed, 
grand bien fait 



This pear 
poire f. 
This story is 
histoire f. 



very entertammg. This person is very valatik. This mountoin 



not 



w an anaeiU custom. She has carnation lips h« 

c<;«^t*?r.^ f. ^ vermea 2 art. l€we{.pH Sa 

memory w^I be ^..rnorUU His manners are ^.L. 

~^- ^^ f» Ses vianieres f. i)\. naif 

engagement wa.j mm. (That is) an ariginal thou<rht 

coth IS the best of all. These are tfeZi^tt,^ promises 

He seduces by his fawning manners. The deligUful vallcv 
5e« ^«. Jattenr 2 m«^ieV.5 f. pi. 1. del^^i^ vjfel 
of Tempe is in Thessaly. The grass is very ihick. The soud 

Tmpe dansa.Tt.=f. Kerbef. ^ sSf. 

is too faf. It is a foam undertaking. This water is not c^an. 

sot entrem-Lset CrUAPmif 



The 
This 




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TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




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Photographic 

Sciences 
Corporation 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

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80 



of 'jfHE AbjJECTlViS. 




The avmgmg thunder smote that imnious wr>trh wJ 

(held out to U3) a protecting hand. 
<e»i2^ 2 nous 1 . /etir 2 warn f. 1 . 

OF IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES. 

43. There are some a-ljectives which are irregular in the 
formation of their feminine. They will be found neari v all 
contamed in the following list : ^ 



*beau 
the! 

♦nouveau 
♦nouvel 
♦vieux 
tvieil 
m. 
Wane 
franc 
fraii 
Grec 
public 
caduc 
Turc 
long 
benm 
malin 
sec 




> vieilfe 

/. 

h\b.ache white 

franc/te ; frank 

fraicAe fresh 

Grecque Greek 

pubJiyi^g public 

cadu«^ frail 



Tnrque 
longtie 
benigjie 
mali^we 



Turkish 



long 



I 

m. 

fsMX 

rou.r 
dou.T 



m. 

*fou 
tfol 

*raou 
tmol 



|folfe 
^ molfc 



mad 



soft 



shche 



benign 

malignant 

dry 



t&.\xsse false 

toMsse red 

douce sweet 

aigre-doua;aigre-douce tartisLsweet 

tie« tierce, third, etc 

* torse or .... 

\ ioxte twisted 

coite oicoie still, snug 
favorite favorite 
jximelle tvrin 
traitresse traitor 



tier* 

tor* 

coi 
favori 
jumeau 
traitre 



The following adjectives ending in et, not only form their 
femmme by the addition ofe mute, but require the grave ac- 
cent on the penultimate c. -i e av. 

/ /. 
concrete 

discrdfe 



m. 
concret 
drscret 
indiscrct 
inquiet 
complet 
incomplet 
replet 
suret 
pret 



indiscrete 
inquiete 
y make ^ compUte 

incompldte 
replete 
sur^te 
, prdte 



Prefix m. makes prefixe f. and is the only adjective in -zr 
which retains this letter and follows the seccvd rule. ' 



iB:r:r::zxiY:x^^^^ 



' 



points 
— m. 

He 



in the 
rly all 



mad 
soft 



i« 



SMoeet 
tc. 



%g 



their 
sac- 



■OCs 




^mmmm 



OF THE ADJECTIVE. 

Some adjectives have no feminine, as bische, dispose, faL 
patUet, etc. ; othei-s have no masculine, as bhtte, etc. 

SINGULARITY OF DEMI, FEU, NU. 

Whf*\i^^'^^''*^'^^?^P^^"^'^"^y wl^ich must be noticed. 

they follow It, theyagree with it. ' 

une demi-!ivre half a pound 

une demi-heure half an hour 

un demi-cent Aa// a hundred 

une hvre et demio 07ie pmtnd and a half 

Ueux heures et demie /udfpast tioo 

troig cents et dcmi three hundred and a half 



nu-pieds 
nu-t^te 



les pieds nu8 
la tete nue 



bare feet 
bare \ead 



Feu\» undeclined when preceding the article and a noa- 
sessive pronoun j, it is declined when following them. ^ 
Peulareine la feae reine the lute ^en 

vpri L^^'^®''^''?' '^Z^' *'''*' '^^^'•'» «tc- being used with a 
verb, become adverbs, and are not declined. 

ces fleurs sententbon these pwe>s smeU nice 

elleparlebas she speaks hw 

Us demeurdrent court th^j stood shoH . 

ellese fait for* d'yaller she takes upm herself to go. 

REMARKS ON TOUT, QUELQUE. 

«pntt* ^*^"^^^^' "^eans also every, in a sort of distributive 

\JZt very frequently prefixed to an adjective iTthe 
sense oi quite, entirely, and is, consequev'ly, undeclined. 

ils Went tout Sis tl^t^St^ieZt^nded 

ierfi'ill^^' •^'' P^^'^'^^ity that, when placed before an ad- 
jective femmme, begmmng with a consonant, it is declined. 

cues gfaient toutes tremblantes they trembled aU aver 



T 



82 



OF THE ADJECTIVE. 



(lediS*^ ^^*^re an adjective, means howtvtr, and is not 

however rich they be. they eive 



nothing 



quelque riches qu'ils soient, ils ne 
donnent rien. 

Qmc/ ywc, quelle que, quels que, quelles que j here, quel 
18 a sort of pronoun adjective which must agree in gender 
and number with the noun to which it refers, and which is 
the subject of the verb following : 

quelles que soient V08 vues. your views, 

'"clttKuni;''""'^'^"^ "'tS" *" ^" '^''' '^^ >- 

Observe that the verb is in the sulMunctive mood after 
quelque, quelques, quel que. 

EXFRCISE. 

He drank a gl^s of brandy quite pure. My sisters were 

init ve&em. eaudevief. — etaient. 

quite put ovj. Hope, deceitful as it is, leads us to the 

aeconcerte art, esperancs trompeur f. nous mcne 
end of life through a pleasant' path. She wa^ quite 

Jin I. art. vie par agreaUe 2 chemin m. 1. fut 

^«^when.hes„ ^ W^«fet«- adv^tages you 

^"^ ■^ '^^'^ !• avatvtage qv^ voiis 

iTJ' ^f ^ c"°* ""^^^^ ^ ^"'^ °^ ««^e««- (I will not have 

ai/ez m soyez pas art. siuxes m. > Tie v^mo: ^as 

her), however beaviifvl she may be. You must conquer your 

aeue johe qu'elle soit it faut vaincre 

i?« i.r,^/''"^ '^^"^^ '^®y ^''- (Let "8 know) your choice 

/»jncAa7ifem. soi^ faUes-myussaveir choLxm. 

whither it may be. That soup is very good. There is no truth 

^c^''P<^ f. /^ Ti'y a nul veriic f. 

m all that. It is in the n^^west fashion. It is a fine statue 

cans tout cela. a nouveau mode f. beau = f. 

He lives in a state of luxurious idleness. This wax is not 

It VU dans * * moti oisivete f. cire f. 

very white. She is as fresh as a rose. The paint on that 

* comme — f, peuUure t 

wainecot is not dry. F*s answer is a mere evasion. The 
UirnAmm. reponse f. franc defaitef. 

thing IS jntblic. That plant possesses & pernicu^us property. 
'^"^^^^' herbef. a moling gnalite f.l. 

She is of a benevoUiU disposition. This woman is jealmis and 

a * benm^ humeur I femme f. 'jaloux 

decei,fful. His temper is gentle. Thin colour is too red. 



'■ 









ilOU.o 



conltur i. 



prop rouz 



msmmm 



mmmmifi'^immmgmmm 



l^flpiP" " 



OF* THB AVJECilVa. 



8^ 



give 



Th..o "fd^s ^ .re g<^ for nojhing. tie r«, .We 



d rien U courail nu 
Give me a guinea and a half. 
Donnez-moi guinie f. ♦ 

The late princeaa was idolized, 
cesse ckeri 



hardes f. pi. ne 

legged in the streets 
les jamJ)es f, par 

Cut fudf a yard. 

Cov/pez en auiie f. 

Do not stand in the cold air (without vour hat). 
Ne restez pas art. tite f. nu d Pam ' 

OF THE FORMATION OP THE J>LURAL OP FRENCIf 

ADJECTIVES. *i^£.i^OM 

45. General Rule. The fonnation of the pluml in 
adjectives follows the same rules as those given for the plu- 
ral of substantives. All adjectives havir.g the feminine 
termination in e mute, or ending in e, z, u.c, d, g,f, n, I 
form their plural by the addition of an ., as : kmabYefaima' 
bles;doc7le, doales ; poll, polis ; gmlu, gml'm ; orr Y 
grands; long, longs. This rule applies to the partk^pies 
past, mme, mmes s regu, regus, etc. * 

EXCEPTIONS. 

1- Adjectives ending in -s, or -a?, do not change their 

-. Those ending in -aw, take x in the plural, as beau, 
oeatLx, nouveau, nouveaux. ' 

Those in ^al, change this termination into aux, as cgaL 
equal, e^aw^ ; ^ewer«/, generaux ; but most of these have 
iio plural maiscuhne, as amical, austral, boreal, canoniaL 
conjugal, diametral, fatal, filial, final, frugal, jovial, lus. 
tral, matinal, naval, pastoral, pectoral, special, venal, and 
some others. 

Canonical, clerical, conjectural, colossal, delay al, diaco- 
nal, ducal, electoral, equinoxial, final, fiscal, are «eldom 
used in the plural masculine j v^rherever they are, thev 
follow the general rule. j j j 

^mical, automnal, colossal, frugal, glacial, jovial, total, 
have no plural masculine. ./ ? j 

Pascal mdi\QB pascals, hut fatals ought to be avoided. 

4. Polysyllables ending in -nt, according to general prac- 
tice, may drop the t in the plural, as excellent, excellens - 
but the Academy keep the #, (see page 70). Monosyllables 
retain it, as lent, slow, lenis ; but the adjective tout, all, 
makes tous. 




,1 . . iijiiiiiiiiipiiiim 





84 



OP THE ADJKCTIVEl. 



£XERCISE. 

Those fow's are large ai>d 

jalouz jmdel m. pi. gros ' 

are frigktftd birds. (These are) 

des hi(teicz2 aiseoum.pl. I. Voild 

The two imo operas have succeeded. 
deux -rumveau — m. pi, o7it reussi 

„..v emial (in the) infirmities of nature. The 

art. , 2nel que 4 egal 3 par les = art. f. 

general officers are assembled. This fruit is excellent. 

— 2 officiers m. pi. 1. ble ces — m. pi. sont — 

His improvement is slmo, but solid. All his friends have 
Sts progrds, m. pi. sont lent sollde ses ami m. pi. 

been very glad to see him. Those ladies sire tired -with 

e'e bun aise de voir 2 le 1 ces dame f. pi. 



They are pvu^Ms and jealims. 

fat. Owla 

gras art. Hibou m. pi. 
beaiUiful iewels . 
d*! beau Ujou m. pi. 

Men are only 



walking. You have powerful enemies ; 
marcher Votes avez de puissant ennemi m. pi 
will be vain and useless. The four cardinal 

seront — inutile quaire 2 

east, Uveet, south, and 

orient, m. art. Occident m. art. midi m. 



las de 
but their efforts 
viais lenrs — m. pi. 

points are the 

poinA pi. I 

north, 
art, nord m. 



OP THE DEGREES OF SIGNIFICATION OF THE 

ADJECTIVE. 

46. Grammarians commonly reckon three degrees of com- 
parison ; X\\Q positive, the comparative, and the superlative. 

The positive is the adjective expressing the quality of an 
object, without any increase or diminution, as beau, belle. 

EXAMPLES. 

A child genV^, amiable, and docile, is beloved by every body. 
enfantm.doux aimable — aime dz tmtt le tnonde 

An ingenious candour, an anuu^le simplicity and a lively 

nu2 -t 1 _f. piquant 2 

artlessness are the charm of youth. The sight of an agreeable 
naivete f. I. charme m. art. je-^inessef. vuef. agreable 

landscape is a varied and rapid source of delightful sensations. 
vaijsagem. varie2 rapidi: Z—f.\ delicimx2 —f.pl.l. 

47. The comparative is so called, because it draws a 
comparison between two or many objects. When two 
things are compared, the one is either superior, inferior, or 
equal to the other ; hence three sorts of comparison, that of 
superiority; of inferiority, and equality. 

The comparative of superiority is formed by putting ;?/w5, 
mots, before the adjective, and than is rendered by gm. 



* ( 



#'-"^-44(%Hir' ",^s>»-Wp 



'Jjpf.^, 



large and 
gros 

hese are) 
Voild 

ucceeded. 
reussi 

ire. The 

J excellent. 

) have 
1. pi. 

tired with 
la$ de 

efforts 
J — m. pi. 

are the 



THE 

of com- 
erlaiive. 
ty of an 

belle. 



>ry body. 
i le monde 

jely 
unt 2 

agreeable 
agreable 

ensations. 
—f.pl.l. 

draws a 
lien two 
brior, or 
, that of 






%l 



i> 



A 



^0%,.t^^^'§^^^^r**-i 



y *.-' 



OP THE ADJECTIVE. 



EXAMPLES. 



*^ * ^ ,^ 



ha rose est plus belle que la vio- The rose is more beautiful than Ihe 
iette. violet. 

By, in comparison before a noun of number, is rendered 
by de. 

He is taMer by two inches. II est plus grand de deux pouces, 

EXERCISE. 

The republic of Athens was niore iUiislrious than that of 
repullique f. Athcnes a ete iUustre celle 

Lacedemon. Homer was perhaps a greater genius than Virgil; 
Lacedtvione HmiCre etait peut-elre grand genie m. Virgile 

but Virgil had a viore delicate and more refitted tasle than Homer. 
mais aeu Jin2 delicatSgoutm.l. hm, 

Miiton appears ^to me) more sublime than all the other epic 

paraitQ mel nutrc lepir/ue'S 

poets. The river iu deeper by four feet. 

poele m,pl. 2. riviere f. pofond 

Tiie comparative of inferiority is foitned by prefixing 
moin», less, to the adjective, and rendering also i/iati by que. 

EX AMPLEST 
Im videUe est moiois belle que la 'llie violet is less beautiful than 
rose the rose 

EXERCISE, 
Shipwreck and death arc less fatal than the pleasures which 
art. Naufrage m. ait. viort f. fmiestes plaisirs m. qui 

attack Virtue. The violet is less brillant to the eye than the 
altaquent art. f, f. brillant ye^cx 

lily, a true emblem of modesty and of prido 
lis m. * veritable 2 evible?nem. 1. art. =f. d^ &tt. orgueilm. 
Autumn is less varied than spring, but it is richer: 
«irt. Aidsmne f. varie titi.printemps m. elle riclic. 

In the comparative of equality the first as is rendered by 
nussi in aflirmative, and by 5/, in negative phrases ; the 
second as is rendered by ^wc. 

feXAMILES. 

Lift tulipe est aussi belle qiie la rose the tulip is as beautiful as the rose 
La tulipe n'est pas si belle que la the tulip is not so beautiful as tho 
ro^ rose 

EXERCISE. 
Pope's imai^es are as perfect as his style is harmonious, 

/)« P<?/>< 2 art, —f.pl.l. parfait son — m. = 

Delicacy of taste is a gift of nature as scarce aa 
Kti. Deticdtcssci. dixi. goiit m. donxa.dctX. — f. rare 



Tf 

rx 




X 



i 



i 



:s 



.S 



"N. 



X 



14 
h 






4 



I \ 










^ OP THE ADJECTIVir# 






true genius. The bve of our neighbour is <w 7t<:a-.sar« irt 
hrt. vraigentem. amour du * prochain = dans 

society for the happiness of life, as in christianiW for 
art. = pour dayiheurin. Art. vie f. art. nismem. 

etema! ■aIvatioi>. It ia as casij to do cood as tn <!« 

art. -r^l 2 5«^t*^ m. 1. ««/ ^ >.>, art. Em Z 

evil. Pari* is not so large a* London. James will not bo 
art.maZm. — m. grand Lmdres Jacques m sera pas 

so rich as his brother. 
ricAe son frere. 

Mdlleur, pire, moindre ane the comparatives of 6cn 
mauvais, petit, which are irregular in the formation of the 
degrees. Thus ; 



good 

bad 

sruall 



meiileur better 
pire worse 
moindre smaller 



le meiileur the best 
lepire the worst 
le moiTidre the smallest 






CO 

Q 



48. N.B. As most beginners are apt to confound these 
comparative ^adjectives with the comparative adverbs, 
MiEi^x, PIS, and moins, because they arc generally rendered 
by the same English words better, woi^se and less, it may 
be advisable to subjoin here these comparative adverbs with 
their positives, that the difference of meaning may serve as 
a distinction. 

Meiileur, better, is the comparative of bm, good 
and is used instead of plus ban, wtiich is never said. ' 
PiVe signifies ^Zw* mauvais, worse, or more wicked, 
and is used instead of this. 
. Moindre means ;?/w5 petit, less or smaller, andi- 
loused instead of these terms. 

. Mieux,» better, is the comparative of bien, well, 
and is used instead of plus bien, more well, which is 
said in neitlier language. 

Pis* is the comparative of mal, badly, and is used 
for plus mal, worse, which, however, may be used. 

Moins is the comparative of peu, little, and is used 
tor plus pen, which is never said. 

EXAMPLES. 
Ce fruit-la est bon, mais celui-ci That fi-uit is good, but this is 

est meiileur i,etter 

Sa condition est mauvaise, mais Hisco7iditionisbad,butit?iasbeen 

eiie a ete pire toor^p 



* There are son^e instances of pis and mieux used adiectively, but 
this IS not the place to mention them. •^' 



i 



OP THE ADJECTIVE. 



87 



Ma depenso 08t petite, mais la Mi, expense is small hiU yours is 

volro est moindre smaller 

II se conduit bien maia elle se He bduives wdi, but she behoves 

conduit encore imeux sliU better 

II se portait mal, mais U est pis He was badly, but he is worse than 

Que jamais ever 

Je parle peu, vous parlez encore I speak little, you speak stiU less 
inoins. 

EXERCISE. 

His reasoning is not belter than yours. Your style is n 
^>onratsonneme,Um. u voire Voire —m. de 

great doRl better than that of his brother. Thj thickness of this 
bcaiicmip cehd son epaisseur f. ce 

wall 18 less than that of the next wall. This column is Zess than 
mur m. ceUe voidn 2 1 Cette cohrme f. 

the other in height and thickness. The remedy is imse 

autre en Jmuteur f. en, grosseur f. remdde m. 

than the disease. Your horse is 'W07-se than mine. 
Trial m. dieval m. fe rnien. 

49. The adjective is in the superlative degree, when it 
expresses the quality in a high or in its highest state : hence 
there are tv^ro sorts of superlatives, the absolute and the 
7'elattve, 

50. The superlative absolute is formed by putting treSy 
fort, bten, very, before the adjective ; it is called absolute, 
because it does not express any comparison with, or rela- 
tion to, any other objects. 

EXAMPLE. 
Lonures est une trcs-bellc villc Lmidon is a very fine city 

Remark. The adverbs extremement, extremely, injini- 
ment, infinitely, are likewise marks of the superlative abso- 
lute. 

EXAMPLE. 
^^vaSt*™'"^ ^^^ extremement sa- That man is exlreAiely learned 
Dieu est infmimont heureux God is infinitely blessed 

EXERCISE. 

That landscape is very diversified, very extensive, and infinitely 

Cepaysagem. vane etendu 

agreeable on every side. The Alps mq very high B^nii very steep, 

agi cable ^ U,i^s parts f. pi. haut "^ esclrpe 

The style of Fenelon is very rich, and very harmonious, but it is 
— m. • ^ ^ 



I 




■fl|P«PPf|PJPJL_JJiyH«i.J*.JJ,iJ.Wl- « 



,,J!IJU-|»«|^|pi»Jl|lWlillJ- 




II 



'f f" 



88 



OF THE ADJECTIVE. 



Boirictimea prolix ; that of Bcsiuct is extremely suUitne, but it is 
ipislqurfou prolixe celui eleve 

sometimes harsh and unpolished. 
dur rude 

fSl. The superlative relative is formed by prefixing the 
article /g, /a, les, according to ihe gender of the noun, to the 
comparative, and is called relative because it expresses 
comparison with, or relation to, another subject. 

The article le, la, les is not used in the superlative degree 
wlien a possessive pronoun precedes the nown. 

EXAMPLES. 

LondrcB est h pJus belie des villcs London is the finest of cities 

Je prefcirc uao maiaon de cam- I prefer a coutnj hmise to the 

pagneau plus beau palaia fiiiest palace 

Cest nion plus grand ennemi lie is my greatest enemy 

Voici nos nicilleurs voisins TAcic are our best rmghbmrs. 

Plus an(| mains, vt'ith the ajtiole, are repeated before 
every adjective. 

EXERCISE. 

Ti'ie most beauUfnl comparison that there is perhaps in any 

beau comparaison f. qiie il y ait petU-etre dans Ofucun 
language is that which Pope has drawn from the Alps, in his Essay 
languor, celieqite Href, de Alpes, dans son essai 

on Criticism, The ?nost able men arc not always the most 
sur art. critique f. habile gens m. pi. tsujours 

virtuous. The most ancient mdmost general of all kinds of 
vertueux. f,-nne f. aii. cs^jccc f. pi. 

idolatry was the worship rendered to the sun. Tite least excu- 
— etail cultem. rendu soldi ni, — 

sable of aU errors is that which is wilful. I wilt show you 
art. — f. cellc qui volontaire. Jemonlrcrai'Uvous L 
my prettiest flowers. These are her richest gifts. I have not 
mis pli fleur f. prccieux don m. Je ai 

read his ifest woi'k. 
In S071 



ouvrage m. 



cojNcord of the adjective with the 
substantive, 

52. The adjective always agrees in gender and number 
with the substantive to which it relates. 



Le bon pere 
La bonne mere 
De beaux jardins 



The goodfaliicr 
The good mother 
F^ne gardens 



OP THE ADJECTIVE. 



8f^ 



but it is 



Sxing the 
un, to the 
expresses 

i^e degree 



cities 
use lo tJie 



VI y 
hours. 

3d beCore 



m any 

dans aucun 

his Essay 
nsson cssai 

ys the most 
rs 

tinds of 
7spcce f. pi. 

least excu- 



show yoii 
rai2vaus I 



have 

ai 



not 



\ number 



Bon is masculine singular, because pert is masculine, 
and in the singular j bonne i» feminine singular, because 
mere is feminine, and in the singular ; btaux is in the mascu- 
line plural, because jart/?>2« is masculine, and plural, etc. 

EXERCISE. 



These 
ses 

fruit, 
— U). pi. 

water 
distal ni. 

flowers. 
fieur f. pi. 

which is 

* 4> 



hill« 
cotcau m. pi. 

already rijK. 
dtija viiir 

through the 



nre covered with trees loaded, with 
couvrt de aibie m. pi. charge do 

A jntrc Htream rolls its limpid 
clair rmsscau m. roulc son limpide 2 

midst of meadows ainmclled with 



fly 



1 d milievj m. prairie f. pi. hnaillc de 

(Every thing) interests the heart in this abo<Jo 
tout intcresse cceur m. cc sejourm. 

full of charms. Fly, inconsUierate youth, 
attraiim. p\. t^uyez, 



from 

* 



plein 
the 



— dcre 2 



cncJuinting 
— teur 2 



of a 



jcunesse f. 1 

vain world ; its 
— 2 vionde m. 1 . ses 



arc 



sloio 



a SMto poison, 
le?it2 — m, 1. 



which (would destroy 
qui dctruirait 

goodness, and 

oirn m. 



allnrementii 
attrait 1 

pcrjidlous sweets 
— de 2 dmiceur f pi.l 

in your soul the noUe enthusiasm of 
dans dme — enthousiasmc m. art 

precioui seeds of sublime virtues. 
= ffermeia. art. — 2, verlu 1. 

53. When the adjective relates to two substartives Si: 
gular, of the same gender, it must be put in the plural, and 
agree with them in gender. 

EXAMPLE. 

Le roi et Ic berger sont Sgaux The king and the shepherd are 

apres la mort cqucd after death. 

Ma mcrfc et ma soeur sont vivos My mother and sister arc quick 



Uprightness 
art. droitiire f. 



even by tlie 

vicme de 

and 



EXERCISE. 

and " piety are much esteemed, 
art. piele i. tres-estime 

wicked. Man, in the most elevated rank, 

mecM7U pi. art. dans (k plus cleve) 2 art. rang ra. 1 

man in the most obscure situation are equally preciotis 
art. obscnr 2 art. ctat m. 1 egalement = 

in the eyes of God. Pi5pay and Confucius arc ver y celehatcd 
a, m. pi. celdbre 



among the nations 



of Asia. 



H 2 



' ^ IIIIIIILUPIinpMiPaMpi^ 



n I 



I 

I I 



(I 

HI 



1 1 
If 



!|:M 



90 



OF THK ADJECTIVE. 



54.. When the two substuntives, to which the ndjective 
relates, are o( diflerent genders, th« adiecUvf3 m to be nut 
in the masculine plural. * 

EXAMPLE. 

Mon p6rc et »na mbrc Bont con- My father aiul imthtr an con 
^^^ tented. 

EXERCISE. 

HiH probity and disintcrestwIneflB arc knawn (every wherd.) 
- f. son desinteressement m. con7iu partmit 

The lovo of life, and the feor of death arc 

crrwur m. art. vie f. crai7Uc f. art. wort f. 

natural to man. ignorance and self-love arc 

^'^^ ^^^- *rt' — f' art. amour-propre m. 

equally preswr.ptuovs. My sister and brother were very atien- 

prcsomptu^x. Ma f. man m. ont Hi = 

iivc to the instructions of their mdstors. 

^ — leur vialtre m. pi. 

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES OF NUMBER 
55. Numbers are divided into fivn classes, viz : cardinal, 
ordinal^ collective, distributive, and proportional. 



CAROINAL 
NUMBER. 



1 un, uno 

2 deux 

3 trois 

4 quatre 
[> cinq 

6 six 

7 sept 

8 huit 

ncu/ 

lOdix 

11 onz:; 

12 douze 

13 trcize 

14 quatorzs 

15 quinz? 

16 seize 

17 dix-sept 

18 dix-huit 

19 dix-neu/^ 



ORDINAL NUMBER. 



premier 

dexixiem^, second 
iroi^levic 
quatr/eme 
clnqwicwie 

sixieme 

3cptiewt« 
huiti'ewic 

TiQwviemc 

dixieine 

onzieme 

dovzienic 

treiziemc 

(I'latorzirDie 

qiunztcwte 

seiziewie 

;lix-8eptfc?«e 

dix-huit?ewie 

.iix-neui"/ewic 



first 

2d 

3rd 

4th 

5th 

6th 

7i,h 



NUMERICAL COLLECTIVJG 

NOUNa. 



unitg, unit 

couple, pair, c<niple 

trio 

deux couples, tioo couples 

{ demi-douzainc, haif a 
( dozen 



iota 
11th 
12th 
13t.h 
Mth 
15th 
16th 
17th 
18th 
19th 



8th huitaine, ivcck 

gjjj ^neuvaine, nine days of 

^ prayci- 

dizame, half a score 

douzaine, dozen 
quinzaine, fotlnight, etc. 



OF THf. ADJECTIVE. 



91 



! arc 

'Jrem. 




20 vingt 

21 vingt-ct- an 

22 vingt-dcux 

30 trcntc 

o. ( trentc-et- 

\ un, etc. 
40 quurantc 
^j i quarante- 

\ ct-un, etc 
50 cinquant<? 
, j^ 4 oinquante- 

\ et-un, etc 
60 8oixa.it'' 
g, i soixante-et- 

( un, etc 
70 Boixanto-tUx 
soixante- 
onzc 



\ingtidvie 
vingt-ot-uni^»»i« 
■ ingt-deuxUmi, etc. 

trent/c/w« 



71 



~^ 1 soixante- 
} douzc, etc 



trcntoumime 
((uarant.{c/7t« 

> quai'ante-ume7?ie 
cmquanto-rejne 

> cinquantc-unicwtc 
Mxantic7/ie 

jj; soixante-anicwc 
soirantc-dixi^?«c 

> soixante-onziCOTc 



^ fJOixante-Jou/iiiWiC 

80 quatre-vingts quatre-vingttcwic 

C quatrc- 
81 } vingt-un, 



jjojquatre- 
J vingt-dix 
i quatre- 

91 [ vingt- 
) onze, etc. 

100 cent 

101 cent-un, etc 
200 deux-ccnt."} 

§ > mille 

§ ) deux mil'.c, 
§ $ etc. 

- dix niillc 



5 quatre-vingt-un- 
\ icme 

? quatre-vingt-dix- 

} quatre-vingt-onz- 
$ ie7ne 

centicme 

. cent-un-z<!we, etc. 
dcux-centze7MC 

milhc77U! 



a 



^ [ millc fois 
g j tnille 



20th 

21st 

22nd 

3()th 

3l8t 

40l}> 
ifil 
50th 
51st 
GOth 

6l8t 

70th 

7lBl 

72d 
80th 

81 8t 

90th 

91si 

100th 
lOlst 
200th 

lOOOth 



/'UjMERIC. I. COLLEC- 
TIVE N0LN8. 

vingiaine, a scare 



5 trtntain©, a tcoremul a 



quarantaino, two score 



{ 



cinquantaine, Iwo score 

and a halj' 



soirantainc, three score 



— four score 



\ deux milliewe, etc. 

S 2000th 



dix-niilliemg 



10,000th 



i mi 



vaiWxon-icine. millionth 



1 ccntaine, mw hundred 

2 ccntaines, 2 hundred 
I millicr, 1 thousand 

> 2 milliers, 2 thousand 
i niyriade. 1 viyyiad 

I million 1 million, 



Un vxUliard or billion, a thousand millions, un trillion, etc. 



If 




m 



I- ii 



i i!f 



i 



I 



92 



OP THE PRONOUN- 



Cent takes an s when immediatelv before* thp nnnn '. 

Wt "'^" ' ■'"' ""' * '" *e plural : ^u. nille 
^l™ dates, mille is contracted into mih milhuit cent trente^ 
There are many otlier numerical expressions use.i in 

?.»<., octoe, elc. W:;l„1^'etc:"' ^'""""•' ?«»?-' 

butSi/Ts'nZ^ """'T ""'"°-^'"' <■<"• °"ethousandtt..%«, 
d^dTelght except in the sense of one h«„-' 

the quarter ; un cinguieme, a fifth, etc. ' ^ "^' 

as /.Z^r?r"f t,"^t^ J'^^ progressive increase of things- 

CHAPTER IV. 

OF THE PRONOUN. 

noun: '^^'''"""" '^ =• ^°"^ ^"''^"'"'ed i" the place of a 

There are several kinds of pronouns i« <?,« 7 

sessi.., relative, aUolute, delZtZLZtZgiTl""'- 

SECTION I. 

OP THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

Singular. 



Subject, jo 
fme 
I ms 

04/.?c/. ^^ moi 

' moi 



t de moi 



for a. moi I 
• r rnoi /;? «jjo 
. . d moi 7«e 
moi lo me 



of mi 



jo loue Dieu /praise 6?//^ 

Y Vive OieSSO /itf /«t/-/6- 7;ie 

/ «o»nez-moi ^^ve 7«f o/- to me 
I a«ti^z-moi At';/; ',nc 

11 paric (Ic moi he speaks of me 



OF THE PllONOUN. 



93 



Plural. 



nous ^ toe 

i nous for a nous to us 
Object. < nous . . nous us 
( de nous . . oftis 



nous louons Dieu we praise God 
il nous donne he gives us 
il nous blpsse Ae hurts us 

il parle dc nous he speaks of us 
They are both masculine and ^eminine ; that is, of the 
same gender as the person or persons they represent. 

59. In general, ytj and me are put before the verb ; moi, 
de mot, d moi after it, and ?ioiis before or after, as the case 
requires. 

EXERCISE. 

I cast ray eyes upon the objects which surrounded me, ond 
portal vue f, s. snr oljct cnvironmient me 

saw with pleasure that all was calm and tranquil. Do you not 
jevisavec que etait cabne tranquille * 3 1-4 

SCO in all the features of my ftither that he is satisfied with 
voi/cz2da7is trait m.^l que content dc 

me 1 We have told the truth. What were they sayinir of us ? 
riioi avonsdit ventet'. Que * on2 disaifl 

U we desire to bo happy, we must not deviate from the 

<bi desirons do ne dwoiis jms noxis ccartcr dc 

path of virtue. 
sentier ra. art. 

GO. PRONOUNS OF THE SECOND PEHSON. 



Sitbjcd. tu 
fte 
I to 

Object. ■{ toi 
toi 



I 



t/iou 
for a toi to thee 
. . toi thee 
. . a. toi to thee 
. . toi thee 



detoi.. — oftlice 



Singular.^ 

tu crains Dieu thoufearcst God 
il tc parlo he spcals to thee 

il te volt he sees thee 

donne-toi lapeine^/ve thvsdfthetrouhtQ 
habille-toi dress thyself 

nous parlons de toi we speak of thee 



Phiral 



Subject. 
Object. } 



vous ye, or you 

vous for a vous to you 
vous . . vous you 



de vous . 



ofyoi 



vous loucz Dieu you praise God 
il vous parlo 'he speaks l& you 
il vous respccte he respects imi 
il parle de vous he speaks of you 



In general, tu and te are put before the verb ; toi, de toi, 
a toi, are placed after ; vous is placed either before or af- 
ter, according as the case requires. 

ivEMARK. roliteness hatJ led to the use of tiie plural vous, 
instead of the singular tu : as, vous etes lien bon you are 
very good, for tu es Men bon. 



n 



1 J. 

I 



■;■ ,l! 



i i 



itti 

! f 



9i 



op THE PUONOUN. 



KXERCI6t£. 
T/iotc art greater than I ; and from ^Aee I have (at once) 

^W?^ -1 art. 'r^ -^ ,,,t^- ^ I (was teUino) you that 
, . . "^'" ^"'g<^sse t. disais te nue 

m. ccyjteart.^0M^n,. esj^n^n. ar^^g 

'"• !?"«»« 'montrerez-vous 2 1 r/e f nl 

IW a„.ab,e ,« „. ! How g^ , ,,,, .^„^^,^- ^^^ 

us ! (It was said) of you the other dav f h.f • 

O/i ^mii av^pS' ^' ^"^ intended to 

which that city presents, 
que 1 ce^/e 2 viOe 3 o/re 4 rfe 5. 

61. PRONOUNS OP THE THIRD PERSON. 

Singular, 
m he 



Su^.^l 



ollef. 

s/te 

^Imm. for aim to Mm 
lui/. .. aelle to her 



Olj. 



de (ui of him 
d'elle of her 






Jui m. 



Ic 7)1. 

la/. 



Ic 



him 



for lui 
. . elle 



'A^cclmwithhivi 
hivi 
her 



il perd son temps Jie loses his time 
\ ^"f travaille J she is alioam at 
i toujours 5 y^ork 

dites-lui que 1 uil him that I 

jeZwiparle- V xoUl speak to 

rai 1 /iiV?i 

dites-lui que i ^^Z Mr that 

vous^j«don- J 7/0% una give 
^ nerez i hffr 

Jlparledelui he speaks of him 
d parle d'elle he speaks of her 
Ije ne connais } . , , 
\ que lui de > ^ '^^^ ^^ ^"-''^ 
t capable ) capable 



elle/. cllo //^r 



je Ic meprise 
jc la respecte 



/ despise him 
I respect her 



Sud. 



II ne connait ) he knmo but 
, quelle 5 her 

venez avcc elle come with her 
I le m. for cela it \ Je »« ^ savais » / r/ir/ no/ /t?w?tf 

'i pas J it^ 

Plural. 

^% z^j chantent 5 ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

e (gentlemen) 

f^icy elks rient J ^'^J ^^^g^>' 

I (ladies) 



( ils m, 
t ellcs /■. 



OJ" Tttfi PRONOLN. 



96 



'leur m.for a eux to t/ieni 



Obj. 



leur f,/w a elles to iUm 



les m. fm' eux 
Ics/. /or elles 



eux Mi 



elles/. 



them 
them 
tlunii 

tJiem 



fpoyez-to/r ceCpay them «7M< 
< quevousZ^r^ y<«t ^we <<? 
C devcB / them,(tomen) 

dites-Zcwr que f^^ *>f™ ''^^ ^ 
je desire leur^ f^^ , ^^ ^P^alc 
parler | {^jj^^J.®"* (*« 

yojfc «n7Z /?u^ 
them (men) 



\ 



vous fes trou- 
verez 



11, lis, le, Ip.s niaBculine, 



il les admire 

< je ne vois 

( qxCeux 
allez sans eux 

5 il ne conn ait 

\ qn^elles 
partcz sans elles 

elle, elles, le, les 



he admires 

them (ladies) 
/ see but them 

(gentlemen) 
[0 without them 
he kvmos but 

them (ladies) 
go without them 

feminine are 



used in speaking of things as well as of persona ; but de lui, 

^io ' ^ir,"'^' ^^^^^^*5 '^^h I'^ur are not. See Y, em. No. 64 65 

62. TV hen the verb is interrogative, the pronoun, which is 

Its subject, IS alwavs put after it ; the interrogative do, used 

in l^nghsh, has no equivalent in French, and is consequently 

' Singular 

do'ia-je payer 1 
a.fi-tic dit 1 
chante-t-zZ bien ? 
travaille-t-eZ/e 1 



yubjed • 



Lclle 



fnous 

Su/^ecl} ?;«"« 
•' I us m, 

L'Ules/ 



/ 

thou 

lie 

site 



must 1 pay ? 
hast thou said? 
docs lie sing iccll ? 
dves she work ? 



• Plural. 

we I irons-?io7<s ? 
you I viendrez-ZJM/s ? 
t/iey I chantent-tZs ? 
they I travaillent-eZZc5? 



shall we go ? 
mil you came ? 
do tliey sing 7 
do tliey %o(yfk 7 



EXERCISE. 

He loved jAm becax.se th^j were gentle, attentive, and ffrateful 
^^^^tm.parceque doux = recomiaissmd 

He (was saying) (to them,) iio you not know that the nature of 
"''^^^^^ * 3 1-4 savez2,<fue proprem, 

merit is to excite envy 1 She often exhorted me to 
art. mertte m. de exater art. envie f. smivent 2 exhortait 1 
the study the most useful, that of the human heart. Tlieu make us 
elude f. utile ceUe 2 m. 1. font 

^nL^.. J"^]^*"' '"'^''^ ^y ^^ examples than by their words, 
atmennt. t. par leur exem.ple parole f. pi 

What has been said of t/iem 7 Did they speak of them. '> 

Q«..1..7.3.«./-2 * dit eux * 07i2parlait 1 "lie 



96 



fin 



OF THE PRONOUN. 





ill H 



-^ y"^"" joite Regard^z 

that magnificent buiMing, it unites gracefulness to b-eautv. 

ce vtagmUque batinient m. reunit art. grace f. art. C?Ff. 
Ignorance is vain, it sees difficulties in nothing. Do not iudffp 

art. f. vam nemitdx: ^ d run ne jugez pas 

from appearances, they are deceitful. Take one of these 

swa.ri.appareucesl tromp^iir Prenez ces 
roses, they smell so sweet, 
-f. serJicnt si don. i 

G3. REFLECTED AND RECFPROCAL PRONOUNS OP 
THE THIRD PERSON. 



1^ 



soi 



SOI 






ue 

so 

so 

so 
se 

80 



8i7igular. 
i with a prepo- i 

sUioji 
governed by 

the verb 

a soi, d lui- 

d dlc- 

meme 
soi, or hii- 

memc 
\ sol, or cUc- 

menie 



d elles-mtmcs 

Vnn d Vautre 

eux-mcmes 

dles-memes 
Van Vautre 



< chacun tire d soi 

i I'egoismefaitqu'on 
\ no voit que soi 

< il se dounc des 
\ louanges 

< elle se fait illusion 
> il se perd 



( les u 
" \ aut 



Examples. 
( eve7-y one draws to 
( himself 
^ selfishness viakes a 
< 2^">'^<^n- see twnd 
( but himself 
he gives himself 

praises 
' she imposes on her* 

s'«lf 

he ruins himself 

clle se flatto she flatters herself 

ils s'attribuent la i^'^fJ attribute to 
gloire, etc A themselves the 

glory of, etc. 
I they prescribe to 
themselves as 
rule tOf etc. 

Jhey exchange 
gifts 

they have dis* 
graced theni'^ 
settles 



cllcs 5^ proscrivent 
; pour regie de etc. 

^ ils s'entredonnent, 
I ou so font des ca- 
deaux 

ils se sont desho- 
nores 



{ elles se sont flattees \ ^^^^ ^^^ flattered 
C I themselves 

ils 5'entr'aident \ ^%' ^^P one an- 

, \ other 

US les Cles rats, dit-on, irats, U is said, 

autres \ s en.re-devorent \ cat one another 

Remark, Se is placed l^efore a verb, and soi nft-r a 
preposition. ' * '^ " 



pip THE PRONOUN. 



97 



OUNS OP 



EXERCISE 

In a tliousand instances, wc do not watch sufficiently over ourselves. 

* miite occasion i. on * veille 

The glory of the world (passes away) 

» I. monde m. s'tvanmiU en m. donne 

himsetf{tx great deal) of troub'e. She tires /lerself. People should 

doit 

We 

Oil 



assez sur soi 

in an instant. He gives 



se beaucmip ' peine f. lasse se On, 

(very seldom) speak of themselves. Virtue is amiable in itself. 

rarcmejit purler soi art. f. de soi 

roust take upon mtrselvef the care of our own affairs 
<loit inaidre sw soi sainm. sesproj^reofuiref.pl 

OF THE PERSONAL AND RELATIVE EN. 

64. This pronoun is personal when it means of him, of 
her, oftk^m, of it, of them, and may be called the genitive 
case orje, iioits, tu, vous, il, die. Us, elles. It is relative 
when It IS used in reference to an object or place antece- 
dently named, and signifies out of it, out of them, some of 
zt, some of them nndfrom that place, or thence. 

As a personal pronoun, it may be used in speaking of 
persons, although its chief use is about things ; but, as a^re- 
lative pronoun, its use is confined to things and places 



ENT 



for , 



de lui of Mm 
d'elle of her 



(( 



(< 



of it, m. 
ofUf. 
of them m. 

of them f, 

som^ 
of them 

so^ne 
of them 



EXAMPLES. 

!cet ^ homme vouss 
plait, vous cji par- 
Icz souvent 

^ je ne crois pas cettc 



fomme sincere, je 
m^e?i mefic 
Chsez son po^rae, et 

< dito3-moi cc que 
( vous en pensez 
C sa conduite est mau- 

< vaise, je m'«^?^ plain- 
( drai 

quant a ces evene- 
ments nous en par- 
Ions souvent 

que dites-vous de 
ces gravures, cfi 
etes-vous content 1 

ces fruits paraisscnt 
bons, yen. mange- 
raio voioiiliecs 

voila de belles oran- 
ges, voulez-vous 
m'^/i donner 1 

I 



Uat man pleases 
you, you speak of 
) him often 
il do not believe that 

> woman sincere, I 
J distrust her 

Srcad his poen, and 
tell vie what you. 
think of it. 
ihis conduct is bad; 
I will complain cf 
it. 
■ ) as for these events, 

> we often mentian 
} them 
) johat do you think of 

> these plat.cs, are you, 
) pleased roith them 7 
i thrse fruits look good, 
I 1 should like to mi. 
) some of them 
J Th'jsc are beautiful 

> orange'!-, unU you 
) givj me some ? 



98 



n. ■ 



! ! 



f! i 



■■■1 




j 



uufor •> 



decelbioftkat 
d'ici hence 
dela thence 



oir TH« PRONOUir. 



on no m'a pas trom- } ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ »»« 



! 



pfti 

pe, j'en buis s^r 

arriva a Paris, 
commej'enpartais 

vous allez a Paris et 
monsieur en vient 



posed 



I am 



upon, 
sure of it 

he arrived at Paris 
as I was setting off 

you are going to Pa- 
ris, this gentleman 
comes from thence 



OF THE PERSONAL AND RELATIVE PRONOUN Y. 

♦Mnl* "^^f.^^^^^y* a^a pronoun, is strictly confined to 
tiangs. It 18 employed in all those cases in which the ob- 
jective case IS marked by the preposition a. Speakina of 
persons, vve say : jepense a voire frere, je donne Tnes s'otns 
a voire frerej and, when not naming the person, we say : 
jepcnsealui, je lui donne mes serins; thus soeakin*. of 
things, we must say : je pense a voire affaire, je Tnne'^mes 
soins a voire affaire, and speaking relatively, fv pense. i'v 
donne mes soins, j^^ j j > y y 

Y is a(so used in reference to a place antecedently named~ 
and when here, there are understood in English. 

EXAMPLES, 
I c'est un honnete > he is an holiest man, 
\ homme, ficz-vous^/* 3 trust to him* 
^la poussiere gSterai^Ae dust will spoil 
^ ce tableau, si on n'y > this picture, if you 
met pas un verre 3 don't piit a glass to it 
81 yotre lettre est ) if yon have finished 
finie, mettez-y Ta- > yanr letter, pjit the 
aresse. ) direction to it 

,ce sont de belles i /Ac^g are fine pro- 
promesses, mais je > mi^es, but I do not 
ne m'y fie pas ) trust to them 

donnez-moi vos or-l^^^ ^'^ ^^^ 

mands, and 



'a lui <o him 
a elle to her 

" t0U,T(i. 

" toit,i. 
" to them, f. 
" to them m. 



T/or- 



" in them. 



a cda to it 



lei 



Kert 



com- 
I wiU 



< dres, et j'y obeirai I ^'''^''?' ,f'^«' ^, '^ 
[ ponctuellement j ^^^^^'^^^^ obey 

ces arguments sont"! ., 




these arguments are 
cogent, I see no re- 
ply to them, 



Ik there 



ces arguments 
pressants, Je 
vols point de 
, plique 

Jallons, n'en parlons i co7ne, say no more, 
plus, 11 ne faut plus > vfe must not think 
y penser ) about it any longer 

i nous partons de I we set off from, Lon- 

< Londres, quand > don, when ym come 

i c'est un endroit J it is a fne place, I 

< charmant, jecompte > intend to settle 
( m'y fixer ) there 

* tk M »nd ptiiissr jilowe *t3mit y, m s^jptking of pf,rs<m«. 



Of THl PRONOUH, 



9i 



ne mes soins 



Remark. Y and en are always put before the verb, 
except with the imperative affirmative second person. 

EXERCISE, 

They gpeak (a great deal) of it. You like French authors, 

On park beaucoup aimez art. fratigais 2 auteur 1 

you are always speaking of them. That is a delicate affair ; the 

♦ 2 partez 1 Ce delicat 2 = f. \. 

success of it is doubtful. Sec them ; I consent to it, but do 
succes m. dmUeux Voyez consens 2 1 ♦ 

"ot trust th£m. That is a fine appointment: 

Ce place f. 

to it. He has done it; but he 
1 a fait 



15 



vous 3 fiez 4 y 3 
long aspired 



he had 



depuis long-temps — rait 2 
will get nothing by it. 
gagnera 3 rien I y 2 



ne 1 



§ II. 

OF POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

66. These pronouns denote the possession of things. 
When we say, mo7i habit, my coat ; voire maison, your 
house ; son jardin, his, or her garden ; it, is the same, aa 
saying Vhabit qui est a moi, the coat which belongs to me ; 
la maison qui est a vous, the house which belongs to you ; 
lejardin qui est a lui,.ov a elle, the garden which belongs 
to him, or to her. 

67. These pronouns are of two sorts, the conjunctive, 
which are always joined to a noun, which they precede, 
mon livre, my bock ; and the relative, which are used in 
reference to a noun, as le mien, mine. 

By some, these pronouns have also been called adjecti- 
ves, because they agree in gender and number with the 
noun. Monfrere, my brother ; ma sceur, my sister. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS CONJUNCTIVE RELATING TO OlfB 

PERSON. 
Singular Plural * 



for the < 2nd 



1st person mon, m. 

2nd ton, m. 

3rd son, m. 



ma,/, 
ta /. 
sa /. 



mes, m.f. my 
tes, m.f. thy 
ses, m.f. his, her, its 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS CONJUNCTIVE RELATING TO 
MANY PERSONS. 

Singular Plural 

person notre. 



for the 



C Ist person 

\ 2nd 

i^rd 



. f: 
votre, m.f. 

l«ur» m.f. 



nos, m. f our 

V08, m. f. your 

leurs, m.J. tktvr 






. ■?. 






100 



Mon p6rc, ma mfiro et mes frdros 
aorit a la campaornc, avec vos 
amis ot leura enfants. 

Mon cousin est alle consoler sa 
Bceur, qui a perdu son fils.* 



o]f THB PHo^•ou^^ 

EXAMPLES, 



M>/ falhcT, mother, arul- brother 
are- in the conTUry, wUhyoMv 
friends and their children. 

My coiimi is ^qone to tnsit and 
cmsole his sister^ who has lost 
her ^m. 



EXHRCISE, 



foi' (every thing) 



Jfy principHmyWc, of „.irome„., „y ,»»,„ 

i« £0i^m,p«,r !,rt. retrmlet.' \,nmrm. 

induced mo to Brcfcr » hi-. ■ • . "^ '^ 

^* 3 1 %^^)|.^, » ,,, ^-fe, P-ed m .ha close. .0 .he 

act^e hfo of .ho wo.d. Po „„. .hi„„ ^.daug^t L .Ky 
candour, «, injonuouspeBs, «, ,a„c, so delioa,o Td so 



= f. 

refined, and 

censure, 
art. — f. 



mJZ ^^^ ^'''''•" '^."^ . «^^1^^^ thee from 
^' ; — ;wz5se«i5 mcttredVairi de 

His vvit, At5 talents, Aw honesty, and 



"'" '"■ tl^ir^ ?-^ ^™ ^^l-<^ by every body 



mcme bonhomie f ' f(^nt 
Our constancy a^d oiir eflbrts 



I SPC 



— f. 

obstacles, 
nrt.—jm'.pl. 

in yoitr conduct. 
dmis coyiduitc f. 

strous, and the 

stj'ueux, m. 



aivier de tout 'le monde 
will (at last) surmount all 
m. * enfin 2 surmenteront 1 
nothing that can (be censured) 
iriend quQon,puisse reprewlre 
Their X^Bic for the fantastical, the mon- 
l^mir M.zairc, m. vion- 

marvellous gives to all their compositions 
vicrvcillcux m. danne Lf 



vois 2 m 



_ * Observe that the nronnnn d^^« -n^f „^ :.i. .v _ 

hu. .0 the goder of/A-lMmol^r, ^ '' ""'"« P'"'' "" *" "^^'. 



OP THE PRONOUN. 



101 



-*-v 



although very fine in themselves, an air of deformity, which 
?"^*?'*<^ ^ elles-memes — m. difarviUt f. qui 

shocks at first sight, 
choqtix a art. coup-d'ail, m, 

69. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS RELATIVE, REFERRINO 

TO ONE PERSON. 



VI. Sing, 
tst Lc mien, 
2nd. Le tien, 
'ird. Lc sien, 



/. Sing. m. Plur. f. plur. 

la mienne, Les mip- , lea micnnes, mirie 

la tienne, Les tiens, les tiennes, thine 

la sienne, Les siens, les siennes, Aw, Aer, its 

POSSBSSIVB PRONOUNS RELATIVE, REPERRINQ TO SEVERAL 

PERSONS. 

/. Sing. PL of both Gen. 

la notre, | Les notres, oiirg 

la votre, j Les votres, yours 

la leur, ) Les leurs, theirs 

The use of these pronouns is to avoid the repetition of a 
noun antecedently named. 

EXAMPLE. 



m. Sing. 
1st. Le notre, 
'3'nd. Le votre, 
3rd. Lo leur, 



Avez-vous toujours votre cheval 1 
je n'ai plus le mien ; for je n'ai 
plus mon cheval. 

EXERCIiSE. 



Have you stiU your horse ? J /tave 
no longer mine. 



* 
... • 

It 18 

a 

If my 

Si 

it 



your 



Is it your temper or hers, that hinders you from living well 
ce humeur f. qui empiche 2 I de viwe 

together? If it be yours, it is easy for you to remedy it 
ensemble ce est il 2 aise 3 * 1 d'y porter reviede 

by mastering (your temper) ; if it be hers, redouble your 
en prenant sur vous-meme ; ce redoublez de 

kindness, attention, and good behaviour ; 
complaisance de de procede m. pi. 

very seldom that this method (proves unsuccessful). 

tres-rare ce moyen ne reussisse pas 

friends had served me with the same zeal as 

0vaient2 serviS 1 mime zelem. que 

is very certain that I (should have) succeeded : but yours have 
ires siir aurais reussi ont 

been all warmth, and mine all ice. All the pictures wliich we 
etc defeu de glace tableau m. que 

expected from Rome are arrived : there are some that are a 

altendiotis arrives ily en a qui 

little damaged ; but yours, his and mi7w arr in good 
peu endommages ^ 

condition. We know perfectly well what are your 

*^ " s&VQns parfaitemcnt * quels 

i2 



iff 



OF THE PHONOUfl, 



102 - 

amusementa 

0Wr5 in fK„ 



<* art. t?i^ f. 



and I 



assure 
— 2 



you we are verv 

* gtie sommes bien 



^^ "^^^ in the country it /• "^^^^tssez qu^U 

(would not be long) in ^2TJ J ^ ^^^^^ '^Pf^rc'l^u, ^'" 

uesKsrvps mine. wnfiance f. 2 
tr.irile 1. 



\ 



EXAMPLES. 



Q-ue vous ressemblr? nm, a tt 
auand vous ,„rez enlond,, S^™ 

j» ™so„,, „„„. ,.„„.ero„:t- »."^^st^t^,r'- "- 

§ III. 
70. OF DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 

are alLvB place3'b:f:^'^r„^°;^«' '*« ~">-Wt., "hich 
are used in reference tnVZ '. , '"* »•<'«««, which 
agree in genderTnTn^beT^rrtr^ ""'^'- «°*" 

CONJUNCTIVE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS, 
sinluiar *"' d^^o-trative :.l„ive prononne n^ in ,h„ 

Cenugc. before a consonant or M * asDimto 
^«fe fcm. m all cases 

^"-~=:x.\ii,uiiu Singular. 



Cc livre, this or tJuit book 
C.e heros, this or M^^ ^cro. 



Cet homme, this rr tJud man 
Cct enfant, /Az;s ^t child 



blr TH« PRONOUN. 



103 



tM$ or thai gift 
this or that soul 
this or that story 
that hatred 



ces hommes, these men 
WB enfants, those children 
ces hktoires, these stories. 



riEMININE 8INGULAII. 

cette filio 
ceite ame, 
cette histoire 
cette haine 

*rhe plural of ce, cd, cette, is ces. It is common lo both 
genders, and is used before vowels and consonanls. 

cea livres, tJiese or those booh 
de ces heros, of these or those he(o\ t 
a ces fiUea, to these or those girts 

Ci and Id are often added to the noun, either to point it 
out more distinctly or speak of it more emphatically. 

Get homme-la, that, man J Ces poires-ci sont bonnes, these 

I pears arc good. 

RELATIVE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS, 

^2% The relative demonstrative agree also in gender with 
the noun, and are 

jAASOULINE SINGULAR AND PLURAL. 



Celili-ci, this 
Ceux-ci, these 



Celui-la, that 
Ceux-la, those 



FEMININE SINGULAR AND PLURAL. 

Celle-ci, this Celle-la, that 
Cellea-ci, these Celles-Ia, those 

Celuiy celle, ceux, celleSy are used without «', Id, before 
a preposition and a relative pronoun. 

J'aimp mieux mon jardin que celui / like my garden better than 

do mon fr6re my brother's 

On ne peut les comparer a ceux TVtey are not to be r/mpared vfith 

que nous avons vus a Paris. thosi we saw at Paris. 

Je le donnerai a celui qui arrivera / will give it to him who comes 

le premier in first 

73. Ceci, this ; cela, that ; are, as it were, of the neuter 
gender, and are used to express this thing, that thing, when 
the object is not named 



Je n'aime pas ccla 
Ceci n'est pas pour vous 



/ do not like that 
This is not for you 



CE aUI, CE DONT, &c. FOR WHAT. 

74. Ce is much used in conjunction with the relative 
•pronoun. 



m 




d 



Of THE PRO.VOl/^. 



Ce qui we piait 
Codontjoparlo 

Coaquoijem'ippliquo 
Co que jo Jig 

^'<i ^ont jo dvpemh 



^^'ity) "'^' ^^' ^''^ ^'''S which 

;ng y, always expressed by two vvor.? ^ '""*> '^' «^^«'^- 
trative and a relative pronour '" ^'^"'•'' ^ ^^'»°«s. 

Ctj IS also much used in Frt^nrK « .u 
subject of ^/r., i„ descriptive sentenr^- )t "?"^^"«^«>e o 

C'est ,1,0 tabatidre ,, ■ *"=" " Persoii. 

C'cst un officicr general „ " " »(#-«o.r, 

Cc >on.de bona e„,ams, Tl^ZtZ^St 

See .S-ynto. i,^,^,,,, .^^ ^^^^^^_ 

EXERCISE, 
to 



or 
e 



Nothing 
»t<?3 rien 1 



IS so 



opposite 
oppose 



^«^ true eloquence, the offl,.^ 

a«J7 unsoHd ideas " ^i^'^^ f- ^^ 

^.^^e 2 5«;« ^«,,-,^,^, 4 ^^^/j. j ^"ch like 

beaten metal, acquire i, • m "^'"^ 

r^rt ot their solidity. This n. ^' 

* * art. ;^ f, 

with ^%^ he 3. 7%M ]on„ 

^asp. 1 long-tcmpsS 
and was the unhappy source 
•''** fnalheuretix f. 

'we^ti m. p\ a- " * ^'*®*' PJ^?«"»"« *o 

. * pUitstr m. * 

J>a.'» to us. The nJfi««,,.oc. ^c 



nolhingM.75^ of a dissipated 



MIC 



light, 

a leai of 
feuiUef. 

^y losing 

en pcrdant 

in cotnmon 

de commun 

hatred broke, 

/^A27ig f. 2. tr^ato 

dreadful events 

terrible cvene- 

II was 

>^ 

wine resemble 



»'^as iioti' I g 

restrained 
contenu 4 

of those 



me, 



a 



great 



in 



man. He that 



rcsseniblent 2-3 

suffers himself to (ha 

se laisse * 



w^'Vf,..-;^^^ -"siasi 



„^_i,_^ «_«^.,. «.™«._. 



OF THE PRONOUN. 



IQ5 



ruled) 
domiiicr 



by his 



{Muuions, 



OilUt 

doit 



Tiiis stufl' 
chffc-ci f. 

to take this, 
jnaiez 

cceno is 
-ci 

succeed. 
reussir 



(will «uit) you 
siira )i I 



'i'A^f^ 



action 
-Id 



renounce happina*. 
reiumcer d art. m. 

admii-ably. I de»iro you 
a riititc'ilk que 

i» Munitublc. Tki% 

^' -id dignt. de Udme 

calcuhxtoa to interest all men, but that cannot 
Jade jmir intcreascr art -id w saurait 

(Here arc) certainly two charming prospecta, this 
Vmtd certai7ieiHe/U bcaw perspective f. i\. 

has something (in it) more cheerful, but many pfople 
qiuUiue chose de * riaiit bim de ixi. pcisorLt. ^l 

thnik that more Btrikin<r and more nuijes- 

trouvent a qicdqtic chose dc imposant de - n^ 

tic. The body perishes, the bouI is immortal : yet all 

^^^^' T'irU a-pc%dant 

the cares are for that, while we neglecf this. What 

m. tandisque iiigtigccus t 

means this 1 That is true. It is not that. This is low and 
veut dire Ce bas 

mean, but that is grand and sublime. 
rampant 



OF THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

76. Relative pronouns are those which relate to a noun 
preceding, called the antecedent. In the phrase PAomtne 
gmjoue, the man who plays, qui relates to the eubstantive 
/lomme; Phomme is then the antecedent of the pronoun 
relative qui. 

Relative pronouns are used as follows according as they 
refer to persons and things : « 



qui, common j who 
to persons and '^ 
things which 



Dicu qui voit tout 

( les chevaux <j;ui 
\ courent 



God v'ho sees every 
thing 
the ho9-scr which are 



ntnnnig 



* Much attention must be paid to the distinction between persons 
ana things, as fhe use of som- -'"''- * - - 



use of Others is restricted to persons. 



! t.-SiVUIi3 iC 



iTuixmicii) (ixivi tXio 



lOi 



•F iHB PnONOUW, 



'of whom, 
or from 
whom 



^ ^t, said of 
persons only; of which. 
«<w, common^ or from 
to persons and I which 
things, d'oii 



whose 



I'horame c/<wi ordeU/ie man of «,A«« 
j;f*vousparIez \ you speak ^ ^ 

IcsHvroc / . > you speak 

lamaison ^'.xi rdeLlTr''^ 
?-imioii„T-i \^^\tl'£ ho^ise out of 

> JaQueJle) il est sorti ( which hecaZ ^ 
r le marchand dont le ? the mer^haT..!, 

a J«i, rm- of ( ,^ ,,,''''"=' '•=.?«"' } fatlicrheplacZ 

pemon, „„|y {.lo whom ' ™„^j^Xt *""" J * """"" ""^ 

oblige '""'l ^.''^■y<m are eb- 



?««^.« com- 
mon, but tape- I 
cially applied 
to things, ou J 

y^, common (whom 
to persons and \ 
things. I ^hich 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS WITH PREPOSITIONS. 



5«i referring to per- 
sons 



^ 



fpo«qui e,t cette let- y„ „,„ ;,«,., 

I t("1' f 

u ; , I 'Par?s"i ''"'"""^ ^ N^^ «"^^ do you. 

leqtu, laquelle, Ics^ r ce sont 1 ..„ i, V '^ ^«^^"^ ? 

be.^'' '"' ""' *»'' "- "^ "„«, gender, and b„,h „„„. 



«F THl PRONOUW. jQ.y 

Icqucl laquelle lesquels lesouelles ,/,*;.* 
auqucl a laquelle auxquels au^uellcs fowM^ 

JJZSr ^'^'^'^ ^^"" ^" ^^^"^- -^ "-bar with 

Quoi\f, always governed by a preposition. 

'/. VW2, relative, is common to npr«inna o«j *u- 
is of both genders aid numbers jl'vb which tu^^^ 
and adjective which refer to it, must be ofZ same mimhp^r 
and gender as the antecedent.. number 



Moi qid suis sonfils 

Monfrere qui est si bon 

V enfant guijmie 

Les enfants qui etudient 

Vous qui riez 

Les livres qui instruisejit 



EXAMPLES. 

I who am his son. 

My brother who is so kind. 

1 he child who plays. 
The children who study. 
You who laugh. 
The books which instruct. 



J , ""'^° "uiuuinsiruci. 

EXAMPLES. 



La tour dont nous apercevons les 
cr^neaux doit etre tres elevee 

Oe dont je vous ai parle I'autre 
jour n a pas reussi. 

C est une demarche de kquelle 
tout depend. 



The tower whose battkments we 
perceive must be very high. 

What I was speaking to you of 
the other day did not succeed. 

It IS a step on which every thing 
depends. 



.„S ^- ^"'' "^ '"'* ^""J^"^ ^n*! numbers, fto whom to 
wh,ch,) .s never used in reference to thing.', lltZu^ZCi 

though, better to^Si^ a Me. VL Z ^„^« J]"?.''.i- ^Jf*' 
lirecede that Dart of the »™SZr„tKu'^ '''""« 1'" exercises which 



log 



Of ttia 



t'RONOUjf 

which 



agree in gender and 



taqueile, duxguels, auxqmlh.'i 
humber with the anteceUenti 

y \ 

feXAMPLESi 

Sonl-cc la \l chosen auxquell., irf i^rS ' M • 
vouspensez7 ^ Aie m^e the things you think 



I whd 



EXERCISE* 



did 

* 



not 



suspect (so much) falsehood; cunninff 
ana ^pcrad). m a man whom , 1. loved Mindly, Vollowed 

ins counsel.. Thou, wlu> art ^TT' "''''f'''''''' ^' ''''''' 
comeit m. ' ^if candour and innocence itself, 

trust not too lUtly Th. . ^''' ^ ^' ^''^^^<^ 

notori„„,.„^i„„. Wo.;. know „,e ..,C of £ 

ou^ht to make a good use (orn^J. T'c 

nous devom ■ * ^ ^„«7- ^ "-^^ instead of wasting 

it in idleness and f^^t"' ^ ^ ^ '"'^ ^^ 

daughter, ../. (would wish) that I (should love) you less ^ The 
voudnez que aimmse ^ ^ ' ^^"^ 

.-rcatest men, wko were tlic ornament rnd crlorv of Cr... 

'^'^''''^ ^''^^'»^^^^i art ~7 art r.t. / 

//.;;.e/4, -11^,%^'' pl^^^/, ^^i'"^ Ly^urgus and Solon, went 

to learn %visdom in E.Ynr\, thif'thn "7 ""T"''^ 

* apmndrc artsagcsse f .,, ^7^^;); J^ f;^^ "^° »^^» ^^^^^^ house 
was burnt down last w,^o\' t i 

a ate brulce * fin .emahcf 1 ^'"^''^^ ^^" ^^''^ °^ ^^^^^^^ 

you (are sijcakmcr). It ig „ nv^.'or.f ♦ u- t. i 

mrle- P "^Jf' ^'^ '^h^^h *^e has devoted 

much time Whn ia ♦!,„ i i i '^ consacre 

lien du ^ '' ^^' ^'^y '^ ^^^^'>™ y«« (paiJ. a visit) this 

ninrninn- 1 n^, • i , . avez fait visite ce 

.ablo on which ho (w^s writing). '"'"^"'•'" 

"• ecrivaib. 



a 



bU. (-^we is friso common to persons and 
l)oth genders and numbers. 



things, and is of 



^!^^TS^?^m-f «!WgsWS»*v.» 



■J" ■? M,'?i^M>^55 ^ 



■ -^vif.' r'-^-'rarg^m:^ 






or THE PRONOUN. 



109 



in gender and 



e))ient, je sidvis 



■ou less ? The 



books of which 



ig3, and is of 



EXAMPLES. 

c'est moi que Ton demande it is I whom t/iey axk far 

c^est toi que I'on appellc •. • .> , .. 

la femme quo je vois si bien paree 



c'est nous que vous oflfensez 
c'est vous que je cherche 
les dames quo vous voyez 



it is thou whovi they call 

the woman whom I see so well 

dressed 
it is we whom you offend 
it is you I am seeking 
the ladies whom you see 



EXERCISE. 



/ whom temptation surrounded on every side fell 

at, seduction f. environnait de tout part f. pi. je tomhai 

into the snare. It is you whom the public voice calls to that 

dans piegem. Ce 2 f. 1. appeUe 

office. A power which terror and force have founded. 

place f. puissance f. art. = f. art.— f. fonde f! 

cannot be of long duration. It is we whom they persecute with 

mpeut chcreef. v^n poursuU avec 

unexampled rage. You wkm every body respects, 

uv^sansexcmpk^ ftcreur f. 1 tout le monde r^pecUi 

hasten to (show yourself). (Every thing) in the universe 

hatez-voxcs ^ paraUre Tmt ^dans unvveTsm. 

alters and perishes; but the vnritings which genius has 

saltere pent ecW/ m ni o,.* „'^.•- 

,. ^ ^ - , ,f, . cCTicm. pj. art. ^emem. 

dictated, shall be immortal. 
dicte m. pi. seront tel 

81. p'ou 13 very often used for duguel, de laguelle.des- 
quels, desquelles ; and on for auquel, d laquelle, ^uxquehs 
auxquelles, ^ 

EXAMPLES. 
Voila le but, ou (auquel) il tend That is the object h^ has in view 
Ce sont des affaires, ou (aux- Those are affairs loith whirh I am 

quelle?; je suis embarrasse perplexed 

Voila une chose d'ou (de laquelle) 2^hat is an affair m which the 

depend le bonheur public. j^lic happiness depends 

lels St xt les heux par ou (par These are the places through which 

lesquels) il a passe he passed. 

82. Lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles, are generall/ 
used atter prepositions, and also in the sense oi which, when 
It IS necessary to distinguish between objects of the same 
nj^ure. 

EXAMPLES. 
Sont-celales personnes avec les- Are those the people with wham he 
_ queues il passe son temps % spends his tim^. 

Ue sont ae CCS moments dans les- These are tlve mome>Usin which a 
quels on oubhe tous ses, cha- man forgets aU his sorrows 

K 



^S^!^^^^^ 



110 



OP THE PRONOUN. 



mais je It is^ of these ladies, builds 
fMt kTum which 



C'est une de ces dames, 
ne saui laquelle 

generany „.d to exp.. X^t^J Z.^'^^^^ '^ 

tiJ^iio ~. • . EXAMPLE. 

».tejmo.e„ ,„o. je p„ta v„„, „„ j,,« ^ ,„ „^ ^^^ /«,»&„/ 

TJ,« X . EXERCISE. 

The protec^on ^o^ .h^, ^e ^ied^has been too weak. 

That ^af^r ..^ ^ tn.. phi^^p^er sighs most ard^^^ 

« to spreaa that sentimrt J^ ' T^'"'^'^- <^rdentmJt 
de r^pandre «™e"t of umversa^ benevolence which 

should unite and (bring together^ «li ^'oeiM'n^ti 

ditions without lohirh th. ♦»,• / , , ^^ ^'^ ^ art. 

^nou ,.M the thing (would not have been) concluded 

Nature, of ^^se secL ''Z^'T''' f^^^' ' 

'^rt. ~f- * 1 art.lmnl4T ^^'^ .'Snoxmt) (will 

always be) a source of coniecLe t '^T^ ^ *^* 

tmyrnri, — f 3 T!j^'^® ^"^ mankind. What does 

scyfaiMi ameremiM' ^ niomento, 2» wAie* u, 

""^ »tr«r"^ '"art.'"'"""' "^ *»" -«ch he devofe. 

to atadv Tho, ^ * • . ^^^^ consacrer 

art. ^- ^^' "^S^'""* /'^'^ "'Aen.. gold (is 

Wtrw^''), are not in general barren Tb« ^r^!'*''"*^ 

<irg 2 * en ^ ^ iS^ nl ^'^^'®*'' countries 

throngh ^.ki.k J.e has passed^ haie furnished hTs peS'wi'J; 

picturesque scenes. 
pittoresqueS — i 



romantic and 
art. — iigiie 3 



84. 



OF THE PRONOUN ABSOLTTTP nrrr fn^r^ ^ 

PRONOUNS USED IN aUE^'n6NS^ ^^^^^^ 
Who and whom are rendered by gui, in questions. * 



C^ui vous a dit cela 1 
feavej}-vou8 qui I'a dit ] 



EXAMPLES, 

W7io told you that ? 

Whom do you wish to invite 7 



tJo 1J0U know who said 



so? 



ladies, but I da 



OP THE PRONOUN. 

What (or what thing) is rendered by que. 

EXAMPLES. 



Ill 



Que vouIez*vou8 dire 1 
Clue fait-il en haul 7 



What do you mean ? 
What is lie doing up stairs ? 



Quol mu3t be used after prepositions, and also with 
adjectives. 

EXAMPLES. 



A quo! pensez-voas 1 
Cluoi de plus beau % 



What are you Ddnking of? 
What can be finer ? 



EXAMPLES. 



Q.uer habit mettrez-vous 1 

On ne sait quelle loute il a pris 

QrUel homme est-ce 1 



What coat shall you put on ? 
No one knows which road he has 

taken. 
What sort of a man is he? 



What and 7Mch used rf,lativ«ly, are rendered by UqueL 
laguelle, lesqueis, lesguelks, "^ ^cywct, 

EXAMPLES. 

^fisT"" ^^^^ ' ''*^"'' "'""'""■ '^^' «^^ ^'^^ «'«'*» ^^^ ^tt 

Avec laa uelle de ces dames voulez- WUh ^hiStlf tho^ ladies do 
vousdan«er1 you wish to dance ? 

EXERCISE.. 

Who (will not agree) that life has few and real pleaaures and- 

we cmviendra pas art. f. peu de vrai plaisir, m. 

many dreadful pains 1 ("Some one'i entered 

beav^p de affreux^ &e f. pi. 1. ^^^ ^ e^lT 

,.JJ!r^*'^; J"^^^^ '"^ ^^'^^- ^*^^ have you read in that boolC 

secretement '. demnez * * h, ^ 

that can have excited in your soul emotion and enthu- 
qwi putsse avoir porte art. - f. art. enthow 

siasm 1 I know not what to think" (of it). About what did yon 
sias.,^m. nesais penser2 enl d avez-vous 

find them occupied 1 (There is) in that discourse I know 
trouves occupe m.^l II y a di^ursm. sais2 

not what which appears to me designing. What have you 
^ 1 sembler * insidieux 

remarked good, beautiful and sublime in Homer f What 

more brilliant, and, at the same time, more false, than the 
pr. onuant en * meme pr. 




i V 



i 



that extraordinary man, to whom seven 
= 2 — 1 



Ho 



OV THE PRONOUN. 

expressions of a man, who has (a great deal) of wit- but 

. ■■ beaxumip esi>rii «./,• 

then must have been -' ^ 

done 2 doit 2 avoir etc 

°""^*r .<»« "Swf ""' ^'7 °^ """"'^ «,"■''" Wrth 7 
(does not k„„„Twha. m^W ,„ f„;„r /T ' fir' "■ 

Onoose wAicA of those two nlofn-^w. 

* » ^fea,^ m. 7 1 a^wf^ 2 art. micux 3 

§ VI. 

OP INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 

85. indefinite pt'onounst are those whw,f. K« 

and indefinite signification, and which CereTeren^^^T 
persons and things in general, without parltcularizLT 
They are of four sorts. ■ ""-^"'g- 

FIRST CLASS. 

86. Those that are never joined to,a. substantive. 



ON* 



1 



one 
a man 

a woman 

somebody 
people 
they 
we 



on aime a se flatter / °"® ^^^P^ tojlatt&r ones 

J on. n'est pas toujours (" ^^^^* canTiot always 
I maitre de sol \ command his ovm 

r , ^ L temper 

I oil n est pas toujours f 

•< maitresse d'aller ou*^ ^'^oman cannot aiwan/s 
l Von veut |^ S^ where she 2)leas'es 

on frappe a la porte \ somebody knocks at the 
c . I d^or 

l^VuXuf'^^'^^PXf-^'-^-y 

\ mentcettehistoire { differently ^ 

] '""ono^T"^ J'-'^'P""- 5 ^« ^<^<l^ireexperienceat 
( enceasesdepens J our «?(m (?.x^7Me 



;aS;it Uf XlrtTnr.^^^^^^^^^ -^i«^ in old French 



-^uSairnattr S 



Oy THE PRONOUN. 



m 



you 



ON* 



they 



(one 

quelqu'un -l somebody 
{^some o3ie 



<w trouve partout des ( you wUl find trmiUe- 

importuns \ some people every where 

on previentqu'on n'a 1 1 beg to observe, thai I 

point eu I'intention-^ had rut intention to, 

tie, etc. (^ etc. 

I quandowvouBditquet i when I teU you that I 

Von compte sur vous \ depend ujijn you 
si i Vmi vous blame et [ v/they blame you and 

si t on lo Icue, on a«( praise him, they aa-e 

tort (^ wrong. 



quiconque 
chacun 



autrai 



person ne 



nen 



J whoever 
I whosoever 



^each 



( every one 

< other people 
I others 



nobody 

I no one 

'nothing 
not anything 
any thing 



• quelqu'un m'a dit, somebody told me. 

qui connait les hommes, apprend a 
s'en defier, whoever knows mankind, 
learns to distrust them. 
chacun a'cn piaint, every on£ com- 
plains of hinu 
n'enviez pas le bien d'autrui, do not 
covet theproperrly of others. 
ne faites pas a autrui ce que vous ne 
voudriez pas que I'on vous fit, do 
not do to others what yo%L would not 
have done to you 
( \ la fierte m; convient a personne,jpnrffi 
J becomes nobody 
fiien ne lui plait, nothing pleases him. 






y a-t il rien qui puisse lui plaire 1 
is theie any thhig that can please 
him 7 



some 



un 



SECOND CLASS. 

87, Those which are always joined to a substanlive. 

si cela etait vrai, quelque historien en 
aurait parle, i/ Mai were true, some 
historian would have mentioned it 

a chaque jour suffit sa peine, ^/jj^dcn^ 
/w- the d<iy is the evil thereof 

il n'y a raison quelconque qui puisse 
I'v ol)li^r, no reason whatever can 
oblige him to it 

certain homme, a certain man 

certaines nouvellcs, s(mie news 



quelque 
chaque 



each, every 



quelconque \^'^^^^ 
^ ( whatever 



certain 



I certain 
I some 



a, an 



J j'ai vu un homme, I saw a man 
\ prenez une orange, take an orange 



t Instead of et on, on, on, si on, it is better for euphonv. to part these 
words with an V, thus • et ?/>« m, 7'^ •■ » «- "rV "- » ^ pan inese 



». j'«». I V.I. _. j: . . 

^: virrij wliCIi liiC Hcal vVOIti tJUVS 



bitu^s qu on cmtrade, ceap'es guoi on court, qumqu'mi croie, un homme 
, §twt I on cmrt, bxen qm I'on croie, un lurmme a (jui I'on repo^he. 





m^ 



OF THE PRONOUN. 
THIRD CLASS. 



88. Tho«3 which ai-c sometimes used in conjunction wifK 
a substantive, and sometimes relatively. '''^"J""''^'^" ^^'^h 



nul 



pas un 



aucun 



autre 



no, one 



no, iiM one 



no, nane 



older 



mdmo ' same 



tel 



\ like 



plusieurs S^'^veral 
I many 



tout 



fall 
every 
every thing 



nullcraisonnepeut Ic convaincre. no 
reason can convince him 

nul d'euxnej'a rencontre, 7wt one of 
them has vnet him ^ 

il n'y a paa une erreur danscet ouvrage 
there is rwt one envr in that work ' 

pas un ne le dit, 7u>t me says so 

je ne connais aucun de vosjiffea / 
fcnov} none of yawr J-udges "' ^ ' 

fservez-vous d'une autre expression 
J , rnake.^e of amtfie^- expression ' 

. je vous prenais pour un autre, / took 
L you for another 

c'e«t le m^nie homme que je vis hior 
hets the same man I saw yesterday ' 

cet homme n est plus le mdme, that 
man is ?m Imiger the same. 

il tint a peu prds un tel discours he 
'niadenearlystucha discowsc 

any thing hke it 
il est arrive plusieurs vaisseaiix, several 

vessels have arrived. 
ilnefaut pas que plusieurs i.4tissent 

pourunBeuI, 7nany must not suffer 
/or one •" 

tous les 6tres cre^s, all created heintrs 
tout disparait devant Dicu, cverytling 
vaiiishes before God * 



FOURTH CLASS, 



89. Of those followed by que. 



qui que 



quoi que 



whoever 



whatever 



quelque J whatever 
\ hoioever 



I 



vpI quo 



such as 



qui que tu sois, wlioever tliou mayest be 
qui que cc soit, whoeve)' it may be 
q-oi que cc soit, whatever it may be 
quoi que vous disiez, whatever ym may 

quel que s ait cet homme, whoever that 
man may be 

quel que Sf/it votre courage. '>i^hjrt^'»- 

yov,r cou) age may be 

cette etoffe est telle que vous la voulez. 

this stuff IS such as you wish far 



OF THE VERB. 



115 



•junclion with 



quelque — i v^halevcr 
que \ hmoever 

tout — quo hoiccver 



r quelque raiaon que voub iSonnkz^'VkaU 

\ ever nascii you may give 

I quelque puissant qu'ovous soyez, hov:- 

\_ ever powerful yau may be 

{ tout savant qull est, however karncd 

\ he may be 



CHAPTER V. 



fi. ti'h/yf.tyi^m' 



OF THE VERB. 

90. The Verb is a word, the chief use of which is to ex- 
press action, feeling, existence ; it has persons, moods, and 
tenses. •■■ ",i!!f<^ ■'! i m 

In the phrase la vertu est aimabh, virtue is amiable, it is 
affirmed that the quality aimable belongs to la vertu ; likewise 
in this sentence, le vice n'' est pas aimable^ vice is not ami- 
able, it is affirmed that the quality aimable does not belong 
to le vice; the word est expresses this aflirmation. 

That concerning which we affiim or deny a thing is called 
the subject, and what is affirmed or denied is called its aiiri- 
bute. In the two preceding sentences, vertu and vice are 
subjects of the verb est, and aimable is the attribute affirmed 
respecting the one, and denied with respect to the other. 

91. There are in verbs two iiiimbers, the singular and 
phiral, and, in each number, three persons. 

I. The first person is that who spealcs ; it is designated 
by ^e, I, in the singular, and by nous, we, in the plural : as, 
jepense, I think ; nous pensons, we think. 

II. The second is the person spoken to, expressed by tv, 
thou, in the singular, and by voiis, you, in the plural : as, 
tupenses, thou thinkest ; vous pensez, you think. 

ni. The third is the person spoken of, known by il, he, 
or elle, she, in the singular, and by ils or elles, they, in the 
plural : as, il or elle pense, he en- she thinks j ils or elles 
pensent, they think. 

All substantives, either common or proper, are of the 
third person, when not addressed or spoken to : les Hans 
rugissmt, lions roars j ces arbres sont beaux, these trees 
are beautiful ; les soldats se battent, soldiers are fighting. 

.jt TT-,-jii lu i5.ii-_-rrii 15-- u\s £i cc.- c/, -.Tiidi Jt aumiuS 

the personal pronouns : thus, jinir, to finish, is a verb, 
because we can B2iy, j'e finis, tu finis, il, or elle finit, etc. 
^2. There Brefive moods, or modes of conjugating verbs. 



a.---. «^ 



116 



OF THE VKRB, 



R I' 



I I: 



/<»m.ra„, „• etc. I should l„ve, if! ftc. "*"""' "' 

requestlt rCmvi;!"^'' '■°' """""'"•Jine, exhorti.,, 
let U8 love. '^P'°^'"S ■ »«. «"»«, love (thou).; a«W; 

it « nece^ary .hat itfct.S^^o" ''•^""' "" "-^-^o^ 

latter fUs ai"^ivra;re-e„?7reirmZ^ 1%- 
^\ExampUs on the Difficulties. "" ^"""'"^''- See No. 

J»tL:^ Li 'i;tl:r '^^ ''''*''^' ^--^ »-'-. 

pereon,or yacW cAo^l Bom« .^fJ ?««{?»'»«. some 
love God ; liSl'etJe%TZ sfudv' ' TheT'' f ^'k*" 
aetjon ,e called the re^>nenrTX2:::'X:^ 

i>«« :s then the regimen of the verb/«re ' ■^'"' '^"''• 

.he sub^cf ;7heTa; c^oEteS^h "^ *^''''". '^ ™«"«^«'J "^^ 
6<«. and th'. ;»i„*!?„''!."L"«^i*^ ''y °'.««'^« of the auxiliai4 

aimi, I amloQ''''ThnrU"^'i.'°^ ""J"* ™'*'*' '« > ^'i* 

.0 p4lve 1„ tht s^^X tZ^ ^^Jr^ ^ 



OF THE V£RB. 



117 



loves me ; le milan a enleve h serin, the kite has carried 
off the canary bird, they must be turnv J in this w&y,je suis 
aimc de mon pere, I am loved by my father ; le serin a 
ete enleve par le milan, the canary bird has been carried 
off by the kite. 

96. The verb neuter, or intran6:Hve, is that which has 
no direc regimen, that is, after which you cannot put a 
substantive, without a proposition. Mler to go, is a neuter, 
verb, because one cannot say, aller Lond.es, to go Lon- 
don, but aller a Londres, to go to London, riaire, to please, 
is likewise a verb neuter, as \> ^ cannot say in French, 
plaire quelqu\m, to please somebody, hwiplaire a quelqu^un. 

The pronominal verbs are those in which each person is 
conjugated through all the tenses, with two pronouns. 
'je me, I myself 
J tu tc. thou thyself 
il se, he himself 



as 



nous nous we ourselves 

vousvous\^''''y''''^^f^*'^ 
i yo yourselves 

> they themselves 



cues 5-? 



^elle se, she herself 

There are four sorts o( pronominal verbs : — 

The rejlecHve, when the action of the verb falls 



97. 



upon the subject, as^e meflatte, I flatter myself; il se loue, 
he praises himself. Almost all active verbs are susceptible 
of being reflective. 

II. The pronominal verb neuter, which indicates only a 
state, a disposition of the subject as, se repeniir, to repent ; 
se desister^ to desist ; s^enfuir, to run away. 

III. The reciprocal verb expresses a reciprocity of act-ion 
between two or more subjects, and consequently has no 
singular; such are, s'entr' aider, to help one another ; s'cwfrc- 
donner, to give each other. 

IV. The pronominal verb impersonal, is only ^ised in the 
third person singular. Active verbs frequently assume this 
form in a passive sense, for the sake of brevity and energy ; 
as, il se bdtit, there is building ; il se faisait, there was 
doing, ; il se conclut, there was concluded ; il s^est dit, it 
has been said ; il se donnera une erande bataille. a great 
battle will be fought. 

98. The impersonal verb is only used in the third person 

snow, is an impersonal verb, as it cannot be applied to any 
person, or thing, • il neige^ it snows, il neigeait, it did snow. 



lis 



09 THB VERB. 



tenses; .„d d^ecive ve.4r.J^Th,^ whth'^r." ."""* 
tenses, or persons, are not used. ' '" '""^'' 

OP CONJUGATIONS 



Si 



FIRST- 
SEOND 

^FOURTH 




"L . • ^"''■' *''*'^'''' P«°»^ *«"»'•, etc. 
^^ a8,.recev<;tr, apercev^r, devwV. etc. 
-re OS, rendre, veadre, mordre, battre, etc. 



100. The Fiench, like most modern nations r,/v# Ko. • 

fhirlV^ """"^".' ^ "■''■'='' 'he action talr^s plj^ Sv 
"S."* '""' -»«-y verbs, avoi/::^',^^ 

m}wi^^^ """f '"^ ^'"' ■"'hich are the only verbs rene 

e^»raK>rs:t.^ft.;S^^ 

are insufficient to do. ThesP four ,1 1 » P*® *®"®®^ 

Examples Q.V DtPFicuLTiEs.) ^"'^ ''**' *^^- ^^^ <>/ ^'i* 
Those tenses> which are formed frnm ih^ i^a •^- 



or THB V£RB. 



*8 tl Vint un 
ne Vint, a man 



119 



lOJ. CONJUGATION. 

OP TMI 

VERB AVOIB, TO HAVE. 



INFINITIVE. 



avoir 



SIMPLE TENSES. 
PRESENT. 

to have 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



PRESENT. 

*yan' having 

PAST. 

eu, TO. eue,/. had 



avoir eu 
PARTICPLES. 

ayant cu 
INDICATIVE. 



PAST. 

to have had 



PAST. 

having had 



PRESENT. 



j'ai 

tu as 

II, or elle a 

nous avong 

V0U8 uvez 

ila, or elles ont 



I have 
thou hast 
he or she has ' 
we have 
you have 
they have 



IMPERFECT. 



j^avais 
tu avals 
U avait 
nous aviions 
vous aviez 
jils avaient 



I had 
thmt hadst 
he h/id 
we had 
yo%Lhad 
theyJiad 



or was 
having 



PRETERIT INDEFINITE, OT COfH- 

povmd of the present. 
jaieu I have 

tu as eu thou hast 

ilaeu hehas i , 

nous avons eu we have '"'**** 
vous avez eu you htive 
f ils ont eu lluy have ^ 

PLUPERFECT, OT compound of 
the imperfect. 
j'avaiseu J had 

tu avals eu thou hadst 
il avait eu he had 
nous avions eu we had. 
vous avie? eu you had 
ils avaient eu they had J 



had 



EXERCISE. 

102. In the Jbllowing exercises, the substantive being 
^n ifiiipaxLiuve Bciiae, it will be necessary to use the 

partitive du, de, P, de la, dee, according to the gender and 

number. See Rule the 39th. 






I 



l-i-^JM^ 



120 



or THE VERB. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



hi 




i»RET£RIT DEFINITE. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



j'eus 
tu eus 
il eut 

nous eumes 
yous e<ltes 
ils eurent 



I had 
thou hadso 
he had 
u had 
you had 
they had 



FUTURE ABSOLUTE. 

j'aurai / shall or to ill have 

tu auras tiioit. shall or wW, 

have. 
il fiura he will have 

nous aurons we shall luive 
vous aurez ymt will have 
ila auront they vnll have 



PRETEHIT ANTERIOR, or (»?n- 

pmcnd of the preterit. 
j'eus eu I had 

tu eus eu thou hadst 

ileuteu he had i . 

nous eumes eu we had rhaa 
vous eutes eu y<m had 
iis eurent eu they had 

FUTURE ANTERIOR, OT COmpoVnd 

of the future. 
j 'aurai eu / shall or will 

have 
tu auras eu t/iou wilt have 



il aura eu he will have 

nous aurons eu we shall have 
yous aurez eu you will have 
ils auront eu they loiU have 






-r 



PRESENT. 
I have books. thou hast friends. He has honesty. Sho 
""'■^ «^»* honnetete f. h m. 

has sweetness. Wc have credit. You have riches. Thev 
douceur f. — m wX^ J i -^ 

, . _ "'• Tichesse pi. m. 

nave virtues. Th( have modesty. 
vertu f/ = f, 

PRiJTEIlIT INDEFINITE. 
I have had pleasure. Thou hast had gold. He has had patiVnco 
pMtsv) ni. 0f jjj^ n 

She has had beauty. We have had honours. You have had 

— ^- honneur 

friendship. They have had sentiments. They have had feelin? 

»• scrmbihte f. 

IMPERFECT. 
1 had ambition. Thou hadst wealth. He had sincerity. She 
, , '^- bien m. — f 

had graces. We had oranges. You had pears. They had apples. 

They had lemons. ^'^''^ "' ^'^^ 

f. citron 

PLUPERFECT 
I had had apricots. Thou hadst had nectarines. He had had 
^^ot brugnon 

walnuts. She had had haKRl-nuts. We hail had chesrut^ 
^^^ ^^tte ' """' d^aiJZ. 

had had figs. They had had medlars. They had had filberts. 



'X.r 

X Ou 



Mue 



m. 



nifia 



f. 



avelin^. 



OF THE VBRB. 



ie had had 



121 



CONDITIONAL. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



J aurais 

tu aurais 

il aurait 
nous aurions 
vous auriez 
ils auraient 



PRESENT. 

/ should or would 

have 
thou shouldst have 

he should have 
we should have 
you should have 
tficy should have 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



PAST, or compound of the con- 
ditional. 



j aurais eu 
tu aura is eu 



I should 
thou shouldst 



il aurait eu he should 
nous aurions eu we should 
yous auriez eu you should 
lis auraient eu they should 



1 



PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

1 had plums. Thou hadst cherries. He had stra^'berries. S\x% 
prune cerise fraise 

had pine-apples. We had almonds. You had currants. They had 

anayms ainande groseUle m, 

raspberries. They had grapes. 
framboise f. raism m. pi, 

103. In the following exercises, the addition of an ad- 
jective, after the substantive, will make no difference as to 
the use of du, de la, de V, des. 

PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 



I had had very black ink. 

fort 2 jwir 3 enae f. 1. 



friends. 
amis 

grapes. 
1 



Thou hadst had honest 
honnete 3 



. She had had uncommon graces. We had had very ripe 

1 rare 3 1. g m^r : 

Vou had had exquisite melons. They had had ready 

exquis 3 — m. 1 comptant 2 



money. 
'gent m, 1. 

FUTURE ABSOLUTE. 
I shall have studious pupils. Thou wilt have horrid 



applique 2 eleve m. 1. horrid 2 

He will have ridiculous ideas. Wc shall have use* 
ridicule 2 idee f. 1. iny^ 

You will have true and real pleasures. They will 



m. 1. 




pains. 
pe'tTie f, 1 

loss cares. 

tile 2 soin m. 1 . 2 reel 3 ' 

have poignant griefs. 
cuisant 2 chagrin m. 1. 

104^. But if the adjective precedes the substantive, then 
de,QT d\ only is to be used without any regard to the num- 
ber or the gender of the noun. 

L 






122 



Of THE VBRB. 



Ilg 



_ ^ FUTURE ANTERIOR. 

X shall have had good mner tk 

^ paper. Thou wilt have had pt^oH««* 

papier m. *".*c uaa excellent 

fru>t She will have had charming flowers W« », „ t. 

'°"-.&. ^- -" ^- had large buildings. The, will 
have had fine clothes. ^ra^ui taUrnent m. ^ ^^^ 

I superbe habit m. 

'■■'^S^™ OP THE CONDITIONAL. 
shouM have fine^n„™i„,.. t.^, ,,„„,,^. ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^_ 

«^n|^. He,h„„,aw™.,e„.euca.„,. We .hCl i" 

'""'"■"' ar™.^™->""-^e«y houses. They should 
have long conversations. 

tity, such as 4««c««p, a sLt Si 1„!" ^''™'''' ■"■ 'J'"^"- 
- , exeep. *.„, .„eh, iian^.; ^^K^rC^^^t 

CONDITIONAL PAST. 
-W^havehaa.,....,, Thou „„u,.. ha™ 

have haa .„.^p,e_. He woul/ha^^aa (,..,..,,„, 

knowledge. We shnulrl ii. ,« u i infmiment 

con^iaissLe f. pi.' '^°''''^ '^^'^ ^^^ ^^'^^ opportunities of succeeding 
You would certainly havn h.,1 '"''''""'' ^P'' "-^^sir ^' 

ce^-taiSnt 1 ^-\j,T-^ , advantages over him 

They would have had ^./enemies "^"'^^'^^'^ ^^'- .^-^ 

bien ennemi 

th^irrsfh^^^'rr^;- 

and separate sense, expreSw JS^T/ ^ "'^^ «' ^^^'"g a distinct 
hey are also to be 'rendSed "/ F ^ct L VT '" ^"^^ <^ases 
iw^rr, «V.«tr, ;,«^^,^>. The attention Xf .hP^^u" . ^''^''^' ^^^^ as 
to that necessary distinction hereafter b"tf' Scholar will be called 
t^^'l^^!J^J^^ introd^ut;; ^r^^T^^J^h - 



OF THE VERB. 



123 



u wouldst have 



N,B. J'eusse eu, tu eusses eu, il eut en, Tiaus etissions eu, voxis eussiex 
eu, its eussent eu, I should have had, &c. is also used for the conditional 
p&fit. 

IMPERATIVE. 



aie, or ayo 
qu'il ait 
ayons 
ayez 
qu'ils aieut 



have (thou) 
let hivi have 
let us have 
have (ye) 
let them have 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

■IMPLE TENSES. COMPOUND TENSBi. 



que 
j'aie 
tu aies 
il ait 

nous ayons 
vous ayez 
ils aient 



PRESENT. 

that 

I may have 
thou mayest have 
he may have 
we may have 
you may have 
they may have 



que 

j'aie eu 
tu aies eu 
il ait eu 



PRESENT. 

thai 
I may 
thou mayst 
he may 



r 



nous ayons eu we may 
vous ayez eu you may 
ils aient eu they may 



106. When the verb is followed by several substantives, 
the proper article and proposition must be .epeated before 
each. 

IMPERATIVE. 

Have thou patience, perseverance, and courage. Let him have 

— '■ f. f. m. 

modesty and more correct ideas. Let her have more decency. Let 

—— — f. 2 niste 3 1 decence 

us have courage and firmness. Have ye gravy soup, nice roast 

-m, fermeie f. un gras 2 soupe f.l.un bon ros- 

beef and a pudding. Let them have ale, rum, and punch. Let 
bifm. 2)oudingm. m. ailei.rumm. ponchem. 

them have morals and conduct. 

f. nuewrsf.pl. conduUei. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

PRESENT. 

That I may have many friends. That thou mayest have good 
bea^icoup 
reasons to give him. That he may have elevated sentiments. That 

donner llui2 cleve 2 m.l. 

we Tiiay have courage and magnanimity. That you may have 
bravoure f. = 

delightful landscanes, and beautiful sea-pieces. That they may 
d4iluuux2pay? ^fim.pl.l wart7wf.pl. 



ISi 



m 



■ 



OF THl VJ6RB.. 



< IMPERFECT. 






COMPOUND TENSES. 



.^"« tAoi 

I eusse 7>i„ ; 

tu eusses 7^1""' '''f"^'^^ 'i^^^ 



h^^^^rECT, or co,npaund of ike 
j 'eusse eu /w?VAi 

•it-iueu heminht 

"ouscnssionseuwff»z?>;i^ 



4 



have more condescension anr? r». "" "^ — ~ 

^«r "'^ "^T P^«P?^'sessinff manners. 

^ P'tvenant'd7tianierelp\i 

e^«-2>^,«,.-, That „e mayha.ehad.„„w, ,ai„, and „i„d 
That you may have had a great dinln.. "^S't-Plniet. veMm. 

7Z H. '1' ^'^■-"'^Si^. ="" "delightful bed. 

"Z^/""' ""'^-y »ave had vast posse^CXr^r^ 

dekcieux2bmm.l. 

Thnf T • . . 'MPERPECT. 

"■'^^' -™ « -^:'^. a -*., and p.,0.. ,,,.,„„ 
ni'ght'st have a Jcnife ^ J' "^ '^™- mtohtm. 

--e a pen,.iCr it ai*^^ >---'"" "^ ""^'" 
a ooachTi-;~'- ' -3'S. '''■'' "' ■"'^'" >- 

;S h "•" " ^"^r^ --'• -•>.. 

you might have hmlfli «, j P riiais- 

<^..na„d,. -- °"r:tSS.^' •<.»..... ha,o 
fertile 2 teire f. 1. 

rp. . - . , PLtJPEnPECT. 

That I might have had friendship That ,1. • . 

amitiA^^' ^'^^^ *ho" n^ight'st have had 
ioves. bonrs nn.i i, 



avntiH f. 
gioves, boots, and horsps 'ri,\"'i. 



niight have had zealous and 



/ 



zeli2 



tt THE VERB. 



125 



SENTENCES ON THE SAME VERB, WITH A NEGATIVE. 

107. De, c?' is also used, without any regard to the gender 
or the number of the nounj after a negative phrase. 

EXAMPLES. 

Je n'ai pas de livres / have iw books 

tu n'avais pas de bien thou hadst 7io wealth 

nous n'avons pas eu d'araitie we have had no friendship 

si V0U8 n'aviez pas eu de puissants if you had not had powerful friends 

amis 

ils n'auront pas d'ennemia tliey will not have enemies 

il n'aurait pas de plaisir. he woidd not have any pleasure 



faithful servants. That we might have had fine clothes, precious 
fiddle 3 domcstique m. 1, == f. 2 

jewels, and magnificent fuvvi That you might have had warm 

bijou m.\ magnifique 2 chaud2 

friends. That they might Jire ,d greatness of soul and pity. 
I grandeur f. , pitie f. 

INDICATIVE. 

PRESENT. 

I have no precious medals. We have no useless things. 
= 2 viedaiUe f. I inutile 2 chose f. 1 

PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 

I have had no perseverance. We have had no generosity 
— f . = f. 

IMPERFECT. 

Thou hadst not a beautiful park. You had no good cucumbers. 

pare m. concombre m. 

PLUPERFECT. 

He had had no fine houses. They had had no monev. 

argent m* 
PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

He had no answer to his letter. They had no carpets 
reponsc f. lettre f. tapis m. 

PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 

Thou hadst no kindness. You had had no great talents. 
complaisance f. - — m. 

FUTURE ABSOLUTE. 

1 shall have no great difficulty. We shall not have ccnnpahy at 
grar^ difficuites f. monde d 

dinAer. 
diner 

l2 



^ 



OJ- THB VERB. 



V .,. TDTURE ANTERIOR. 

You Will not have had quiet days. 

tramjuiUe 2 xa.l 

CONDITIONAL. 

PRESENT, 

He would not have bad pictures. They would have n. i • 

ioisvr m. 

PAST. 

i.h„u,dwe; .^o^^,^,.^_ w-h«».u h.™ h.a „„ .„„„„ 

IMPERATIVE ^""^^^ 

Have no such w^i..^^ Let hi. not have such absurd ideas. 

Let us not have discussions of this .rt. Have ^otlVun!^' 

Let them not have foreign servants. ^'^'"^ ^' ^'^ ^""^"^ "»• 

1 etranger doinestique 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

PRESENT. 

That I may have no p,„tecto«. Tha. »e a,.y h.,. „„ „.,„, 

succds m. 

PRETERIT. 

That h, may have had no per-everanc,. That they may har, h«i 

no valour. ^' 

bravoure f. 

IMPERFECT. 

That thou .nightV have no. .t. That you ™ght no. ha™ a J„.t 

reward. ® ' juste 

recompense f. 

PLUPERFECT. 

That I might not have had good advice That we might not har. 
had any news. "to m. pi. 

lUtuvcUe f.pl. 



THE VERB AVOIR, INTERROGATIVELY ANn 
APPIRiMATIVEL-^ ° 

^108. In interrogations, the pronoun, vvhirh !« .1,. „,u;„. 



Gf THS VERB. 



mi 



person singular of the verb ends with a vowel, -t- is placed 
between the verb, and t7, elle^ in order to avoid the hiatus 
occasioned by the meeting of the two vowels : a-t-il ? aura" 
t'il 1 This applies to on : aura-i-on ? 



EXAMPLES 



ai-je des livrcs 1 
avais-tu du bien? 
cut-elle ce courage 1 
Jean a-t-il de I'argcnt 7 
avons-nons cu de bons conseils 
aviez-vous eu de la prudence 'J 
aura-til de I'argent 1 
aura-t-elle eu des protecteurs 1 



have I books 7 
hadst ihou wealth ? 
liad sJie that courage ? 
has John any money ? 
have we had good counsels ? 
had you had yrudence ? 
wiU lie have money ? 
will she have had 'protectors 7 



INDICATIVE. 

PRESENT 

Hast thou needles 1 Have you coloured maps *? 
aiguille f. enlumine 2 carte f.l 

PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 

Hare I had good friends 1 Have we had much fortune 1 
don ami f. 

IMPERFECT. 

Had she time 1 Had they large buildings 1 
le temps grand bailment m. 

PLUPERFECT. 

Had she sufficient means 1 Had they entensive fields 7 

sujisant Vnoyens ra. spacieux 2 champ m.t 

PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

Had he good shoes'? Had they looking glasses 7 
Soulier m. f. mirnir m. 

PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 

Hadst thou had lace 1 Had you had odoriferous shrubs 7 

denteUe f ' odoriferant 3 arbuste m. I 

FUTURE ABSOLUTE. 

Shall I have gold and silver 1 Shall we have (good luck) 1 
m. argent m. bonheur 

FUTURE ANTERIOR. 



I 



Will they have had company 1 

c&mpagnie f. 



i, ■"■fliV'-r'^'-'irtjMU • -^ 



138 



1 



I' 



! ii 



01 THl VERU. 



COiMDITIONAL, 

PRESENT. 
«Mhouh.„ h^^^o^en., WouM ,„„ H„. ,00. 
Wine and nice liqueurs 1 
vi7nn. fin 2 li^urtl 

PAST 
Would ho have h^jn^^on ^..^ , WoUU the, h.,e h^ 
ncn clothes. 

THE SAME VERB INTERROGATIVELY AND 
NEGATIVELY. ^'^^^^"^^D 

109. This/orm is the same as the preceding, excent thnt 
the first negative ne is placed before thi^verb, af d Sco d 

EXAM.^LES* 



has she not a great deal of toil ? 
have r- Twt had considerate re^ 
gards ? 

had ym twt had tuw gowns 7 
wiU he have no resources ? 



h'a-t-elle pas beaucoup d 'esprit 1 
n'avons-nous pas eu de bons pre- 
cedes 1 *^ 

n'aviez-vous pas eu de nouvelles 

robes 1 
n'aura-t-il pas de ressources ? 

1AO /z'\ T , —•'^«^<'V^iw resources 7 

regard \.o its gender or number, instead of .L^l 7 ]^ 

n a pas a amis. Yet, in interrogative and nemtiSe sentr>v 

ces there are some cases when du, de la, 4 maT bH ed" 

and others when de must : thus, ^ ' 



Ist. n ai-je pas du mepris pour lui 1 
^ n avez-vous pas des livres 1 

n'avez-vous pas de I'argent 1 
-Jnd.n avez-vous pas de livres 1 

n'avez-vous pas d'argent i 



have I not contempt for him ? 
have you net books 7 
have you not money 7 
have you no books 7 
have you no money 7 



Although the first examples are under the intfirrnrafi„„ 
forrn, they are intended for affirmations. By a figlTca Id 
htote, one form has been substituted to another/Sebv to 
convey more meaning than the simole as.erti'Jr'l7,'° 
7»epns paur lui ; vous avez des livres- vom'avezde'Kr 
^e,/, would be able to do. Thus, for'inZ.^ryo^%t: 



or THB VXRB. 



130 



a har© good 



By haVe had 



dND 

xcept that 
le second, 
^as ? ai-Je 



I of toil ? 
siderate re-- 

gowns? 

'S? 

legations, 
ihout any 
s la^ deSf 
rent, elle 
e senten- 
be used, 

^or him ? 



Togative 
e, called 
ereby to 

t'ft't tint 
J "f ■until 

de Var- 
yu com- 



plain of being dull how can that be, have you not books ? 
instead of saying since you have books ? 



EXAMPLES. 



n'ai-je pas des livrcs 1 
n'avais-tu pas des amis 7 
n'auront-elles pas cu des conso- 
lations % 



have I no hooks 7 
hadst thoii no jricnds 7 
mil they have had no consola- 
tio'tis 7 



In the second xamples, on the contrary, nothing but 
mere questions is intended, there is no substitution of form, 
no other meaning understood, but the one expressed. The 
difference is also somewhat marked in English. 



Hast thou no 



INDICATIVE. 

PRESENT. 

diamonds *? Have you no indulgent parents 1 
diamant m. • 2 m. 1 



PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 

Hast thou not had contempt and even hatred for that man 7 

mepris la. meme haine f. h. asp. four cet 

Have you not had better examples 1 

nieilleur exemple m. 

IMPERFECT. 

Had he not a rigid censor 1 Had they not inattentive chiUlien T 
severe 2 censeur m.l = 2 enfant m.l 

PLUPERFECT. 

Had I not had other views 1 Had we not had amethysts, rubies^ 
autre vue i.^\. . aviethystei.ridnsm. 

and topazes % 
tojpaze f. 

PRETERIT DEFINITE". 

Had we not perfidious friends 1 
perjide 3 1 

PRETERIT ANTERtOR. 

Had he not had *oo studied expressions 1 Had they not bad 

2 recherche 3 f.l 

excellent models 1 

modele m. 

FUTURE ABSOLUTE. 

Wilt thou not have a more regular conduct ? Will you not hav» 

plus'i regie 3 conduite fl 
fashionable drespos 3 
d la mode 2 robe f.l 



I 



130 




0» THl VERB. 



FUTURE ANTERIOR. 
Shall we have had sufficient time then 1 . ^ 

asscz de temps. 

CONDITIONAL. 

PRESENT. 
Should .he not have dear and just ide^as 7 Would they not har, 

more entensive knowledge 1 
2 itendu 3 connamances f pl.l 

PAST 

Would she not have had any objection 1 Would they hate had 

reward 7 
recompense f. 

no. CONJUGATION 

OF THE 

AUXILIARY VERB ^77?^, TO BE. 



no 



INFINITIVE. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



4tr* 

«tant 
6U 



PRESENr. 

tobg 



COMPOUND TENSES, 



PAST. 

avoir 6t6 to have been 



je sms 

tues 

ii, ou elle est 

nou^ soiximes 

vous dtes 

lis > ^ 

elles r°«' 



PARTICIPLES. 

^^^\en ?ayant:et6 having been 

INDICATIVE. 

PRETERIT INDEPINITB. 



PRESENT. 
I am 
thou art 
he or she « 
toe are 
you are 

they a" 



j'ai 6t6 
tu as ete 
il a ete 

nous avons 6te 
vous avez ete 

ils ont ete 



/ have been 
thou hast been 
he has been 
we have been 
you have been 

they have been 



fhii •* ^"^^i^^^^ .^^^E. In those 3entences in which 
there is an adverb, it must be nlar.*>d l^f«.o«„ *»,. ,^^1 ll^ 

i!!!,^"'"''''^^ or participle : if finest Jamais corHeniTil^H 
toujoura recompense^ ' * 




''^ ef tHl V»RB. 




•IMPLB TENSER. 



IMPERFECT. 



j'6tau 
tu 6tais 
U etait 
nous 6tions 
vouB etiez 
ila e talent 



I was 
thou wast 
he "Mias 
we were 
you were 
they were 



jc fus 
tufus 
il Alt 

nous filmcs 
vous filteA 
ils furent 



PRETERIT DEFINITE. 



I was 

thou wast 
he was 
toe were 
you were 
they were 



COMPOUND TSNSSa. 



PLUPERFECT. 

jVvaig 6t6 J had been 

tu avp'i H6 

il " M 

nous ^vions 6te 

vous aviez 6t6 

ils avaient et6 



thou hadst been 
he had been 
we had been 
yon had. been 
(hey had been. 



PRETERIT 

j'cus et6 
tu CUB 6te 
il eut et6 
nous eAmes H6 
yous eutpfl et6 
ils curent ete 



ANTERIOR* 

Ih<i,f bf.en 
thou fuidst been 
he had been 
we had been 
y I had been 
they had been 



is my brother come 7 

is not the queen arrived ? 



The following exercises, on the verb etre, are coimjosed 
of four forms of sentences, affirmative, interrogative, and 
negative ; interrogative and negative. 

When, in a question, the substantive is expressed, it 
must always begin the sentence, and the pronoun still be put 
after the verb. 

EXAMPLES. 
Mon ^r5re est-il venu 1 
la reine n'est-elle pas arriv6e 1 

PRESENT. 

I am very glad to see you. Art not thou pleased with that book 
aise de voir saiisfait de 

Is she ^ really amiable 1 We are happy. Arr you not too 

verdablement heureux 

obli/rln^. Are your friends still in London. 
complaisant encore a Londfes 

PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 
Have I not been constant 1 Hast thou always been steady 1 She 

pose 
has been faithful. Have we not been firm and courageous 1 You 

julele ferme = 

have been charitable. Have those men always been good and 

benevolent % 

bienfaisant 



* Exercises UDon thit tense would hp aa vst t'v /?.-.rrfr-.u.-.=*.-_-i ~^ v^_ 
be seen by this sentence : a pane y eus-je ete cinq ou six minutes qu'U 
arrtva^ I had scarce been there five or six minute* when he arrived. 



^ 



■W WI iW ni WJ H I i «i . wi» » 



188 



Of THl VERB. 



[i t'is 



ilMPr.E TENSB* 


ruTUiti 


ABHOMJTE. 


je serai 


/ s/mU or will be 


tu soraii 


thou wilt be 


il sera 


he will Uii 


nous scronj 


ws shall be 


▼OUS MTCl 


you shall bf! 


i\a seront 


tliey shall be 



C0l^P0u^fD TENi/i*;. 



I rCTURE AVmRIOR, 

j'aurai^ifi I shaU or vntt^ 

tu auras 6t6 thou wilt 
il aura et6 he will 

nous aurona tiiwe ^hall 
you» aurt'z cl6 you mil 
ila auront 6t& they will 



IMPERFECT. 

1 was too basyto soo you. Wast not thou troublesome'} 
occupe pour recevoir imporlun 

Was this tirl idle 1 Were we not too untractable 1 You were 

filk pares^eux indocile 

not quirt enough. They were vain, light, and coquettish. ■ 
tranquUle 2 a.- zi f. — frivole coquette 

PLUPERFECT. 

I had hitherto been very indifleront. Hadst not thou been too 

jusqu'alms insouciant 

Imprudent 1 Had his wife been sufficiently modest and reserved 1 

cpousc ass.::: assez reserve 

We had not yet been sufficiently attentive. Had you been envious 

encore applique == 

and jealous 7 They had not been grateful 
jaiov.x reco/maissant 

PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

Perhaps I was not sufficiently prudent. Wast thou discreet 

peut-elre que assez discret 2 

enough on that occasion 1 Was not that princess too proud 1 We 

1 en f. r-^se fier 

were very unhappy. Were not you too hasty 1 They were not 

provipt 
much satisfied. 
fort satis/ait 

IJTURE ABSOLUTE. 

To-morrow I shall be at home till (twelve o'clock.) Wilt thou 
demain chez moijusqu'd midi 

always be restless, brutal, and sour 1 ViTill your father bo 



iTiquiet bourru chagrin 



Monsieur 



at home this evening 1 Shall not we be more diligent "? You will 
chez lui soir m. . i 

then be ever capriciou., obstinate, and particular. Will not youx' 

2 1 3 quinteux opinidlre pointiUeux 

scholars be troublesome 1 
Scolier inamm/>d^ ^ 



OF TBI VERB. 



133 



::rior, 

lU or «rtH" 

wilt 

ill 

iall 

mil 

10 ill 



2S 



troublesome l 
imporlun 

You were 

Dqucttish. 
tquette 

thou been too 

1 reservpd ? 

assez reserve 

been envioui 



thou discreet 
discret 2 

jroud 1 We 
fier 

ley were not 



I Wilt thou 

mr father be 

1 You will 
1 

ill not your 



^ 



CONDITIONAL. 



SIMPLE TRNRES. 



PUESRNT. 

je serais / should tpoidd^ or 

atuld be 
tu s«;raii8 thou wmildst be 
il seiait he would *' 
nous serions tpc shouUl be 
V0U8 seriez you would be 
Us Bf^raient they Kould be 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



j'auraifl et6 



PAS'i . 

I should 



tu auraia a6 thou wouldst 

il aurait et6 he w&uld 

\ J10U8 auricni. £t6 we shmtJd 

j V0U8 auriez 6te you should 

I ils auraient et6 they toovU 

I'his form feusse ite, tu ensues ete, il eUt efe, nous ettssi- 
ons etc, vous eussiez etc, ils eussent jte, is also used instead 
of the conditic nal ipsiBt, fau7'ais ^'1. 



FUTURE ANTi.RIO':. 
Shall not I have been too severe 1 Thou wilt havo bean too 

distrustful. Shall we not have been desirous enouah 1 Will nnt 

^^Mnt empresse2 1 

you have been inconsiderate 1 Will not the judges have been just 1 

itidiscrct juge 

CONDITIONAL. 
PRESENT. 
I would not bo so rash. Wouldst thou be as con'-istent in thy 
, ^ . . , /emeraire cm. .. tent dans 

behaviour as m thy language 1 W ould not his mn be nmJy in time % 
conduitef. propos m.-pl fUs pretd 

Should we always b«? incorrigible 1 You would not be disinterested 

disinteresse 2 
enough. Would not those ladies be always ready 1 
1 daTne pret 

PAST. 
(But for) your instructions, I should have been proud and 
sam cameilxaxA. deJaigvmx 

K/yf" ^°"^**'* "^^^^^'^ have been malicious and satfcastici 
i\T Tj ^ .1. . , . jnalin ricaneur 

Would not that man have been ^uite destitute 7 Certainly we 
, ,, , , entierement depoufvu 

should not have been so ridiculous. Would not you have been 

si ridicule 

more kind and indulgent? Thev w^uld not hA»* n 

aoux plus complaisant 
rude. 
malhonnite 

M 



-v-M av 




■ ' WWffl WWuWW' W^ 



or THE T«RB. 

IMPERATIVE. 

•ois be (thou) 

qu'il soit let him be 

Boyons let us oe 

Boyez ie (?/<?) 

qu'ila soient fe< ^A^m be 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

SIMPLE TENSES. COxMPOOND TENBESr 





PRESENT. 


^ue 


that 


JC SO)u> 


I maif, can, or 




should be 


tu sois 


thou viay'st be 
he raayoe 


il soit 


nous soyons 


roe may be 


vous soyez 


you may be 


ils soient 


they may be 



PRETERIT, 

tliat 

I may, can, or 

should 
thou mayest 

he may 



quo 
j aie #te 

tu aies 6te 

il ait ete 

nous ayons ete v^e may 

vous ayez et6 you may 

ils aient ete they may 






112. When the noun is expressed, its place is immediate- 
ly after que : que voire fils soit plus poll, let your son be 
more polite. 

Be liberal, but with Mscretion. Do not be so lavish. Let us be 

sing. — avec sing.prodigue. 

equitable, humane, and ju udent. Let liS not be greedy. Be economical 

■' humain avide econome 

and temperate. Do not be thoughtless. Let him be more patient, 
sm-e pi. leger 



bo 



be better 

mieux 

Let them 



ready at six o'clock. Let your children 
pret d six heurcs enfant 

(taken cave of). Let these (poor men) be admitted. 
soignes vialhetireux admis 

not bo so hasty in their conclusions. 
pi'OTiipt d porter unjugement. 

OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

113. In the preceding exercises, and in the tenses of the 
subjunctive mood, we have given such English sentences as 
might lead the learner to suppose that the French que je 
parlCf and the English that I may speak, are always equi- 
valent, and that the use of the subjunctive mood corresponds 
in both languages ; but it is indeed very far from being the 
casc) Gs tuf- iOiiOWing examples will show. 

1. Je d6sire qu'il vienno I wish him to coTne 

2. Voulor-vouB que je vou9 le diael do you wish me to tell ii you 7 



OF THJE VERB, 



135 



3. Je ne crois pas qu'il vienno I do not think he uoiU come 

4. Cacnez cela, depeur qu'il no le hide that, lest he sees it, or lest he 

yoie should see it 

5. Dites-le lui, aBn qu'il vienne a teU it km, in order that he may 

temps ^ come in time 

b. n faut que j y sois a deux heures / vmst be th&re at two o'clock 

Here are six sentences in which the subjunctive mood is 
necessarily used in French, and there is but one in which it 
IS used in English, the fifth. The use of the subjunctive 
mood in French depends upon the preceding or governing 
sentence, and is determined by rules which will be found in 
their proper place. {See Syntax) We will confine our- 
selves, for the present, in these exercises on the various ten- 
ses of the subjunctive, to giving full sentences ; that is, we 
will add the introductory part alter which that mood is re- 
quired. 

It must further be added that the conjugation that is often 
omitted m English, whereas que is and must always be ex- 
pressed in French. 



PRESEnr OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE, 

Is it possible t:.at he is so credulous'? We wish that thou 

est-tl posst^k le ,j^, ^^-^^y^ 

inayest be more modest. Is it true that she is so obstinate 1 They 

enttte 



-ta est-il vrai 



wish you to be more assiduous. It is not expected that you should 

^^^^'■^ ^^u on ne s'attend pas 

be back so early. We fear 

d£ rctmtr de si bonne heure. 



nous craig^wns 
PRETERIT. 



they will be deceived. 



trompe 



■''«n"''° ""' ' ""'^''^"' '""^°""' '"^5"""^ '°» ™P»«""- 

Irr^^^S,*"'"" n,ay have been ^SS „itl, ,r^^f-l^. 
/„ „:..-x .L , , , . Ooujfi d orguetl m. c'est 



^- - ^-tr ^- l:^ = - 'S\.e w„ » 
"°:r-j.— --•'-'"-'■- -^»—rj!?; 

rMPERFECTc 
*o„we« „o.^^^ We,o,r. Win l^^^^ZTZl^Z 






itiiwwuiwiiiii ippiipiiiP 



136 



OF THE VKRB« 



8IMPI.C TENSE*. 




je fusse 



IMPERFECT, 

that 

J might or ayiiid be 

ihoii mightst be 



tu fusses 

il tiki he vd^iU be 

nous fussions we might be 

voiis fussiez you might be 

ils fussene they might be 



COMPOUND TXNSEi 



que 

} euBsc 6t6 

tu cusses ^t6 
il cut et6 



PLUPERFECT. 

that ^ 

I might, or 

C4yxild 
thou mighl*st 
he mi^ht 



nous eussions (>iewe might 
vous eussiez 6te you vitg/d 
ils cussent et6 they might 



I 



notbe Boarr(^ant. Prayers wore ofTored to the gods that we might 
— — — - on offrU des prieres aux dieuxpour 

bo victorious. It would be better if you were not so stern. We 
= il vaudrait mic^ix que severe ffaus 

used all our efforts that they might be successful. 
avonsfait tons nos efforts a fin que heureux 

^ PLUPERFECT. 

That I might have been more studious. That tho« mightst have 

been more circumspect. That she might have been more attentive 

ciramsped — 

to her duties. That we might have been less addicted to 

devoir m.pl. livre a 

pleasure. That you might have been more assiduous and more 

art. m. pi. assidu pl^^s 

grateful. That they might have been less daring. 
reeonnaissant hardi 



»i*M**»W-1»W^?lfflP#^- ' 



r ffcrar ffc-^fif v>fl^aflHir'.i';yiftimF3wy^ri-i""- '' " 



3T. 

ght, or 

uld 

, migU*it 

tight 

mght 

m igld 

' might 



\ 



I 



liat we might 

stern. We 
severe nous 



mightst have 
aore attentive 

I addicted to 

livre d 

ous and more 

14 plui 



Oir THB VBRD. 



137 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 

114. GENERAL REMARKS ON THE ORTHOGRAPHY OP S0M12 
OP THE VERBS ENDING IN er. 

The infinitive ends in er: as, aimer, to love ; parler, to 
speqtk. •' ' 

I. In verbs ending in -gtr, the e is retained in those tenses 
where g is folh)Vved })y the vowels a or o, in order that the o- 
may have the soft sound, in every tense and person, as m 
tiie inhnitive : as, mnngeant,Jugeant,je negligeai. 

II. In verbs ending in ^crr, a cedilla is piit^lmder c, for the 
same reason, when followed by a or o; as, surant placanL 
3 cjjai;at. y ^ i •, ■> 

HI. In verbs ending in -oyer and -uyer.they'm chancred 
into I before a mute ^; n^,femploie, U essuie, fappuierm\ 
21 ndtoteratt. 

IV. This practice is extended by some to verbs in -ayer, 
and -eycr: as, ilpaiej'cssaierai, elk grasseye, or grasstie, 

V. In some few verbs ending in -e/er and -e/er, the / and 
/ are doubled in those inilections, which receive an e mute 
after tliese consonants : as, trom appeler, il appelle, from' 
jeter^jejetterai^eic, 

VI. The first person singular of the present of the indica- 
tive changes e mute into acute e, in interrogative sentences • 
as, ncglige-je ? aime-je ? This remark is also applied to 
some verbs ot the second conjugation ending in -vrir -frir 
and -lir : as offrc-je ? ciieille-je ? ' ^ > 

There are but two irregular verbs in er, aller, envover, 
which will be found in their proper place. 



115. PARADIGM, OR MODEL. 



INFINITIVE. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



pa.rI-«7- 



PRESENT. 



to speak 



COMPOUND TJIJiSBB. 



avoir parl-e 



PAST. 



lokave spoken, 



M 



'Mt 



I ■' 



139 



or THE VERB. 
PARTICIPLES. 



PRESENT. 



PAST. 



fAtl-arU 



speaking 

PAST. 

parl-e m. -ee f. spoken 



\ 



I 



aj^ant parl6 having spoken 



REMARKS* 



All the verbs of the first conjugation follow the termi- 
nation of the verb parler. 







EXAMPLE. 






parl-er 


aim-er 


c\pliqu-er 


avou-er 




p&ti-ant 


a.iinon-^a7il 


engag-ean< 


defray-ant 


4 


parl-e 


agre-e 


d6cri-e 


dedommag-c 


je 


parl-e 


dans-e 


ignor-c . 


renvoi-e 


tu 


Tpaxl-es 


din-es 


rejet-tes 


renouvel-lcs 


il 


parl-e 


chant-e 


begai-e 


grassfey-e 


nou5 


5 parl-ons 


herg-ons 


choy-ons 


chang-e<w5 


voua 


parl-ez 


Tcgn-ez 


essuy-e^ 


epel-e-^ 


ils 


parl-ent 


caresB-eftt 


ennn-ient 


appel-lcw^ 



And so on through the whole verb. 
It must be remembered, in writing the following exercises 
on the various conjugations, 

I. That the adverb comes after the verb, in simple tenses, 
or between the auxiliaiy and the participle, in compound 
ones. 

II. That du, de la, de P, des, are always placed before any 
noun which is not taken in the general sense, and whenever 
some may be understood. 

III. That de alone is used, after negations, without 
regard to the gender or the number, and also when the noun 
is preceded by an adjective. 

IV. That personal pronouns, in the objective case are 
generally placed before the verb, except the imperative 
affirmative 1st pers. pi. 2nd pers. sing, and pi. 

V. That the signs of the interrogation do, did, axe not 
rendered in French ; nor are they rendered when emphati- 
cally joined to the English verb thus : as I do love. 



SB* 



Ot^ TK£ VlilllS. 



m 



INDICATIVE. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



pari-* 

tu parl-fis 
it parl-e 



FRESENT. 
/ speak f avi speakings 

or do spealc 
thou speakest 
he speaks 



nous parl-ons roe speak 

vousparl-e^ you speak 

ils parl-era^ tlvey $peak 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



PRETERIT INDEFINITE, 
j'aiparl-e I have "^ 



tu as pari-c thxmhmt 

11 a parl-e }t£ has 

nous avons pari -e we have 
vous Kvez parl-e you have 
ils ont parl-e they have 



y^ 



exercises 



case are 



INDICATIVE PRESENT. 

I readily give that plaything to your sister. Do I prefer 
vobntiers donrier joujou m. f. preferef 

pleasure to my duty 1 Dost not thou incense thy enemies ? He 
art. m. devoir m. irriter euuemi 

does not give salutary advice to his friends. We do sincerely iove 
donive un = 2 avis m. 1. sinceremerU 

peace and tranquillity. "We do not neglect (any thing) to please 
art. paix f, a^ t. =f negiiger rien pourplaire 

you. Do you not admire the beauty of that landscape. ^ Do not 

admirer =f. paysage m. 
your parents comfort the afflicted 1 They (make use of ) every 
consoler affiige m. pi. employer tous art. 

means to succeed. 
moyen m. pour remsir 

PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 

I have (given up) my favourite horse to my cousin. Hast thou 
ceder favori 2 cheval m. 1 ^m. 

not exchanged watches with my sister 1 Has the tutor given 

changer de mmilres precepteur de 

fine engravings to his pupil 1 We have spoken (a long while) of 

gravure f. pi. eleve long-temps 

your adventure. Have you not insisted too much on thiic point 1 

averUuref. insister * sur 

Have your aunts prepared their ball dresses 1 

lanle preparer de bal2 habit ra. pi. 1 . 



— ra. 



IMPERFECT. 



T unc.p.aBimrW thciifrht of mv miKfortunes. Didst Ihou drea^i 

saris cesse 



penser a Trudheur m. pi. redouter 

his presence and .Irmness "? Ho exhibited in his person all the 
f pron. fermete f. retracer en f. 



140 



OF THK VgRB. 



• IMPLB TENSES. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



if 



je parl-OM 



IMPERFECT. 



tu pnrl-ats 
il parl-ft/^ 
nous \nrl-ions 
yous [)arl-ic^ 
ils pari GZ(?//,^ 

PRETERIT 

je pxrUai 
tu parl-as 
il parl-a 
nous parl-d»ics 
yous parl-d^^s 
ils [)ditl-erc)it 



I did aprcd; or v 

speaking 
t/u:ii, didst speak 
he did speak 
IOC aid speak 
you did speak 
t/fy did speak 

DKFINITE. 

I spoke 
thou spokes t 
he spoke 
v:e spoke 
yon spoke 
they spoke 



PLUPERFECT. 

■«s 'j 'avals pari -e I had 



tu avals pari- c thxiu hadst 
11 avail par -e he had 
nous avions pari-e we had 
jvous avipz |)ari-e iiou had 
Ills avaient parl-e 'llLcy had 

rRKTSRlT ANTERIOR. 

j'ousparle J had 

In ous pari e than hadst 

11 cut parl-e he had 

nous Climes parl-e loe had 
yous elites parl-e you had 
ils curcnt parl-e they had 



S 
^ 

^■^ 

^ 



virtues of his ancestors. Did not that woman accuse her friend of 
^ ^- ' "'''''"' accuser and t. 

e'E'e f^^" '^''^ n«t P'-'>tect that bad man. You despised a vain 
legce.ef. pro.egcr mediant mepriser —2 

eru^on. Did the Romans disdain so weak an enemy » 
t. 1 Romain dtdaigner failk 3 m. 1. ." 

PLUPERFECT. 

^ "'^tlTr 'Vrt^^^'^y "^'^'•'^' .Hadst thou not married 

acsseclier 'maIso.m2 maraisniA epouser 

a rich man, but unluckily without education ? Had his father 

waljmmmenmit sans f. 

ge^,.ph, ana ,.i.,„^ , u.a „„t y. frie„dX:rri,:a 

procurer 2 ltd 
troop of cavalry 1 

com2)agnic f. cavalerie 

«i^^, whKOi IS used instead of the preterit anterior, wlfn 
«peak,ng of a t.me not entirely elapsed: as, fai en ache^e 
-^r^ouvra,. ce u^in, cette semLe, etc! 'and ZtIZ 
■f-^r^evc, a« il IS iou.ia III everv conjugation. We shall insert 



her( 



faieuparle^tu as eu parte, il a mtparh 



avom eu parle, vims avez eu parte, -it. 



oni eu parte. 



e, notif! 



^.- *i ^A-^V'Si''' 



or THE VERB. 



141 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



FUTURE ABSOLUTE. 

jo parl-emt / shall or will speak 
tu parl-«rai thou shaU speak 
il parl-era he shall speak 

nou3 panl-erons we shaU ipeak 
yous ^dixX-erez yau shall speak 
ils Tp&xl-eront they shall speak 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



FUTUnE ANTERIOR. 

j'aurai parl-e Ishall orwill^ 
tu auras parl-e thou shaU 
il aura parl-e he shall 
nous aurons parl-e we shaU 
yous aurez parl-e you shall 
ils auront parl-e they shall 



I 



PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

I gave them peaches and flowers out of my garden. 
leur pdc/ie f. pi. Jleursi.^\. de vion jar din 



Thou 



forgottest an essential circumstance. Did not your cousin relate 
oubUer essentid 2 circonstance f. raconter 



that charming history with (a. great deal) of grace 1 

— mant = f. avec beaucoup 
judged of my intentions. Did'we not show 
juger ♦ montrer de 



He lightly 
legerement 

courage 
art. m. pr 



perseverance, and firmness. Did you not visit the grotto and. 
Art. perseverance ^r.vtxt.fermete f. msUer grottef. 

the grove 1 They did not generously forgive their enemies 1 
bois ra. genereusement pardonner d 



not ?■'/??/.<• 



PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 

I had sooii wasted my money, and exhausted my resources. 

bientot manger argent m. cpuiser ■ resource f. 

Hadst thou very soon reinforced thy parly. Had not Alexander 

♦ vite renforcer parti m. Alexandre 

soon siumounted all obstacles. We sat down to table as sooa 

surmonter tous art. = m. pi, nous nous mivws d aussitM 

as we had closed the shutters and drawn the curtains. Had you not 
que fermer volets tirer rideau 

quickly dined. They retired to their quarters when they 

proniplement diner ils rentrerent aux casernes qtiand 
had dispersed the mob. 
disperser populace f. 

FUTURE ABSOLUTE, 

I shall relieve the poor. Wilt thou faithfully keep that secret 1 

soulager pauvre m.pl. fidelemmt garder — m . 



- T ait a ' 



SUiS. 



cmigiiiCnci; juugcH t 
art. edaire 2 juge 1 



, „ Xio Wiii BuppCIk jrOU 

co7isuller de art. eaaire 2 juge I appuyer 

with all his credit. We shall not prefer pleasure to glory 
de — — P m, preferer art. m. art, f. 



ifl 



H3 



OP THE VERB. 



CONDITIONAL. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



COMPOUND TBXSE3, 



PRESENT. 

jo Tp&tl-erais I should, would, orj'aurais parl-e 

could speak \ 

tuparl-cmw tJ>mv shouldst spealci\x tiwrmn xinxX-e 



PAST. 

/ should, 
v:mild, or 
amid 

thou shouUlst 



-! 

a 



\\ \ttKr\-eraU A^ should speak il aurait parl-e he shmdd 

r\o\XB])a.r\-erionswe should speak 'nousaurionsparl-e ve should 

vous parl-m<?^ ijou should speak Ivous auriez parl-e you should 

lis p&rl-eraiejit theij should speak lis auraient parl-e they should ^ 

J'eus6'e parlc, tu eusses parle, il eut parte, nous eussions 
jtarU, vous eussiez parle. Us eussent parle, are also used 
for the conditional past. This remark holds good for every 
verb. '' 



ft w 



i 



and richis to honour. With such conduct will you not 

art. pi. art. par wie telle conduite 

gneve your father and mother 1 WUl they not astonish their 
'^^^iT^'" pron. itonner 

- Jirarers % 
audileur m. pi. 

FUTURE ANTERIOR. 

I shall soon have finished this book. By thy submission wilt thou 
» achever m. > soumission f. 

not have appeased his anger 1 The country will be happy when 

appaiser coleref. ce pays heureux 

the kuig shall have triumphed over his enemies. We shall be better 

trionipher de plus 

pleased with ourselves, when we shall have rewarded the merit of 
content de uons recmnpenser merUe m. 

*^ J^°^ o™f "• ^"' y^'' "<^' ^«^'« ^ow" to his assistance then 1 

^^bien2\ ^oler secoursm. 

Will not our servants have (brought back) our horses then % 
domestique m. ranmie cheval 

CONDITIONAL PRESENT. 



Thou wouldst not avoid so 

eviter 2 



I would not plan such vain projects. 
former projet m. 

gre^at a danger. Would not his attorney (clear up) that business 1 

" ■* ■* procnreur debrouiller affaire f. 

We would (drive away) the importunate. Would you not discover 

ckn^^ser importun ra. pi. divoikr 



m^'-SMK-jr-'IC. 



Of THE VERB. 



143 



» 



S'SES. 



lould, 

umld, or 

indd 
shoulflst 

'iifidd 

hmdd 
ahrndd 
shmUd 



s eussions 

also used 

I for every 



II you not 

onish their 

mner 



I wilt thou 
on f. 

ippy when 
ireux 

be better 
plv.s 

merit of 
merif.e m. 

nee then 1 
sm. 

ses then 1 

%l 



i avoid so 
eviter 2 

3usine8s ? 
affaire f. 

t discover 
devoiler 



parl-c» 
qu'il parI-« 
parl-wi5 
parl-€^ 
qu'ils parl-en/ 



IMPERATIVE. 

speak (Jhou) 
let him speak 
let us speak 
speak {ye) 
let them sjKok 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



PRESENT. 

que that 

je parl-c / may or can speak 

tu parl-es thou mayest speak 
ilparl-g he may speak 

noua parl-w/w we may speak 
yous parl-ze:r' you may .speak 
ils parl-571^ they may speak 



COMPOUND TENSES 



PRETERIT. 

q[vic that 

j aie parl-e / may or can 

tu aies parl-e thou mayest 
il ait pari-e he may 

nous ayons parl-e toe may 
yous aye7 parl-e you may 
ils aient parl-e they may 



^ 



that atrocious plot 1 They would not unravel the cluo of that 

alroce2co77iplotmA demeler Jdm, 
intrigue. 
^f. 

PAST. 

I should have liked hunting, fishing, and the country. 
aimer art. chasse f. campagne f. 

Wouldst thou not have played 1 Would he not have bowed to the 

>"^ saluer 

companj? Would we gladly have praised his pride and 
compag:iiet avecplamr 2 \icer 1 orgueil m 

incivility You would have awakened every body Would 
l)ron.malhonnetete f. eveiUer imit k mkde 

those merchants have paid their debts 1 
negociant payer dettef.pl 

IMPERATIVE. 

In all thy actions, consult the light of reason. Never 
dans — f. pi. consultcr lumiere art. f. 

yield to the violence of thy passions. Let us love 
te abandonner f. , 

justice, peace, and virtue. Let us not cease to 
art. fart, f art. f. cesser de 



* The second person singular of the imperative of this conjutration 
and likewise of some verbs of the second ending in vrir frirtir takp 
.,, .. ,.,.,,,, ,^ tjvu'itj tuc -.-.uiu 7/ «,!iu t"i, as pari£s-cit> a, tu/i, //'eVe, carry 
some to thy brother ; off res-en a ta saur, offer some to thy sister- 
cu£ilies-en aussz pour toi, gather some alike for thyself; apportes-v les 
Uvrcs, bring there thy books, ^ > ri^ y 



pw^«. .^, ■.■,^^ 



i 




^ 






^1 



IM 



OV THK VERB. 



RIMPLE TENSES. 



que 

ta parl-a.s3e.s 
il pdrl-<i< 



IMPEnPECT. 

t/uU 

I might, could 

or wovJd 
thoii mightst 
he might 



a 



neus ipBLtUassions we might 
V0U8 pa.r\-assiez you tmght 
ils ^xl-cisent they mighl 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



PLUPBKPF.aT. 

thai 

I might, could 
otitmUd 
'X thou migktst 
S A^ viight 



que 
j euRse 

tu eusscs 

ilcilt 

nous eussions ""wc might 

nous eussicz yo^i, might 

ils cusscnt they might 



work. Sacrifice your own interest to the public good. Do 
travaiUer sacrifiei- * interet m. pi. 2 Men 1 

not ^ omit such useful and interesting details. 

negliger de si utik 2 interessant 3 art. m. pi 1. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

F r.SENT. 

Must i ever listen to a severe censor of my defects ? I wish 
faut %l tmjours 2 ecouter 1* 2 = m. 1. defaut m.pl. je soukaite 

that thou mayest find real friends. He must study, in order 
trouver de vrai il faut qu'il travaille afin 

that he may adorn his speeches with the graces of a pure diction. 

parer discours de — '2 f. 1 . 

We have retired in order that she may remain alone and quite. 
nom nous sommes retires afin rester 

Provided we do not so hastily condemn the world. It is not 
pour que legercment condamner monde m. il n'est 

well to sulk incessantly. We pay them well that they may 
pas bien boiider sans ccsse nous les payons Men afin que 

work more willingly 
travaiUer plus volontieis 



It is not unlikely that 
il n^est pas improbable 



PRETERIT. 

have spoken rashly. Do you not 
imprudemment tie croyez- 
believe that he has canied despair into the heart of his 
vous pas porter art. desespoir m. dans ame 

friend 1 Can any one imagine that we should have blamed a conduct 
pourra-Uon sHmaginer bldmer conduite {. 

60 prudent and so wise 1 I easiljr conceive your having exasperated 
■ sage je congots facUement que exaspsrer 

80 petulant a disposition. That the> ixiay not have ^taken advantage) 
2 caractere m.l vrofUer 



of the circumstances. 
ciramstances f. pi. 



-*-H- 



)} 



OP THE VERB. 



145 



S9ES. 

r. 

t, could 
ould 
ightst 
ht 

ighi 



i 



J 



ood. Do 



ffOOU. 

oien 1 
?1. 1. 



J 1 I wish 
jI. je souhaite 

dy, in order 
travaille ajin 

re diction. 
'2 f. I. 

tie and quite. 

It is not 
m. U tCest 

at they may 
que 



Do you not 

ne croyez' 

leart of his 
line 

aed a conduct 
ner conduite f. 

r exasperated 
exoi^srer 

en advantage) 
proJUtr 



de 



IMPBRPECT, 

That I might not copy his example. That thou mightest (aivc un> 
imiter exemptem. '^ atnimlmtili- 

perfidious friends. That he might inhabit a hut 

^^^art. 1 f^i^ chaumiiref 

instead of a palace. That we might fall at the feet of an 
auhm palatsm. toniber a pudm. 

U^iii^Q \'"** ^''^ ^°" "^^* '''^^ '^'^ ^"^^ of yo^r 

lUegttime i 1 respecter loif.pl. ■ 

country. That they might not speak at random 

P^y^ ™- d tort et a travers. 

PLUPERFECT. 

That I might not have burnt that work. That thou mightest not 

druter m. 

have contemplated the beauties of the country. That he mitrht have 

contenipler = campagne 

improved his natural abilities. That we might not have 
perfedumncr 7el 2 maijens m. l . ^ 

gained the victory. That you might have delighted the public. 
remporter -f. encKanter — m. 

That they might have struck their enemies with fear 

f rapper de crainte 



116. SECOND CONJUGATION. 
IN -//?. 



rj-.l 



ihis conjugation is divided into five branches, which are 
distinguished by the participle present, the first person of 
the indicative, and the preterit, thus : 



1 punir 

2 dormir 

3 ouvrir 

4 venir 

5 courir 



punissant 

dormant 

ouvrant 

venant 

courant 



je punis 
je dors 
j'ouvre 
je viens 
je cours 



j|e punis 
je dermis 
j'ouvris 
je vins 
je courus 



. The first branch contains upwards of two hundred and 
eighty verbs, the second contains seven radical verbs, and 
eleven derivatives. 

As there are many verbs of the first branch, the infini- 

„„ TTX5XV.1J i,iiii jii mil, iiT, vii, iiKc liiose oi the second 

branch, as may be seen from the following table, some con- 

tusion may arise in conjugating the one or the other, that \i, 



us 



i, 



OF "HIS VERB. 



the learner might be led, by annloev, to sav rahntanL ie ra- 
lentats, or dormissant, je dormtssais. To avoid this con- 
fusion effectually, he will do well to learn the second branch 
by heirt, especially as the few verbs of which it is com- 
p»>dea, are very commonly used. 

The third branch has four radical verbs, and Gve deriva- 
lives* 

The fourth branch has two radical verbs and twenty- 
three denvatives. -^ 

The fifth has one radical, and seven derivative verbs. 



TABLE OF THE FIVE BRANCHES. 



ralent-tr 

retcnt-ir 

appesant-tr 

nant-?> 

renform-ir 

afferm-ir 

r£part-i7 

avert-tr 

dessert-ir 

80rt-M* 

assort-ir 
ressort-ir 



FIRST BRANCH, 



to slacksn 

to resoimtl 

to make heavy 

to pledge 

to plaster 
^to strengthen 

to distnbtUe 

to inform, 

to unset a stone 

to obtain 

to viatch 
E to be under the juris- 
\ diction of 



asserv-ir 

B6v-ir 

a8souv-ir 

appauvr-ir 

tern-»r 

vern-tr 

garn-tV 

fourn-fr 

\)€n-ir 

henn-ir, etc. 



to inslave 
to punish 
to ^^lut 

to impoverish 
to tarnish 
to varnish 
to garnish 
to furnish 
to bless 
to -neigh 



Roots. 



SECOND BRANCH. 



dor-mr, je doi ., 
men-^ir jemens, 
sen-^ir, jo sens, 



to sleep 
to lie 
to feel 

to set out 



\ 



par-iir*, je pars, 

sor-^if ♦, je sors, 
ser-vir, je sers, 

se repen-^ir, je me repens, to repent, has no derivative. 



to get out 
to serve 



Derivatives. 



redot-mir to sleep again 

endot-mir to lull asleep 
se render- mirtofall asleep again 

demen-tir to give the He 

cciitien-tir to amscnt 

pressen-tir to foresee 

ressen-tir to resent 

depur-tir to divicle 

rep&T-tir to set out again 

resBor-tir to go out a%ain 

desaer-vir /o clear the table 



/i 



♦ i! !i' ^•— f*^^'*^. '^P^rttr sortir, nnd ressortir, of the second branch 
take the auxiliary c.re Venir and its derivatWa, are likewise eonl 
jugated with etre, except prevenir and s^dwenir, which iake av^r- 
conyemr also takes avoir, >yhenit means to suit, but it takes e^r/when 
?".?"""_ II " -•4tt;r:,- sa a uciccwvo aflo ODbuieUj verb, only used 



/ ¥ 



t:^i^ Mi 



o\x-vrir 



t>» THl VERB. 
THIRD BRANCH. 

5 



147 



rou-t^m- ta open again 

entr ou-vn> to Aal/f>p\. 
d6cou-Pnr to discover 



Tccoa-vrir 
miaof-frir 



to cover again 
to UTulerbia 



toopen 

cdu-vrir to cover 

off-rir to offer 

•ouff-nr to suffer has no derivative. 

FOURTH BRANCH. 

Roots, Derivatives. \ n^^ r» • .• 

' Koots. Derivatives. 

'■ 

%\h»4cnir to abstain 



VENIR 

to come 






conire-venrr to contravene 
a.-venir to happen 

coa-venir* to agree 
t^-vetiir • to become 
discon-wntr to deny 
inter-ve?nr to intervene 
ti. attain 
io prefjenl 
to pr'cceed 
$ .. ome 
\ ui^iiin 
to befall 
to relieve 
se m\x-venir to remeniier 
se ressou- i . 
venir i ^^ recouecl 



^x-vcnir 
pre-vetur 
pr> venir* 

re-venir 

Bur-vcnir 
Buh'Venir* 



apyar-fen/r to belong 

con-tenir to contain 

j w, icntr to detain 

I'ENIR j , J . , , 

'o hold "^ 6""6-**w*^ io keep up 

mun-tenir to maintain 

oh-tenir to obtain 

re-ienir to retain 

aou-tenir to uphold 



couRiR, raccourir, 
couRANT, J concounr, 
JE couRs, 1 discourir, 
to run Uncourir, 



FIFTH BRANCH. 



to run to 
to concur 
to discourse 
to vncwr 



parcourir, 

recourir, 

secourir 



*o run over 
to recwt 
to succour 



Branch 1 

to punish 
pu-niV t 



117. PARADIGMS OF THE SECOND 

CONJUGATION. 

INFINITlVii:. 

PRESENT,, 

Branch 2. Branch 3. Branch 4. 



j to feel 
I Hen-tir t 



to open 
ou-vn> f 



to held 
t-emr t 



punishing 
pn-nissant 



\ferlini 
1 aen-'tant 



PARTICIPLE PRESENT. 



,lg 



opening 
0VL-\ranl 



(holding 
te-nant 



Branch 5. 
t(' run 
cou-nV t 



running 
coKx-rant 



* St® ^ote in page 146. 



149 



OF THB TBRB. 



i ; i 



punislifid \ftU 
P«-m I Ben-ll 

1o have 'punished 
avoir pu-ni 
having punished 
ayant pu-ni 



PARTICIPLE PA«T. 



fcU 
Ben-li 



I opcTied 
j 0U'\crt 



opeiiM 
ou-vert 



held 
te-nu 

held 
t-enu 



ran 
cou-ru 

fan 
cott-rw 



INDICATIVE. 



I punish 
je pu-nw 
tu pu-nw 
il pxx-nii 

nous pU-rM55<77M 

yous pn-nts.sc- 
ils ]^u-nisse9U 



I have puni^fied 
j'ai ptt-nt ' 



/ rfia punish » 
je pu-nw5<ws* ^ 



fed 

8€n-3 

sc.n-5 
sen-< 

hen-tez 
sen-tent 



PRESENT. 



open 

QU-\re 

o\x-\res 

ou-v;c 

ovL-vrons 

o\i-\rez 

o\x-\rent 



hold 

t-iens 

X-ie7is 

i-ient 

te-nons 

te-tiez 

t-ien/nent 



PRETERIT L'lFINITE. 



\felt 
I sen-ti 



(opened 
ocy-ert 



IMPERFECT, 



feel 
sen-lais* 



open 
onv-rais* 



\held 
\ t-enu 



hold 
t-enais 



run 
cotirs 

COUK 

cuur^ 
cou-Tons 
co\x-rez 
co\x-tent 



nm 
cou-m 



run 
covt-rais* 



1 choose this picture. 
choisir tableau m. 



INDICATIVE. 

PRESENT. 

I feel all the unpleasant^- s of your 
desagrevieni m. 

situation. Wiience comest thou -? Does he thus define that word ? 
dou venir « ainsi deflnir motm. 

Does his mother (go out) so early ? Do we not (set off) for the 
soitir tot * partir 

"XZl f. ""*' ^^^ "" 1:^1 -'^ ^^-rrp? ?° ^°« 

"°' ^'f ,;«!.''^ ^ They (are finishing) at this moment, they 

"^'"*'^ finir dans * art. — m* 

(act contrarily) to y&ur orders. 
coidrevenir ordre. 



Jj^^^'^t^'^^l only of those tenses, which are invariably conju, 
*i''V,"«a„'»«^" ' "'""""^ i'' given, inescnoiar wiii easily supply the rest. 



li 



of THE VERB. 



Hi) 



ran 
cou-rw 

'an 

OUrTU 



run 
couts 

COUK 

cuur^ 

COM-TOnS 

co\x-xez 
co\x-tent 



nin 
cou-m 



run 
covt-rais* 



4 of 3'our 
m. 

that word 7 
Tnottn. 

off) for tho 

'ir 

Do you 

ent. They 
u 



ably conju- 
3iy the rest, 
conditicnal, 



/ had punished 
j 'avals pu-ni 

Ipunis/ied 
je pu-ms 
tu pu-niis 
ii \mn'it 
nous pn-niines 
vous pu-nites 
ils pu-nirent 

I had punished 
j'eus pu-ni 

/ shall punish 
je im-nirai 



PLUPERFECT. 

felt I opened 

scn-ti I ouv-c7"^ 



Itcld 
t-etiu 



PRETERIT DEFINITE. 




opened 

oxiv-ris 

ouv-?-'is 

ouv-rU 

onv-ri7/ies 

oa\-rii€S 



Hrent j owf-rirent 



held 

i-ins 

t~ins 

i-int 

t-inmes 

triTites 

i-inrent 



PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 

felt I opeved I held 

sen-ti ou- I te-?iu 



ran 
cou-r/i 



I ran 

\ CO'i-tUS 
COU-TUS 

co\i-rut 
con-Tuvies 
co\i-tutes 
cou-rure7U 



ran 
cou-rw 



FU 

feel 
scn-tirai 



URE ABSOLUTE. 

open I /lold 



o\x-vnrai \ i-iendrai 

X oTURE ANTERIOR, 

I shall have punis/ted\ felt [opened ] held 

j'aarai. pu-ni 



} sen-/i j ouv-e?'^ te-nu 



run 
cour-mi 

ran 
cou-rjt 



IMPERFECT. 
I fortified his soul against the dangers of 'jeduction. I served 
p Imunir contre — art, — -f. si^rmr 

my friends warmly. Didst not thou amuse him with fair 
avecchaleur * enlretenir de beau 

promises'? He generally complied with the wishes of his family. 
piomesse t p\. en giaerul comentir a dcsir m.pl famillei. 

Were we sleeping then 1 Did you not belie your character 1 
dorniir dementir caracttre m. 

Tlie children were running about the garden. We (used to discourse, 
courir dans discounr 

on Interesting subjects. My sister (used to come) every 
trUeressant2 sujetm,l vev^'r toics 

morning to sco mc. Did you not go out ,n you pleased 1 
hs viatins sortir vouliez 

Did not the master punish you severely 1 

severemeiU 



that terrible 



PRETERIT. 

I softened my father by my submission. I foresaw 

fi^<^f^'^"' somnission f pressenti-/ 

catastrophe. Thou didst not (come again) as thou hadst pro' 

*• ^* rcventr coitime ie'md-*Zpro' 

mised. He did not succeed through thoughtlessness. Did not his 

^^'^w^ ^ reussir par etourdencf. 

daughlcr (!?et out again) iuimediateiy. Did not Alexander suliv 

reparhr sur-lc-camp ^^^^-J. 

N 2 



150 




/ should punish 
je pu-hiVaw 

i' should have punished 
J aurais pu-ni 



punish {thou) 
pu-nw 

qu'il ^M-nisse 
Jivi-mssons 
yu nisse:: 
qu'iJs pn-nissent 



CONDITIONAL. 
PRESENT. 



feel 
sexi-tirais 



open 
o\x-vrirais 



PAST. 



hold 
t-iendrais 



aen-ii 



I opened | keid 
I ou-vert I te.^^4 



IMPERATIVE. 



feel 
scn-s 

sen-ions 

aen-tenf 



' open 
0{i-v?-e 
oa-vr'c 
ou-vrons 
ou^\rez 
oxi-vrent 



/told 

t'ic'/is 

t-ie7i7ie 

ie-non$ 

te-nez 

t'ienncjit 



ran 
couT-rais 



ran 
cour-rtf 



I run 
I cour5 
I coa-re 

ICOn-T07l4 
cou-re^- 
cou-rent 



h's glory by his pri.le i Did w« r s ~ ' 

P e. ^^'^-e (go out) of the city before him 1 
We never betrayed that important secret Did ^ •"'"''"' 

(leave It to me) ? Thev servpri f k • consentir de, 

vmcs m rapportJa mvi ^ ^"^ ^^"' ^'^"^t'y with couraee 

pays ° ' 

C!K 11 T FUTURE. 

fehall I not obtain this of you ? Wha* wHi K 

''^tener celade ^ Z> "^'^ ^^come of thee, if I 

forsake thee ? Will Hp ««» . ..^ aermr * ^14 

abanda?i9ie,- " ^'^ "°* embellish his country seat? 

He will not sleep quietly. shlTwr . "''''''^ "^^ '^'^^^e f. 
Wn^immr ' '^"-^^"^ t° tf^at ridiculous 



iranquillement 
bargain ? With time 

wa^rAem. 1 avec de artm 



and 



8 



- "— pr art ^?''"''''' ^^^^ ^I 

^ccomphsh) your object Wp Kb«ii / ^^'^^V 

a-^a^«rfe .iS.m. '^'" ""^ «"!'y the splendour of 

our life by an unworthy action Will T" '^'™' 

indig„^2 -I "• ^'" ^^o«e men enrich their 
country by their industry ^ Will nnf .. ^*^Aw- 

W tW,«^,£- ™^ «ot our fnends offer us their 

assistance? (Take off) vour ro»t ,n^ .. ''■^'^'' 

secours dtez ^ ^^ *"^ >ou will run faster. 

coitfir 



CONDITIONAL. 



I would open the door and the window T .1, , , 
life W n> '""'''' /^S7f. ^ '^''"^'^ «t^" <^herish 

art '• ^^°"'^'* '=«» ^hou interfere 



in iU^t. .<«.. 



''hirir 
Would 



-■•a*»J-Sfc.T'teS4!:^ 



cP THE vmna. 



151 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



PRESENT. 



that I may punish 
que je pu-nws£< 
que tu pu-ntsscs 
qu'il pu-nme 
que nous pu-nissww 
que vous \)i\x-ni$siez 
qu'ils ^n-nisseni 



feel 

sen-te 

acn-tes 

sen-te 

Ben-lions 

scn-Uez 

sen-tent 



open 

ou-vre 

o\x-\res 

ou-vre 

on-vrions 

on-vriez 

ovi'\renl 



that I may have punished I felt 

quej'aiepun-i | sen-^i 

that I might punish feel I 

que je pu-nisse sen-tisse 

que tu p\i-nisses aen-tisses \ 

qu'il TpvL-nit scn-tU 

que nous ipn-nissions sen-tission^ \ 

que vous pu-nissie^ sen-tissiez \ 

qu'ils pu-nisse?i« sen-tissent \ 



PRETERIT 



opened 
cnv-ert 



hold 

t-ienne 

t-iennes 

t-ienne 

te-nions 

te-niez 

t-iennenl 



held 
tc-nu 



iMPERPECT. 



open 


hold 


o\x\-nsse 


t-in^ve 


o\iv-nsses 


t-insses 


ouv-ri^ 


t-int 


(HXv-7-issions 


t-inssions 


ou\-nssiez . 


t-inssiez 


oxx\-rissent | 


t-inssent 



run 

COU-Tg 

cou-res 

cou-rc 

cou-n(WJl 

cou-ric^ 

con-rent 



ran 
cou-ru 



run 

coM-russe 

cou-Tures 

con-vut 

con-rus."io7ts 

COVi'TUSS. •". 

coxx-xussea^i 



my brother (set off again) without taking leave of us"? You would 

repartir sans prendre conge 

not succeed in injuring him in the public opinion. You would 
parvenir a nuire lui —2 — f.l. 

never soften that hard hearted man. Could they foresee their 
attendrir caur de rocher pressentir 

misfortune i Would men always (grow old) without growing 
malhewr art. vieiUir sans devenirin(.-l 



I would 



the door 



wiser, if they reflected on the shortness of life. 

reflechir ind.-3 sur brievete f. art. 

visit France and Italy if (I had the means.) 
paranirir art.— art = mes moi/cns le permcUaieHt. 

IMPERATIVE. 

Shudder with horror and terror. Do not open 
Fremir de - deeffroiia. ouvrir 

to any one in my absence. Let him not suffer such insults. 
persanne souffrir pareil insulte f. 

Do not go out in the rain. Let us not run so fast. Lei u.- 
sortir a counr 

feed the poor. Let us gain glory by our perseverance, hit 
noxirnr m.pl. obtenir art.= f. _ 

us not divulge our secrets to every body. Do not maintain so 



decouvrir 

absurd an opinion. 
del If. 1. 



tmit le movAe 



s&utenir 



i52 



OP THE VBRU. 



plupertect. 



/ mi-fU h^vc pmished I fcU I opened 

qucjaiepuni J scnti | ouvcrt 



held 
tcnu 



run 
coii-m 



SUBJUNCTIVE, 
PRESENT 
That t may never^jtin my reputation. (That I may be beforehand) 
with .„.». 1 ^ . • y^-z-evw?- 

Tarri''"£T' ''T'"- 'r" "°* ^«^« ^'^^ (g- -0 thi« 
"S"J' '* ^" '"'•^ "°^^ °^*"'" ^'« *'"'^'^- That we may bccon.e 

^"*'ts^"' :i^r. ^'^^^ ^^^ -^ p-^«^ ^'- .-i?y- (We 

.^^iPf^) thatyou may return covered with lauX ''tH 

they may cstaMish wise and just laws Thnf th»v «, 

d/rtAZiV rf* 2 3 art! "^^^^ ***®3^ ™ay agree 

overtake him, I sincerely wish ho mav lonir fniAiri^o i T. 
rattrapper devrJr L, ,^ ^njoy his good fortune. 

Imperfect. 
Th.. I „igh. . «..^.he ^h„.e ^^|hb„„rf.„„,. That I .i,h. „„. 

"*/Ssr' ""'^""""^"'ii^^r iaws."Th:rwe might 

belong to that ffreat kinw. Thaf vmi n^i^t.* 
apparknir ° ^ ''"^^ 3^°" "^'g^t renounce your errors 

.« 1 • r n.1. , revenir de = 

and prejudices. 1 hat they might weaken thp fn«»« «<• fu • 
pr.pron.F-e>^e ^ ofSv r ^^ '^*'>'' 

reasons. That they might liold the most absurd idea*.* 

** art. 1 



118, THIRD CONJUGATION. 

IN -om. 

PARADIGM. 

This conjugation contains only seven verbs, which arc 
pcrc-aWr fo rrceiv. | dec-...,> to dvcewe 

j red-evair to ov:c agam 



o.perc- evoir 
conc-cvaif 



f/) perceive 
to conceive 



Off THE VERB. 



153 



and recevoir, which serves as a paradigm. Percevcnr is a 
law term, and apercevoir is often reflected. 

In all tenses in which c comes before. o or u, it takes the 
cedilla, in order that it may retain its soft sound. 



INFINITIVE. 



SIMPLE TKNSES. 



xe-cevoir 

relevant 
re-9M 



PRESENT. 

to receive 



COMPOUND TENSE* 



avoir TC-fU 
PARTICIPLES. 



PRESFNT. 

receiving 

PAST. 

received 



1 



ayantrc-fw 



PAST, 

to hrive received 



PAST. 

having received 



INDICATIVE. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



/ receive 
je re-fois 
tu re-pots 
il legoit 



PRESENT. 

toe receive 
nous Tc-cevons 
vous re-cevez 
ils xe-poivent 

IMPERFECT. 

we did receive 
nous rec-evions 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 



I 



J ai re-gu 
tu as etc. 



/ did receive 
je vec-evais 

PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

I received we received 
je re-pw5 
tu re-fM,s 

II re-f w^ 



I have received 
thou, etc. 



nous ref-MOTCS 
vous xe<^-utes 
ils re^-urent 



PLUPERFECT. 

j 'avais re^-w / ha/l received 

PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 

j'eus req-u I had received 

tu eus etc. ihau etc. 



INDICATIVE. 
PRESENT. 

I see the summit of the Alps covered with perpetual 
apercevoir sommet Alpes f pi, de cternel 2 

snow. What gratitude dost thou not owe to her who (hos 

neige f.pl. 1 reconnaissance f. devoir ccUe 1 

discharged) (the duty of a mother) (to thee) (in thy infancy 1) 
remplir 3 5 p7'es deA 2 

does not your pupil understand that rule which is so siuple 1 We 
ecolier concevoir regie f. * * 

do not O'Wfi a Inrcrn sum Da vnii rtnt nru*.'. ivo ffio cnarA 1 Oii»'K» 

devoir gros so-mme f, 2nege m. devoir 5 

firm and courageous men to yield to circumstances 7 
d€S I 3 =4 8 • ceder art. circomlance 



154 



er TMiE vfikB. 



•iMPtE TE>fSEfl. 



fUTDBE ABSOLUTE. 

/ 5Aai^ receive we shaU receive 
je re^eurai nous rec-m-om 



COMPOITND TENSES. 



,, FUTURE ANTERIOR. 

J aurai re-^w / shall have received 



te-^ois 



CONDITIONAL. 

PRESENT. , ^^^^ 

1 re-cw 
-evrw7is j tu, etc f ceifeei 

IMPERATIVE. 

re-ceV(?7M /tf^ us receive 



PRESENT. I - ^ 



receive thou 



Ou'il re-ooi^/. 'j-^. '''"^. re-cwe^r receive ye 

qu u re 90t^^ &« ^m remt;e j qu'ils ve-(^oivent let them receive 



IMPERFECT. 

I received a letter from her daily. Did ho see the eastle 

^nm -., I i' ^ ^s>Mr5 apercevoir chateau 

°H .' '''S"' *^' *"" "»' '»"«''» <"« i""--"" 
rein.larl„ n, psrcemir revenu m.fl. 

ri^rZu ^'-^ =">«"■>«'«=«'« groat altentionsl Did tho» 

♦„ ^ . '^^ honnetete f. pi. * 

tyrants conceive all the blackness of their crimes 1 
tyran concevoir noirceur f. ^ 

PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

iFrceivedhim walking by moon-light. He saw him 

Z^ qui se promnait d art. dair de lllune m 

'" «S ''^ '^' "^«r ?tj"ggling for his life. Did we not 
au muteu se debattant contre la mart 

immediately perceive the snare 1 You did not receive his letters in 
*;__ T\.j ,, . . lettres d 

ZZ% ^'^ '^« "^'"^^t^"^ conceive the depth of his plan 7 
lemps ire 'profondeurt —m. 

FUTURE. 

Shall I receive any letters to-day 1 We shall soon see 

the snJrP nf*f,« ii* ^ a^jourd'hui apercevoir 

^'^Kn. °^^^^ :!!l!^. ^^o r - ^ ; I an. su. he will 

receive you well. Will they never understand so simple a thing 1 

concevoir 2 chose I 



I would receive them 



CONDITIONAL 
more 



IHely. Cihoulda wise man thus 
devoir 8 1 aivsi2 



rENSES. 
[•ERIOR. 

II have received 



hould have re* 
ived 



the castle 
ir chateau 

income 
revenu ta. pi. 

Did those 



He saw him 

Did we not 

his letters in 
leltres d 
8 plan % 
— m. 



soon see 

apercevoir 

re he will 
qite 

a thing 1 
chose 1 



nan thus 
1 ainsi 2 



\l 



«P THt VERB. 
SUBJUNCTIVE. 

SIMPLE TENRE8, 



155 



PRESE^^T. 

that I may rcceh .. that we may receive 

que je xec-oive que nous tec-evims 

que tu rec-r'/ws qui voua receviez 

qu il ie(^-oive qu'ija tei^^vent 

IMPERFECT. 

that I might receive thai, we may receive 
que ^e ref-wsie que nous rep-iwsums 
q ue je re. -^^js^, q^g y,^^^ rec-us^^iez 
qu il rev-u^ qu'ils re^-ussent 



COMPOUKD TEN8M. 



PRETERIT. 



quej'aie rep-w 
que tu, etc. 
qu'il, etc. 



S 



f\cU Imay 
have re- 
ceived 



PLUPEBPECT. 



que j eusse re-^u 
que tu, etc. 



that 
I might 
have re- 
ceived. 



grl^2\'ni\ ,.'^' "'''"" "■>' ""«« ««ive their friend with 

tenderness 1 
tendresse f. 

IMPERATIVE. 

PRESENT. 

Conceivcthe horror of his situation. Do not receive th.. m„k 

" Z^" "'"> '»fi!!!l""- I-e. u. entertain hrr<ff 

T, . concevotr * de art. vour 

^^v^ce. Receive his a^;^e with respect and gr^de. ReSe 

no more of his letters. 

lettre 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

PRESENT. 

Thatlmayreceive_^^^ consolations. It is not credible that he 
|.ho«,dno.conceiveathoj.,htso well explained. I S* nd that 
Loan,ay.,tperceiver|4erof ttTw^h r^^^r, to 




good morali?. 

iart. 

taxes. 
,rt. f.pi. 1, 



* conire 



.2 jpc/tcttrt/ im ITlYim^ J^ 



. , 



156 



OF THB VStlB. 

FOURTH CONJUGATION* 
IN 'HE. 



119. This conjugation has five branches* 

C'dndre 

The first ends in •< 



as 



•cndre 
-ondrc 
-erdre 
-ordre 



the second ends in -aire 

the third ends in < 
the fourth ends in 



the fiflh etids in 



aitre 
aitre 
-uire 
C -aindre 
< ehidre 
( -oindre 



repandre 

yendre 

repo7idre 

■perdre 

mordre 

plaire 

taire 

repaitre 

connaitre 

instruire 

contraindre 

neindre 

joi/idre 



to spil 
to sell 
to answer 
to lose 
to bite 
to please 
to keep secret 
to feed 
to know 
to instruct 
to constrain 
to paint 
to join 



I t 



IMPERFECT. 

I did not believe that he perceived the secret designs of the 
je ne croyais pas cache 2 dessein 1 

enemy's general. We were obliged to receive every body with 
2*1 il f alia it que vons 

It was likely that you might not perceive the 

il etait p-obable 

of this book. That they might not perceive the 



civility. 

?ionnetete 

depth 
profondeur f. 

masts of the ship. 
nidt m. pi. vaissean m 



t I 



120. PARADIGMS OF THE FOURTH 
CONJUGATION. 

INFINITIVE. 



tlwn 



„\^ 1 



to render 
renJ-rff 



„\^ O 



55* 

to please 
pVaire 



PRESENT. 

to appear 
pa-rat^* 



to reduce 
r4dui-r< 



to join 
join<f-r< 







' 




OP THE VERB. 167 ' 


i 






PAST. {To have). 




- 




rtnd^red 
avoir ren-dw 


pleased 
— pl-M 


appeared reduced 
—pa-Hi —t€-dmt 


joined 
•— joi»< 








PARTICIPLE PRESENT. 








'■ rendering 
■ ten-dard 


pleasing 
j^airsa/it 


appearing 1 reducing 
^^-raissant \ redui-san^ 


joined 
joi'g9iaiU 


il 


', 


1 


PARTICIPLE PAST. 


. 


I 

■swer 

n 




rendered 
xen-du, 


pleased 


appeared reduced 
pa-?tt reduis 


joined 
joint 


e 




' 


COMP 


. PAST PARTICIPLE. 




'ose 

op secret 
d 
ow 




Avoir rendu 
Ayant rendu 


|plu 


I pa-ru 1 reduit 


1 joint 


% 






INDICATIVE 




struct 
nstrain 
int 
n 


i 


/ reiukr 
je rends 
tu rends 
il rend 
nous ren-dows 
vous rend-e^ 
ils t&Ordent 


please 

pl'ais 

pl-azs 

pl-at^ 

plai-sons 

Tplai-sez 

p[ai-se7it 


] 


PRESENT. 

appear 

pa-raw 

pa-r«w 

pa-rai< 

pa-raisso?is 

T^-raissez 

^Si-taisscnt 


ruduce 

rSuuis 

reduis 

reduis 

redui-sa»s 

redui-s^^ 

Todm-seTU 


join . 

joins 

joins 

join^ 

joi-^wo^ 

joi-gnez 

joi-gnent , 


jsigns of 


the 


essei7i 1 


1 




PRETERIT INDEFINITE. (I httVe) 




py body y 
perceive 


ivith 1 

the ) 

i 


Tendered 
j'ai ren-dv, 


pleased 
— pl-?A 


appeared reduced 
— pa-rw —reduit 

tMPERFECT. 


joined 
—joint 


perceive 


the [ 


I did render 
je ren-dnis 


please 
flai-sais 


appear reduce 
Tp&T-raissais redui-sats 

PLUPERFECT. 


join 
joi-gnais 




Jg/ 


I had rendered 
j'avais ren-dw 


pleased 
— plw 


appeared reditced 
— par?4 — reduis 


joined 
— join^ 



ITH 



INDICATIVE. 



PRESENT. 



I know his fiery and 
cOTmattre bouiUant 2 
return with impatience. 



his 



to pin 
jo\r\d-ri 



retcur 

virtue please every body "? 



not 



opinion. 



impetuous temper. I expect 

= 3 caractere m.l attendre 

Does he fear death? Does 
craindre art. f. 

We do not compel you to adoot this 
corUrdindre de adopter 
Wc suppress for the present several intei: sting circum- 

ni- intercssante 2 

O . ' 



tatrc 




158 



branch, 1. 
Irendertd 
je ren-dis 
tu ron-dts 
i! ten-dit 
ncutren-dtmes 
▼OUB ren-dites 
ils ren-dirent 



OF THE VERB. 



Branch 2. 

\ pleased 

plus- 

plut 

pMimes 

pltUes 

plurent 



PRETERIT, 

Branch 3. 
appeared 

pBL-TUS 

pa-rMs 

pa.-mt 

p»-r{imes 

pBk-ttUes 

pei'iurent 



Branch 4. 

reduced 

r6dm-sis 

redui-iis 

T6dm. sit 

rMm-simes 

T^duirsites 

T^dni-sirent 



I had renff*:rcd 
j'eiis re*i-dtt 



PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 

phased \ appear \ reduced 

PW I pa-nt I t€dm-t 

FUTURE ABSOLUTE. 

jerend-m \plaurai \ pa-rai-trai | redui^at , 

FUTURE ANTERIOR. (/ shall have) 

!&,.„ \T' \r^-^ M^-f 



Branch 6. 

joined 

ipi-gnts 

ioi-gnis 

iox-gnit 

Soi-gnimes 

y^-giiiks 

}oi-gnirent 



I joined 



join 
}oi7i'drai 



joined 
joiTt^ 



You captivate you, £7*'^, JWaw.iW. ^ 

"""■ tZ:&' *•" «L°" ' I^ "»' 'hose worCn ...te their 
•time about trifles'? '*'"*' i*"*"-' 

d bagaUUe pi. 

IMPERFECT. 

"''""'l^f ^"-^ ""''""• •f"?'^ "><« «.d victimea 

u.^puii,re plaindre triste virtim^f «i 

Of the revolutiou. Did no. this dog hite , S,;f pitS^ ^ 

hody He never seemed satisfied "^rhr not y^T'"^ '^ 

-^l-'Sr ' ^^ ■'l^,- -" heoause we tL ,00 far. 

She was painting. His presence f]im,-n^ • i. ^^^"^^ 

^emrfrg presence diffufled joy wherever he 

anneare.! Tho^ i^ - »^e;;a7u^re par tout oii 

appearea. ihey led us into error 
senmUratt induire en 



I sold every thing I 
vendre tout <x quie ind, S. 



PRETERIT. 



vrcxuic «ij uepanure. 



She comjfjelled 

coniraindre 



Hrjinch 5. 

joined 

)o\-gnis 

ioi-gnis 

yoi-gnit 

yA-gntmes 

yiirgnites 

joi-gnirent 



I joined 



I join 
I joiw-rfrai 



) 

[joined 
I joint 



jne another 7) 
i?ifc Vautre 

irior. Do your 

3. 1 

n waste their 
perdre 



victimes 
victimef. pi, 

pleased every 
platred tout 

t every body 
re 

ere too far. 

eloigne 
i^herever he 
ir tout on 



he comj)elled 
contraindre 



Branch 1. 

I should render 
jo xen-drais 

rendered 
j'auraifl ren-dw 

render (thou) 
KQ-ds 

qu'il ren-<^ 
ren-duns 
ren-dez 

qu'ils len-dent 



OP THE VERB. 

CONDITIONAL. 
PRESENT. 
Branch 2. Branch 3, Branch 1. 

please I appear I rg(/i«:e 

pl-ai-raw | pa-r«i.<r<w5 | r6-dui-r«M 

PAST (/ should have), 
pleased I appeared j reduced 
— pli« j — pa-rM I — r6-dui/ 

IMPERATIVR 



please 

pk?A' 

plaise 

plai-so/M 

plai-sez 

plai'sent 



j appear 
pa-rais 
pa-r«W5t' 
psi-raissons 
pa.-Taissez 
psi-raissent 



reduce 

r6duis 

reduis6 

redui-5o?M 

r€dm-sez 

r6dui-isen^ 



159 



Branch 5. 

join 
join-drais 

joined 
— joi-nl 

join 

ioins 

^oi-gne 

joi-gnons 

joi-gTiez 

joi-gnetU 



partir rejoindre 

them at Park where they (waited for) us. After giving him a 

att€»<^e ind. 2 <^;>^ i^f. 2 

good dinner, we took him back to his cottage in our own car- 

recon uvc * chaunuire f. 

nage. They put out all the candles which alained us a little. 

eteindre lumteresf. ce guietm7ierind.3 

My dog ran after him and bit him in the leg. 
counrind.3. mordre d 

FUTURE* 
®t*LLre'" *^'" ""^'^ ^' ^""^ •' . , . ^ «^«^» »o* conceal 

^ . \ . '■ ccntraindre offi^ 

S tr^;Zuire '^'^ '"^f'^" "^^'P^ ^ ^ill not a thought. 

true, gra-.l, and well expressed, please"? (We shall make our 

expnme., plaire parai- 

appearance) on this great stage „ext month. "^ Shall 

'7 ^Aea^re m. art. p-ochain 2 rnois m. 1 

Qk 1 1 t ,^ , PRESENT. 

Should I, by these means, gain the desired end ? I 

nun/en m. s. alteindre a desire 2 but m. I 



160 



or THE VBUB. 



Ill 



I 



Branch 1 
render 
que je ren-il(? 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

PHESKNT. {That I may). 



in 

il 

nous 

voua 

ils 



rcn des 

rep-ile 

rcn-dt<m5 

ren-diez 

ron-d'.'nt 



Branch 2, 

I please 

Yi\aises 

p\aisi(ms 

plaisiez: 

plaisc7U 



Branch 3 


Branch 4 


nppear 


reduce 


pn-raissc 


r€d\xi-se 


fBL-raiss€s 


r6<iui-ses 


pa-raisse 


t6d\ii-se 


psL-ramions 


lidui'Sions 


pn'taissiez 


redxxi-siez 


pa-zaissent 


T6(\{ii-seiu 



Branch 5. 

join 

joi-g7ies 

joi-^'ne 

joi-gnioiis 

J0t-g1l€Z 

joi-gnent 



«.":L"'* '^^S'^f""'""' ^""".^ sincerity d,We... . 

an;, =;i. deplatre d 
man (of sense) ? Should we sell our liberty ? Should wo 
*?'we vendre 

a,m"rmv/" °"'°"P°"*^'* P'""- Would you oblige 

v.»„«„ « L 1 ■ I. "~ ™' astreindre de art. 

my protectors i Uroduco an unknown person into the world 1 

= ZTdroduire mconnum. * 

r. . , . , ., IMPERATIVE. 

SSt '" ^;S '" '^° ?h"«^« of a rural life. Do 

pciiutic xdylle douceur I cJ^amfetreZ 1 

«.f<?wtf>e ♦ douteuz que re- 

^"'^"^ * parattre ni 

cheerful or too grave. Ye sovereigns make the dpodIo h^nnv 
gat m serieux * souver<dnp\. reniZ ^ ^ *PP^' 

Sweet illusions, vain phantoms, vanish. 
doux — f, — faimmem.disparaUre 
Buch truths as may offend. 
certmn f pi. qui peuvent offe-.i^ei'. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 



(Keep to yourself) 
taire 



, PRESENT. 

i nat i may fear that host of enemies. 

craindrc nnee f. 



That I should please 



Cr TfiE VERB. 



161 



i. 



Branch 5. 

j joi-gne 
joi-g7ies 

joi-gnioiis 

joi-gmz 

joi-gTient 



uld his motlici' 

rity displease a 

deplaire oL 

? Should wo 

oblige 
streindre de art. 

rive your child 

luire 

tisure. Would 
1 

world 1 



life. Do 
're 2 1 

!ther I shall 

i^e re- 

bfef^re thou 

avant de * 

Let us not 

3ar either too 
\tre ni 

people happy. 

[) to yourself) 
taire 



should please 
a 



rcnd'irf.r 



Tcn 

qi3 je .isss 

tu ren-utv.»»» 

noif <»': dissions 
V0U8 ren-di.wt/?;r 
i! » ren-dM5sni 



fcnd/'ird 
jK^'j'cuuse rcn-d»A 



PRiTERiT. {That I may ha •). 

I phased J appeared I reduced 
I — plw I— paru I -r6duU 
IMPERP £cr. ( r/ia< / mtgAO. 
pkasc appear I r«/^««0 
phmc pa-rii-Wf? I redui-sw-? 
plwA^^s pa-r?/«?(?5 I reiWi-sisses 
l\ut pa-rff^ I r6dui-«^ 

j^lussUms ^•Tussians j r^d ui-57x«o?w 
jAussie:: j pa-rjwsig;: I redui-smw';; 
ip\-ussenl j pa-r«.«en/ | r^dui-*M5ew< 

PLUPKRFECT. (/Aft/ / wt/g'Af Aflw), 

pleased j appeared I reduced 
r\u J par-jt I "fiduii 



IjoituJ 
— joi-n< 



jo\-gnisse 

joi-gnisses 

joi-gnU 

joi-gnisiu>HS 

ioi-gnissiez 

joi-gniyjnt 



joined 



si 2 



every body, is iiapossiblc. That ho may not reply to such 

^ repoudre un si - 

absurd criticism. That he may lead his pnpil step by step 

f. critique f. 1 conduire eleve pas d 

to a perfect knowledge of the art of speaking and '-ritinff. That 

connaissaru f. mf, 1. inf^ 

we may confound the arts with the sciences. That \ou may have 

c^nfondre tendre a 

the same end (in view.) That they may not depend on any bodv 
*«^™-* * dcpeiutre depersanic 

That they may not increase our suflt ings, 
accroUre peines 

IMPERFECT. 

Jle did not allow us to answer him. They were obliffe^ 

II lie voxOait pas qiie r6/iondre Im It fallail que 

appear in full uniform at dinner. He stayed a fort 

grands —forme m. attendre ind-3 ^qwhixe 

night in Paris, (in orde-^ that wc might rejoin him. That wo 
,1ours a. afin rejnndre 

might take him to court That you might hear their 

co^iduire art. mcr f. ^ ^^^^^.^ 

justification. That you might know your real friends. That they 

vrai 
might (wait for) the opinion of sensible persons. 
attendre art. se^isc 2 f. pi. 1 



101 









been said, conjugated with two 
and the other the object. In their 

2 



as ii iius already 
pronouns, one the subject 
compound tenses the nrr- 




m 



i- 1 



OF THE VERB. 




ticiple past agrees in gender and number with the subjecf., 

< EXAMPLES 

jemehlesse IkurtmyBelf ' ' 

nous nous trompons we deadie ourselves 
eliesesttuee ^ she has killed herself 
AIniost all active verbs may be made reflected, since a 
person may hurt and deceive himself in the same manLr 
thai ne hurts or deceives others. This p<^m Ts common t 
bo h languages, but there are two things in which thTdiffe 
v;.th regard to reflected verbs. First, the compound tenSs 
are conjugated with io have, in English, and^S S 
French : / have hurt myself, je me s^is blessL Secondly, 

form in F^^^ Tl ''^'^^ ""^'^ "^ ^''^ ^" '^^ '^^^ S 
mZrfl' ^^^^^^^^, '''^i'r in Erglish j such as > 
ntarrete, je medepcch^, I stop, I make hast^. As these 

ila'o^'thrm. '^"'"'^''' "''^^" conversation we subjoin 
1^. LIST OF COMMON REFLECTED VERBS 



s'abstenir 

s'abonner 

s'ap rcevoir 

s'aseeoir 

86 coucher 

ee depdcher 

Bc d^faire ._„„. ,^v 

se desesperer to despair 



to ndstain 
to subscride 
to perceive 
to sit down 
to lie down 
to maJce haste 
to get 9id 



Be dispenser 

s'entretenir 

s'endormir 

s'en aller 

s'eftbrcer 

s'empdcher 

s'emporter 

s'enmir 

s'enj^ i6rir 

s'^tonner 

s'6veiiler 

s'evanouir 

s'cnquerir 

se fdchor 

se iier 

se garder 

s'habiller 

s'habituer 

se hater 

s'imaginer 



to dispense with 
to converse 
to fall asleep 
to go away 
to endeavour 
to forbear 
to grow warm 
to run away 

to enquire 

to feel surprised 

to wake 

tofainl 

to enquire 

to be a/n,p;ry 

to trust ' 

to br.ware 

to dress 

to get used 

to hasleu 

to fancy 



s'interesser 
se lever 
se raefier 

' se moquer 

I se nommer 
I s'oc'uper 
' "' promener 

se plaindre 

se plaire 

se porter 

se rappeler 

se rejouir 

£3 rendre 

se repentir 
I se ressouvenir 

se rire 

se retourner 
se reposer 
se reveiller 
se savoir gre 
se servir 
se taire 

se trouiper 

ss trouver 
I ae vanter 



to fed an interest 

to get up 

to distrust 
< to laugh at 
\ not to care for 

to be named 

to be bitsy about 

to walk 

to complain 

to take pleasure 

to be {ill or well) 

to remember 

to rejoice 

to go, to repair to 

to repent 

to remember 
( to laugh ai 
\ not to care for 

to turn round 
to rest 
tn wake 
to be glad 
to make use of 
to be silent 
( to mistake or be mis- 
\ taken 
to be 
to boast 



of t Jfell^S^^^" ""^^ ""'" ''^""^ "°*'''^ '" ^^<' ^h^Pter 



fyf THB VfeRil. 



Hi 



123. PARADIGM OF A REFLECTED VERB. 

INFINITIVE. 



SIMPLE TKNSE8. 
PRESENT. 

se repentir to repent 

PRESENT. 

55 repentant repenting 



COMPOUND TENl?Bi^* 



s'ctre 



PAST. 

repenti 

or ^to have repetUed 
repentie 



ST. 



PARTICIPLES. 



PAST. 



repenti, m. 
repenting /. 
repei'tl"!, m. 
repenties,/. 



PAST. 



repented 



I ( repenti ) 

s'etant \ ^ \ having repented 



repentie 



INDICATIVE. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 
PRESENT. 

/ repent. 



je we 

tu te 

il, or elle se 
nous novA 

vous Tons 

ils, or elies se 



repens 

rej)ens 

repent 

repentons 

repentez 

repentent 



iMPERPECT. 



/ did repent. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 

/ have repented. 



tu 

il, or elle 

nous 

vous 



vie 

V 

s' 

nous 

vmts 



ils, or elles se 



suis 

e$ 

est 

sormnes 

etes 

sont 



tu 

il, or elle 

nous 

vous 



rtie 

te 

se 

nous 

vons 



ils, or elles se 



repentais 

repertais 

repentait 

repentions 

repentiez 

repentaient 



tu 

il, or ellc 

nous 

vous 

ils,£'r elles s' 



PLUPERFECT. 

/ had repented. 

etais 

etais 

ctait 

elions 

etiez 

etaient 



w 

V 

s' 

nom 

vous 



i repenti 
or 
repentie 
i repentis 
/ or 
J repenties 



) re|)enti 

> w 

J repentie 
) repentij 

> or 

} repentic5 



124. INTERROGATIVE AND NEGATIVE FORMS. 



je ne me repens pw 

te repen3-tu 1 

ne nous repcntons-nous pas *? 

je ne me suis pas repenti 

ne se aont-ils pas repentis 1 

ne «e sont-elles pas repenties 1 

ma scBur se repent 

lua scBur iia se rpnont-ellc nas 1 



I do nof repevZ 

dost thou repent ? 

do we not repent ? 

I have not repented ? 

have tliey not repented ? 

have they not repented ? 

my sister rej)e7its 

dops not mv sistjer rp.n.'>^tJ, 7 



'^'Qi freres se sont-ils rcpcjntis 1 have yowr frrot/ws repented ? 




• r 




t6i 



Olf THR VEKB. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



PR: 

J0 
tu 

il or clIo 

nous 

vous 



' RIT DEFINITE. 

/ repented, 
nie rcpentia 
fe rcpentis 
se repentit 
nous rcpfcntimes 
vous repentite«r 



il.-ol.os.. „'p.miro.u \ r:rollc.r jT^u 




COBIPOUND TENSES. 
PnETEHIT ANTERIOR. 

/ had repented 
me fus 1 repenti, 

ie /us > or 

se fiU ) repentig 

nous fmies irepentis 
voxis futes \ err 

repenti(7.j 



\ 



INDICATIVE. 



PRESENT. 

I often walk bv 

not take too much care of ourselves^ -J W-.™ i «««^fc t. 

5'ec^w/<?r ^ro;; ^"rseives; J How do you do? Thoy 

intend to travel in the spring ''^''^'" '' 

proposer <U vayager d pSipsm. 

PRETERIT INDEFINITE 

;-,/">'-f i» ".e wood , (a i.^^.,i,) ,.„, „^ ,,„^_, ^.^^^^^ 
(ou^oO ..pa.. H.e „o ^^^ _,,, „,Cl ...„ , 

Ladies, have vou walkrd AS;= »v, • x ^ jondement 

Mesdamcs ^ prZn^^r ^^'' "^S^? ^ ^i<^ ^hose ladies re- 

cognise themselves in this nortrait -? v* i "^'^'"^ ^^ 

reMmmltrc a ^ ^^^^^^ ' ^o" l^ave mistaken the 

house. We have made as much haste as wo couJd 'T"k '' 

(on the) road ? I have fallen asleep ' ^^'■^''^'' 

^" s'e^idonnir . 

careful t^ ascertain o wh ch of thlm f .""'"''i^T^*' *^''^«^«'-^Tbc 

consideraUon belon.. SeZmneZl is of f hi T^ ,^^'«^«o«l« under'his 

fourtn and fifch branch ; mrTLnirJ l^i^'^ll'' ^'^''^'' « «^' the 
branch. ' " -^ ^''''^^'''- '« fourth conino-Mmr, h-.,.>,„j 



~V'_UJiH 



I'lV 



Oy tHE VI5RB. 



l€l 



13E8. 

RIOR. 
id 

Jrepenti, 
or 
repentie 
i repentis 
/• or 
J repentis 



3ost thou not 

se 

'■ is doing) 
I faire 

(Do wo 

f. 

Jo ? Thoy 



It thou not 

lied himself 

cr 

bundation ? 
fondenient 
le ladies rc- 

stakon the 

'• d^ 

ho stopped 



t belong io 
orefore, be 
! under his 
« is of the 



IMPERFECT. 

1 troubled myself about the affairs of others. You were always 

se tourmenter your mUrui se 

complaining of being too warm, and now you are too Cold. Wei6 
plaindre d^avoir trop chaud avoir iropfroid 

you not comfortable in his house 1 My mother did not like the 
se Irouver bien se plaire a 

country, because we went to bed so early. He was a very suspicious 
se coucher de si bonne heure * tres soup^onneva 

man, whdi never trusted anybody. Did you fancy that he would 

* ilne seJierdpe7sowiie sHmagitier 

return early. Did you not laugh at us % 

revenir cond-1 de si bonne keure se moquer de 

PLUPEREECT. 

I had trusted myself to (very uncertain) guides. Didst thou not 
selivrer pen sur 2 desm.pl i se 

confide too inconsiderately in this manl Had that officer rushed 

confier legtrement ci. —cier se pecipiler 

rashly into this danger 1 We had condemned ourselves. Had 
temeraireTnent dans — m. se condamner novs-memes 
you not been engaged with trifles'? Had those traveller* 



s'occuper de bagatelle f. pi. 



(gone out) of the right way 1 
detmrmr droit chemin m. 



voyageurs se 



PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

I repented too late of having taken such a. step. Were you 
tard inf-3 fait 2 I aemirche^ 

not well amiosed yesterday evening '? He suffered 

s'amuiej- Uer an tw sj Irmiver p ^^ bisn 

for his x.iaprudenc;'. We met in the street, but we did not 

f. se renconlrcr 



de 



rice. 



jr.ieak. Dd not those rash children go too net the 

i'^''^' iemeraire2 1 s'approcfirr f">M iie 

i'l"^' ' They rejoiced when they heard of his great sv .<,^;. 

-mtrces m.pk 



iud-3 se rejouir 



apprendre * 



PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 



, AsEoon as) I had discovered that thoy sought 



to deceive 



Dei qiie s^apcrccvoir ' on cKccher iiid-2 d tr(mi,per 

mo, I was on my guard. What didst thou, when thou 

fis ind-3 qnand 

When sh'' recollected aU ih^ 
se s iivenir u<! 



$e? tenir ind-3 garde f. pi. 
«'.'Jst see thyself thus forsal.on? 
tx Ironver almi abandonne 



0^'^ 



4 



166 



OF THB VERB. 



":>i: 



ta 

il or elte 

nous 

▼oas 



FUTURE ABSOLUTE. 

IShJiU repent, 
me repentirai 
te repentiraa 
se repentira 
nous repentirons 
vom repentircz 



ils or elles se repentiront 



tu 

il or elle 

nous 

vous 



PUTUnE ANTERIOR. 

/ shdli have repenUd, 



ils or elles se 



me 

te 

se 

Tunis 

vous 



se?'ai 

seras 

sera 

seroTis 

serez 

seront 



> repent! 

> or 

} repentie 

Jrepentis 
or 
repenti« 



.^.^^, she^ w„ ^5*.^^«,ed. When we h.d.„j„,eed 

did you not leave him alone? 



ciently at his expence, 

tt denans m 



^xTu^ ^^ ^ e/?emm. pi. taisserina-a i^anguUle 

tree ynrumer s'assirentcL 

' FUTURE ABSOLUTE. 

"M- oonvainc se souvenir de 

engagement that th«. makes., What wiU not he reproach hi „„,f 

foOl We .haU not^fo^et oux«.ves (^. a.) .„ (^ „^«„^) 

mrespect towards In.. ^ you employ the .eans I (point) 

out)toyou? Wm not these .owers fade? ^"^ /'*^" 

^'^^'^ f« seflUnr. 

FUTURE ANTERIOR. 

«.y«lfmhi.eye„ He wi. have ^„ p,„„a) of thi, triflilg*^: 

s enorguemir faibU 

..rn^^g-^^' *"» '"'Its °™^'™ ttonopurjK^e). In 

tK«-„/ ... , sejmgr^v imttilement 

the end, ,„„ „„ hav^.^.„,^,,„, ^,, ^^„, ^^^ ^^^^ 

(loved each other) too much! 
t'entr'aimer 



t 



«* tnt tTEfti. 



167 



children have 



CONDITIONAL 



aiiUPLK TENS£S. 



jfBESBNT. 

1 should repent. 

me ifepentirais 
t^ t'epeirtirais 
i(^ repentlrait 
Twms repentirions 
r.tts repentiriez 
Us or elles se repentiraient 



J8 

tu 

il or elle 

nous 

voua 



COMPOUND TiNSiSS. 



PAST* 

/ skould have repented. 

to <e ieraU 

il or clfe «e serait 
nomr 7im« serions 

il* or elles se seraient 



i«peiiti 

or 
repentfe 
repentlif 

or 
repentiejf 



CONDIONAL. 



Should I suffer 
se laisser 



PRESENT. 



myself 



to 



(be drawn) 
entrainer 



into the 



a 
1 



r- T.* J, ^^ * ae si peu de chose 2 

•' — f. sesoumettre 3 4 

law ^ We should not like to «ee the triumoh of guil, 

(in ar.Ur , n . wae^awce f. pron. ncA^^ej 

(m order to) act against our feeHngs. 
pour Jaxre violence d seniimeiit. 



Would I not 



PAST, 
devoted 



I had not had assistance). *"* 

: Hi? .-€3 itVmt SiCOWIfS 



^t^^ 



168 



OF THB VERB. 



IMPERATIVE. 



AfPIBMATIVE. 



Repent (thou). 



repens-toi 
qu'il or qu'ellc se reponte 

Tepqntons-noiis 
repentez-iious 



NEOATIvn. 



Do not repent. 



qu'ils or > 
qu'elles y 



se repentent 



tie te repens 
qu'il or qu'eile "ne se repente 

7ie vous repentons 
lie rums repentez 
qu'ils or > 
qu'elles $ 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 



Tie se repentent 



► pas 



SIMPLE TENSES. 





PRESENT. 


Tliat I may repent. 


que 




je 


me repente 


tu 


te repcntes 


il or eHe 


se repente 


nous 


noun repentions 


vous 


vous repentiez 


ils or biles se repentent 



COMPOUND TKNSES, 



PRETERIT. 

That I may luive repented. 
que 

je vie sois 

tu te sois 

il 01- elle se soil 

turns soyons 
vous soyez 



nous 
vous 



ils or elles se soient 






repenti 

or 
repentkr 
epentij 

or 
repenties 



IMPERATIVE. 

man, remember that thou art mortal. Do not flatter 

se souvenir se promettre 

thyself (that thou wilt succeed easily.) Let us take an exact 

un sVjCctsfacUe se rendre — 2 

account of our actions. Let us not deceive ourselves. Rest 

compte 1 se flatter se reposer 

yourself in the shade of this tree. Do not expose yourself so 
d fftnire s'exposer 

rashly. 
temerairement. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

PRESENT. 

1 must rise to-morrow at an earlier hour. I wish that 
Ilfaut que se lever de * meilleur fmire f. souhaiter 

thou mayeet be better. 1 wish him to conduct himself 

se porter mieux Je deshe qiOil * se condnire 

better. Is it not essential that we should contain ourselves 1 They 
— tiel se contenir On, 

wish that you should early accustom yourselves, to industry. 
disirer s^accoutumer de bonne heure art. travail m. 

It is time thai they should rest from the fatigue of business. 

.- ji;_ — ^^ 9 . jr__- I' 



OP THE VERB. 



169 



VE. 

■pent. 

repens 

repente 
IS repentons 
IS repentez 

repentent 



TKNSES, 
tIT. 

ve repented. 



► pas 



Jrepenti 
repentKT 
^s J repentij 
J ^ or 
it 3 repenties 



not flatter 

se 'piomettre 
take an exact 
se rendre — 2 
rselves. Rest 
se reposer 
pose yourself so 
i02^oser 



I wish that 
f. smihaiter 

conduct himself 
se conduire 

arselves 1 They 
Ir On 

to industry, 
art. travail m. 

of business. 



aji 






IMPERFECT. 

That I wight repent, 
ijue 

je me repcntisse 

tu te repentisscs 

il or elle se repentit 
nous nous repentisstons 

vous vous repentissiez 

ils or elles se repentissent 



PLUPERFECT. 

That I might have repented, 
^ue 

je me fussc i repenti 

tu te fusses > or 

il or elle se fut ) repentit 

nousfussions i repentb 

vous fussiez J or 



nous 
vous 



i' 5 or elles se fusseiit ) repenti<» 



I 



PRETERIT. 



It 18 



Can I have been deceived so grossly 7 

Sepeut-il que se tromper grossierement ? 

astonishing that thou hast determined to stay. It is not said 

It will never be believed that 

On crovra 

It is not suspected that yoii 



etonnant se decider a 

that he interfered in this business. 
se meter de 

we have conducted ourselves so ill 



se comporter mat. On, * soup^onner 

have disguised yourselves so ingeniously. (It is not reported) that 

se deguiser adroitement On ne dit pas 

they have behaved ill. 

se conduire 



They required that 
On 



ezigeait 



bed 



at 
d 

oftener. 



IMPERFECT. 

I should go to 

se coucner 
They wish that thou shouldst walk 
On voudrait se pramener 

net wish that 
vaulait 

cessary that we should have recourse to this method 1 Did they 



he should practise fencing 1 
s'exercer afaire des arm£s 



ten o'clock. 

heures. 

Did they 
On 

Was it ne- 



se servir de moyen,m. 

wish that you should complain of their Wfnt of attention! 
voulait seplaiTidre manque ■ 

they not wish them to make more haste ? 

on desirer ind-2 que Us se hater davantage 



Did 



Could they wish me 

Aurait-on vouXu qu^e 



I should have 
avoir cond-1 



PLUPERFECT. 

to revenge myself ? 
se venger 
wished that thou hadst shewn thyself more accommodatinir 
"^^^^'' semontrer moi.ns difficile 

I should have wished that he had been less negligent. Would von 
avoir cond-1 vmlu se nigliger moins^ Auriez-vZ 

have wished us to have ruined ourselves in tjublic ODiniGH fin .«.rJ^- 

2 f 1 

P 




i 


:^ii 




i 




1 


li: 

1 ;,. 


4 





170 



OF TH£ VERB. 



to) satisfy your resentment 1 I might perhaps have wished that 

salisjaire remnkvunU J'aurah pu desirer pcnt-etre 

you had applied yourselves more to your studies. We could 
saiypliqticr davantagc Nous aurions 

have wished that they had extricated themselves more skilfully 
/'* {''''"' ^^tirer adroitement 

from the difficulties (in which) they (had involved themselves) 
embarras oil s'etaient mis 



125. CONJUGATION OF PASSIVE VERBS. 

A passive verb shows that the action is directed to our- 
selves, that we suffer W ; whereas the active verb expresses 
that we ad, or perform the action, and direct it towards 
another object, thus : / love, is active, / am loved is passive. 
The Greek and the Latin languages have a peculiar form of 
verbs, called ;?rtm2;e verbs or passive voice, totally distinct 
from ^the active verb or active voice. The French lan- 
guage as well as the English and other modern languages 
have no such form, and express the passive voice by means 
ofthe;>ar^m>/ejo«5/ of the active voice with the auxiliary 
e/re,tobe, thus : je suis aime, lam loved. The partici- 
ple, in that case, being as an adjective, is made to at^ree in 
gender and number with the subject of the verb. "^ 

EXAMPLE. 

/ am loved 
ihou 7oast cskcwcd 
Ihat kmg was beloved bij his people 
like was alumys beloved 
my father was respecled 
my motlier was revered 
we vnll be praised 
you will be blamed for it 
they would be feared and dreaded 
they would be better informed 
that my sons may be known 
I should wish the doors were 
opened 

Observe. — In future, the tenses of the verbs will be 
promiscuously intermixed ; but directions will be given as 
to those which it is proper to use ; that is, marks like these 
will be found under the verb, indA, ind-2, ind-3, etc. The 
learner will do well, therefore, to consult the explanations 
of the abbreviations given at the beginning of the grammar, 

that he mav hft familinr w\th fhncp niarlro 



je suis aime or aimee 
tu etais estime or estiraee 
ce rot fut cheri de son peupio 
elle fut toujours cherie 
mon pere fut respecte 
ma mere fut reveree 
nous serous loues m- louees 
vous en serez blames or blamees 
lis seraient craints et rtidoutes 
ellcs seraient mieux instruites 
afin que mes fils soient connus 
je voudrais que les portes fussent 
ouvcrtes 



J 



■^ 



'/^' 



^>'-t--^--^< 



iL.. 



OF THE VERB. 



171 



EXERCISES. 

My brother WM wounded. Tl.ey wore detested. Ha. «he not 
md-J hkssbr its ind-2 cJetester 
been rewarded 1 The robbers were apprehended in the park. Has 

not your bister been well received "? The boys shall all be punished 

rrcevoir ecolier jmnir 

Is the garden door opened? When were these fruits gathered! 

parte du^/ardm f ouv7ir ind-4 ~-m. aieUlir 

The actress has been crowned. 

actrice couroiiner 



126. OF NEUTER VERBS. 
Neuter verbs are of two sorts. 1 . Those which express a 
state, a quality, as : Jc languis, I languish ; il excelle, he 
excels. 2. Those which express an action, which cannot 
pass over to another object, as : je dine, I dine ; je marche, 
1 walk ; suice we cannot say ; je dine un homme, I dine a 
man ; je marche mon frere, I walk my brother. Neuter 
verbs are also sometimes on that account called intransi- 
tive. 

Some neuter verbs admit a substantive after them, as 
complement, that is to say, as giving full sense to the sen- 
tence : je pense a monpere, I think of my father -Je depends 
de mononcle, I am dependant on my uncle ; je tremble de 
[peur, I tremble with fear; but that substantive is always 
t governed by a preposition. ' 

127. Neuter verbs are not all conjugated with the same 
auxiliary in their compound tenses ; some have «mV, others 
I nave etre. 

avoir. 

I have spoken. 



J'ai parle, 
Nous avons ri, 
lis ont mannre. 

Je suis parti, 
lis sont venus, 



fVe have laughed. 
They have eate?!, 

etre. 
I am gone. 



-^ , The^j are ox have come. 

iNoussommestombes, We have fallen. 

128. It is important to observe that neuter verbs do not 
require the same preposition in both languages: Thus, je 
Xpeme a monpere, may not be translated by I think to mv 

lTnthAi« hilt «^\v,.. r_ii T\T . . •' . . . J 

iaLiiijr. vv e luust aiso aUU that a verb, 



172 



OF THE VERB. 




which is neuter in French, is sometimes active in English, 
as : fqbeis a monpere, I obey my father, and vice vers&. 
This is one of the most material points of difference in the 
construction of the two lanf^i !ges. It is not here the place 
to treat it at fuH4cngth, beca:. \q it properly belongs to the 
Syntax, where it will be found j meanwhile, it is recom- 
mended that the learner should not lose sight of it, and 
attend to the preposition which, in the course of the exercises, 
will carefully be affixed to the infinitives of neuter verbs. 

EXERCISE. 

We will return at five o'clock. Do you apeak to that man 1 
revenir parler 

We resist obstacles. I have not accepted of his offers. 

resister d art.—— ficcepter in{l-4 ♦ 

Think of my father. They live on vegetables. Wo will 

penser d vime ind-1 de legumes 

agree about the price. AH at once twenty men entered 
convenir ae entrer dam ind-3 

the room. She sleeps. Do not walk so fast. You will fall 

thrmir marcher tomber ind-7 

They run. We shall arrive in the morning 

courcr ind-l arriver * 



129. OF IMPERSONAL VERBS. 



ill It 





Impersonal verbs are 
person singular, such 
snows. We subjoin a 

pleuvoir 
neiger 
'greler 
tonner 
eclairer 

geler 
figeler 
bruiner 
importer 
faire chaud 
faire froid 
faire glissant 
faire crott6 
faloir 
y avoir 

These verbs are also 



those which have only the third 
as : il phut, it rains ; il neige, it 
list of the most common. 

il pleut 
il neige 
il grdle 
il tonne 
il eel aire 
il gele 
il ddghle 
il bruine 
il importe 
il fait ohaud 
il fait froid 
il fait glissant 
il fait crotte 
il faut 



it rains 

it, snows 

it hails 

it thunders 

it lightens 

it freezes 

it thaws 

it drizzles 

it matters 

it is warm 

it is cold 

to be slipping 

to be dirty 

it is neccssoiry^ miist 

there is 



onlv the third nerson si 



ily a 
called unipersonal, from their having 

noriilnr. T^nlltvir. 4/ nt^rAT. \\0\t\n varxt 



(J 



7^ 



•V THfe VBRB. 



^% 



in English, 
vice vers&. 
rence in the 
re the place 
ongs to the 
t is recom- 
t of it, and 
tie exercises, 
er verbs. 



to that man 1 

)f his oflfers. 

8. Wo will 

ered 

\rer dam ind-3 

;vill fall 
tomher ind-7 



y the third 
il neige, it 



mg 

I 

mrijj must 

their having 



commonly used in French, tliey are conjugated at full length 
separately. 

The genius of the French language admits of using some 
active and neuter verbs impersorially, such as dire, il se dit 
des choses sinirulimis, singular things are irted ; arriver, 
il arrive des ckoses singulieres, singular thinj*,H happen. This 
peculiarity will be found noticed in the Syntax. 

KXERCISe. 

Boes it rain this morning 1 Did it hail last 

pUuvoi'- matin n, gr6lerir\d4t txi. dernier Q 

night 1 It doeff not snow. I thou^.i it had thundered Does it 

f. 1 neiger Jc croyais tpie tonner ind-6 

not lighten'? Do you think it freezes 1 It is ten o'clock. 

edavrer croyez que geler subj. 1 heure pi- 

It will freeze long. It (is fit) to act so. It (was of great im- 

long-temps convenirde importer beau- 

portancc) to succeed. It apt)ears that he has not attended lo 

coup ind-2 de riussir sembkr ioccupcr dc ind-4 

that business. It is very slippery in the streets. Is it cold 1 

fairc glissant ruei. faire froid 

It will be very warm to-day. It was very cold all nijjht. Open 
bien ind-4 art. rmt f. ouvrir 

the window, for it is too warm in tliis room. Will it not be too 

appartcment m, 

coldl (I put on) thick boots, for I thought it was very dirty 
mettre ind-4 croire ind-2 ind-2 

in the streets. 



130. CONJUGATION 


OP THE 




IMPERSONAL VERB, FALLOIR, IL FAUTy IT MUST, 

IT IS NECESSARY. 


INFINITIVE. 




SIMPLE TEN8EB. 


COMPOUND TENSBS. 


PRESENT falloir 
PARTic. PREs. none 


PAST 
PAST 


avoir fallu 
fallu, ayanl falltf 


INDICATIVE. 




PRESENT il faUt 

IMPERFECT il fallait 

PRETERIT DEF. il fallut 

FUTURE AB80L. il faudta 


PRETERIT IND. 
PLUPERFECT 
PRETERIT ANT. 
FUTURE ANT. 


il a fallu 
il avait fallu 
il eut fallu 
il aura fallu 



=***'& 






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IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




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WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 



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174. 



'xf*imf^i,^ 



PKESENT 



PRESENT 
IMPEBPECT 



OP THE VERB. 

CONDITIONAL. 

il faudrait | p^st 

SUBJUNCT17E. 



qu'il faille 
qn'il falldt 



PRETERIT 
PLUPERFECT 



11 aurait fallu 

qu'il ait fal/u 
qu'il etlt fullu 



131 COMPARISON BETWEEN MUST AND PALLOIR. 

«n J!l® ^"^"'^ "'^''^ '^''*'' "«t being impersonal, may take 
can only have the third person singular. The latTer hl^hJ' 

ampfe"^ '^''^"'^'^'""^^^ "^^^^^^^^ to illustmte it V^:^ 

133. FxLLom, in the Benae of duty, necessily. 

il fau que ma soeur vumn^ ,^y ,,-,^* ^ 

faut-il que cet homme entre ? «,i/^/ /A^,/ Jl • 

il faut partir .. ^ , „, 

faudra-t-il le ^,aw ? T T/^ f ^ ^^ 

^ggeHion, s^^eral advice, ii reXs^inMtlJe ""'"' 

ne lui &udri.tTZ du ™m„ ''^^y^'^f tmnty p^nis 
etdel'encrei "^ ^^f^ " '*»"*<'»' ra«/p«iwa»i«? 

EXERCISE. 

*• ind-3.^mc * 



if T^i-- r. 



OP THJE VERB. 



175 



vepaid him ? 



. ,. , .7Ja7-^em. md-S ;wrtir sub-2 

S'Sjart. ^'^^^^ e^S iSS "'^'^ ''^^ ^^'^^''^^^"^ ^^ 
heart. ShM I suffer patiently such an insult 1 He miM have 

b^en a blockhead not to understand such easy rules, 

sub-^ sot 2 pour 1 comprendre inf-1 des si 2 3 re^fe f. 1 

^^^r^ '^°*' ^""^ ^'°*^'' "''^'^^ ^ H« ^««« ^hat is reqnisH^, 

Do thatasitO^^rfie) What ^... he t for his trc{bK 
Jaites falUnr md-l que 2 Inil * peine f. 

You are the man I want. Do not give mt any more br«ad. 

^^ * de 

I have already more than 1 watat. I nee^ not ask you whether 

'neinen * jnf.i ^^ 

you will come. I do not think that it is necessary to beacon- 

Sf' ^° ^^"•''^^ ^'^ motives. I could not suspect that I 
aer pm^r devt,wr motif pouvais s^ipfonim- 

suf 2 ** fn?i P"'^^" ^r "■ ?"'* . ^ ^*^« "^t committed. 
fub-2 inf-1 de fautef.qice commise 



134. CONJUGATION 

OP THE 

IMPERSONAL VERB, Y jIVQIR, THERE IS. 



PRESENT 
PiST 

PARTIC. PRES. 
PARTIC. PAST 



PRESENT 
PRET INDEF. 
IMPERFECT 
PLUPERFECT 
PRETERIT DEF. 
PRETERIT ANT, 
FUTURE ABSOL 
FUTURE ANTER. 



INFINITIVE. 

y avoir there to be 

y avoir eu there to have been 

-y ayant there being 

y ayant cu there ha^ ng been 

INDICATIVE. 

|I y a there is or there are 

il y n, eu th^e has been or there have been 

n y avait there was or there were 

il y avait eu i/iere had been 

il y eut there was or there tvere 

il y eut ea there had been 

ii y aura there will be 

il y aura eu there loill have been 



PRESENT 
PAST 



CONDITIONAL, 
il y aurait there would be 

a y aurait eu there loovld have bien 




,i. '.1; 




176 



PRESEKT 
FRETERIT 
IMPERf^ECT 
«LUPERPECT 



or TmB vMun, 
SUBJUNCTIVE. 



qu'il y ait 
qu'il y ait eu 
qu'il y eAt 



that there Tnay be 

that there mcvy have been 

that tfiere might be 



qu'il y efit eu that there might have been 



This verb in English is used in the plural, when followed 
IVnh^ Plural J in French it remains always in the 

EXERCISE. 



There must be 
ildoU 



a great differen ce of age between those two 



persons. There being (so many) vicious people 

tant de =2 gens m. pi. 



in this world, 



Buu-i. devcniT 

victims of the corruption of the age 1 H « a thousand to 

pervemte f. silcle m. * miUe d papier carUre 

one that he wUl not succeed, TV^e would be more happiness if 

(every one) knew how to. moderate his dosires. I did not think 

chacun savaU * * moderer disir ^rJire ind 2 

that there combe (any thing) to^ blame in his condm^t. TV^e 

subj-^ jten areprendre conduUe {. 

wmdd not be so many duels, did ^ople reflect that one of the 

«. Von rejlechir md-2 f 

first obligations of a Christian is to forgive injuries. Could 

<A«-. Ae a k,ng more happy than this who has always been the 

ceim-ci 
father of his subjects 1 



135. OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS. 



IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE FIRST 
CONJUGATION. 

and ^Nv^^Lr^"^"' ''''^' ""^'^^ ^''' conjugation are allek 



136. Inp. PRESS. 

Inf. past. 
Part. pres. 
Part. past. 

COJIP. PlST. 



ALLER, to go. 

Avoir ete, 6tre aiI6, e, to have gone. 

Allant, going. 

Et6, alle, allee, gone. 

EtaiH alie, ayant et6, kcving gone. 



i 



OF THE VERB. 



177 



©n those two 



je vaifl 
tu vag 
il va 
Imp&rf. 
Pret. 
Future 



INDICATIVE. 

PRESENT. 

nous allons 
vous allez 
Us vont 



j'allais, etc.* 
j'allai, etc. or je fus, etc. 
j'irai etc. 
CoNDiT. j'irais, etc. 

IMPERATIVE. 

va, qu'a aille, allons, alleas, qu'ils aillent. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Pres. que J'aille, que tu allies, qu'il aille, que nous alliens, que vous 
alliez, qu'ils aillent. 

Imp. que j'allasse, que tu allasses, qu'il allat, que nous allassions, 
que vous allassiez, qu'ils allassent. 

137. S'en aller, to go away J will be e^^^en at full 
length because its conjugation is rather difficult on account 
of its two pronouns. 

INFINITIVE. 





8IM.\..E TENSES. 


COMPOUND TENSES 


. 


PRESENT s' en aller 


s' en £tre ) all€ 


», all^B 


PARTIC 


. PRES. 8 en allant 




^ 


f 


PARTI C 


. PAST en alle 


3* en etant 4 alI6e, all6^ 






INDICATIVE. 








je m' 
tu t' 


en vais* 


je m' 


en suis 


)all6 




en vas 


tu t' 


en es 


} or 


PRES. 


iiorelles' 


en va 


il or elle s' 


en est 


S a.\\6e 




1 nous nous 


en allons 


ncus nous 


en sommcs 


)all65 




yous vous 


en allez 


vous vous 


en Hea 


I on 




.il&welless' 


en vont 


ilstwelless' 


en sont 


) allees 


IMP. 


je m' 


en allais 


je m' 


en etais 


aU6 &o. 


PRET. 


je m' 


en allai 


je ra' 


en fus 


all6 &c. 


PUT. 


je m' 


en irai 


je m' 


en serai 


alle &c. 


COND. 


j« m' 


en irais 


je m' 


en serais 


aU£&c 






Or je (m'en) vas. 




• 






INOPERATIVE. 








AFFIRMATIVE 




NEGATIVE. 






va t' 


en 


n<?t' 


en va 




qu'il 


s' 


en aille 


qu'il ne s' 


en aille 


«« 




allons nous 


en 


ne nous 


en allons 






allez vous 


en 


ne vous 


en allez 


>-p£l9 


qu'ils 


s' 


en aillent 


qu'ils ne s' 


en aillent 


- 



♦ In future the first person only of tenses regularly conjugated wil 
be given. 



I 



mmm^mmmmim^ 



mmmm 



hi 



!i| 



L 


1 


- 
1 


1 



178 



or THE VEHB. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



,»IMPLE TEN8B8. 



que 



J« 
tu 

ilorelle 

nous 

vous 



.ilsorclless 



t' 

8' 

noua 
vous 



IMP. que je 



m' 



en aijle 
en allies 
en aille 
en ailions 
en alliez 
en aillent 
en allasse 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



J® ra' en sois 

f^ t' en soiri 

11 Welle s' ensoit 

nous nous en soyons 

vous vous en soyc? 

"■' en soient 
en fusse 



ilsorelless 
je m' 

REMARKS. 




T^fdrfy ""' «f . J!V^to ulU, je serais alle. The 
sn'^ilf.'Tif™"''* **■ ''■'*'.*" * ^^hen followed by », or by 
i;:\&'' '•^='^«*' -= ~ ^'^o-- 0.4 go and 

,.,.wl?.?'^T *"'^ '■«'"'.oy«'-, makes in their future absolute and 



EXERCISE. 



^'la^~^ into the country this evening 1 I am going ,o 
I»y^«m, «,ite. «„u,ere with thy brother, Qo and rf» .hat 

coZS^ouf'^ *"° r\^„''""y '^^Sia order, Let him f» 
'".rttfe' f.°\rt.5S.'r*/^,.. ' '"'" ^"^ '» I-™-'""- When 

""""^S!!}^. Uono.^»„«„e.. Ma^e haste for 
*.y -. ^»»^ «^.,, ,,^„,^ e.r,r Twe™ 

to those ladies. I would pn in R,^,v,« r t , , *^ 

^^f.pl ^"^ *° ^°™®' >^ ^ ^o»IJ- We would 

*^ pouvais 



VW^WT 



•m^^y^'"^'"' 



OF TH« VERB. 



17« 



(send back)om Worses. Why do .hey go away bo sooni My 

pourquoi "^ 

brother and^^^sister wcj^ yesterday to Windsor. I shall not ^o 



(any more^ a hunting. 
plus a ♦ art. c/iasse f. 



138. IRRECiULAR VERBS OF THE SECOND 
CONJUGATION. 



BRANCH I. PUNIR. 
^emV, to bless ; has two participles, bemt,benite, con^ 
secrated, (by prayers or religious ceremonies) ; «am benit 
consecrated bread ; eau benite, holy water j bent, benil 
blessed, fa.vored of God. Peuple bmi, a blessed, happy. 
Godly nation. '*^'' 

Fleurir, in the common acceptation of to blossom, to come 
to bloom, IS regular ; but, in the sense oUo flourish, it makes, 
jloriasantflorissait. 

In havr, to hate ; the letters -ai form throughout two 
syllables, except in the three persona singular of the present 
of the indicative, ye hais, tu hais, il hait, and in the second 
person singular of the imperative hais, which are pronounc- 
ed as one syllable, as if written, ^e Ae*, tu hes, ilhet, 

Gesir, to lie, is a defective verb, and has only retained 
psant, git, ^nous gisons^ ils gisent, il gisait, and particu- 
larly ci'git, here lies. 

EXERCISE. 

May the name of that good king be blessed from generation to 
nam m. ^ 

generation. These trees blossomed twice every year. The 

ind 2 deux fois tout art. an pi. 
arts and sciences flourished at Athens m the time of Pericles 

— art. . ind-2 d AtAems 

Horace and Virgil flourished under the reign of Augustus. We 

VirgUe ind-2 sous regne Auguste. 

discovered froir. the top of the mountain a vast plain full of 
decouvnr haut piaine f . renipli de 

pipery me^dowB. The empire of the Babylonians was 
fl^unssantQ pre m. ^11 _4ie»ind-3 

/o7t°"^ I J-^^"^^^^ ^"®' "^e 'JW not hate the man, but his 



mm 





180 



OP THE VERB. 



vices. DoMshe really hale that vain pomp and all the display of 

pompe f. a^^pareil 

grandeur 1 
art,-— — — — 

139. BRANCH II, ON SENTJR, 

BOUILLIR, to both 

Par. pre8. bouillant — Past, bouilli 

Ind. pres. bous, bous, bout, bouillons, bontllez, bouillent ^ 

Imperf. bouillaia — Prei bouillis 

Future t bouillirai — CcnuL bouilIira!s 

Imp. bous, qu'il bouille, bouillons, bouillez, qu'ils bouillent 

Sub. pres. bouille — Imp. bouillisse 

Rebouillir, to boil again, and ebouilUr to boil away, are 
Conjugated like bouillir ; this latter is only used in compound 
tenses, and the infinitive, as : cetie sauce est trop ehouillief 
this sauce has boiled a *ay too much. 

PAlLLIR, to fail, 

Parii.jprw.faillant* — Past, failli 

Ind. pres. faux,* faux,* faut* faillons,* faillez,* faillent* 
Jmper. faiilais*— Pr^. feillis, etc.— Fid. faudrai* 
CoMD. fnudrais* — Subj. imperf. que je faillisse 

DEFAiLLiR, to faint, has now only the plural of the 

lND.;pr«.nou3 dfifaillons, ils defaillent — Imperf. defaillais, 

Pret. dfifaillis— P/e^. indef. j'ai defailli, and Inp, pres. defaillir 

N.B. The tenses marked with an asterisk are absolete. 



EXERCISE. 



^ 


• 






..:, ..-li 


t 


w 


: 


,11 


; 


w 

F 


i 


m 




L 


1 

.r i: j 


fab 


i 



Take that 
retirer 



let the soup {boil away) (so rnuch). 
laisser 1 pot 3 tant 2 



water off the fire, it boils too fast. Do not 
f. de dessur, m. f. fort 

That sauce has (boiLd 
— — f. est f. 

away) (too much). Boil that meat again ; it has not boiled 
trop faites rebouillir viande f. * f. 2 

long enough. 
* assez 1 1 

FuiR, to fly, to run away, * 

Part.pres. fujrant— P<m<, fui. 

Ind. pres. fuis, fuis, fuit, fuyons, fuyez, fuient. 

Imperf. fxvjfais — Pret. fuis — Put. fuirai — CoND. fuirais. 

Imp. fuis, fiiie, fuyons, fuyez, fuient. 

SuBj.prg*. fuie, fuies, fuie, fiiyions, fuyiei, fuient. 

Imperf. fuisse, or raiher, prisse la fuite. 



OF THE VERB. 181 

MOURIB, to die. 

Parl.pres.moMt&nt-^Past, mort. 

IsD. pres. meurs, meurs, meurt, mourons, moure7, meurent. 

Imp. mourais — Pret. mourus — Put. mourrai — Cond. mounrait. 

Imp. meurs, meure, mourora, mourez, meurent. 

Svnj.pres. meure, mcures, meure, mourions, mouriez, meurent. 

Impcrf. mourufise — Comp. tenses, je suis mort, j'6tais mort, etc. 

Rem. — S^enfuir, to run away, is conjugated after fuir, 
Mourir takes the auxiliary Hre ; and when reflected, se 
mourir signifies to be dying, or emphatically and figuratively 
to be dying with. It is seldom used except in the present 
and imperfect of the indicative. . 




Exercise. 



He (was iiear) losing his 

faiUir perdre * art. 
iiear) falling into the snare 
ind-4 itowner piege m. 

strength fails him. 



life in that encounter. He (was 
rencontre f. faiUir 

which was laid for him. His 
qu'on avait tendu * hii * 
Give us something to oat 



She died of isprief (for the loss of) her son. 
ind-4 chi rin m. d'avoir perdu 



art. force f. pi. defaillir lui. donnez^nous * manger 2 

directly; vre are fainting with fatigue and hunger. I cannot get at 
vite 1 sc mourir de • pr. faim. ne puis renamtrer 

him, he shuns me. Would he not avoid flatterers. If he 
fuir fuir art. flatteur m.pl. 

knew all their falsehood, He died of a (very painful) disease. 
ind-2 faicsseie f. de cruel 2 maiadief.l 

He is dying 
se mourir 

She was dying with grief, when the fear of death at last 
se mourir de crainte f. art. enfin 

wrested her secret from her. 
arracker indS — m. ♦ lui. 

Querir, to fetch ; is used, in familiar conversation, after 
venir, envoy er, alter, as : envoy ez querir, send for j allez 
querir, go and fetch. 

AcaoERiR, to acquire. 

Part.pres. acquerant — Past, acquis. 

\nr).pres. acquiers, acquiers, acquiert, acquercns, acquerez, ac- 

quSrent. 
Imper. acquerais — Pret. acquis — Put. acquerrai — Cond. acquer- 

rais. 
Imp. acquiers, acquiere, acquerons, acquerez, acquiSrent. 
SvTtJ.pres. acqui6r-e, -es, -e, acqu6r-ions, -iez, acqui^rent. 
Imperf. acquisse. 



•^■nmm 



^HifM 



iViMlllliliaH 



182 



OF THE VERB. 



S^enquirir, to enquire; and requerir, to request ; are 
conjugated as acquerir* 

Conquerir, to conquer, is seldom used but in the Ind. 
prei, je conquis, etc., and in the Subj. imperf, que je con- 
quisse. Its chief use is in the compound tenses. 

Ouir, to hear, is only used in the Inf. pres, ouir Pari, 
pa8f,ou:u IriD. prct. j'ouis, tu ouis, etc. and Subj. imperf, 
que j'ouisse, tu ouisses, etc- Its principal use is in the 
compound tenses, as :Je Pat or je I'avois oui dire, I have or 
I had heard it. 

Vetir, to clothe. 
Part.pres. y&t&nt*— Past. v6tu. 
Ind. pres. vfits,* v6ta,* v6t,* vetons, vStez, v£tent. 
Imperf. \&ta.is—Pret. vHiB—JFSit. vfitirai— Cond. v6tiraia. 
Imp. v6t8,* v6te,* vfitons, vdtcz, vfitent. 
BvB.pres. v6te — Imperf. vdlisse. 

N.B-j- Vetir is seldom used in the forms marked with an 
asterisk, and is most frequently used as reflected, se vitir, to 
ilress one's self. 

RevHir, to clothe, to invest, is used through all the tenses ; 
aevSiir, to divest, is principally used as a reflected verb, and 
^ip some forms only. 

EXERCISE. 

Send for tho physician and follow exactly hia advice. Go and 

meilecin suivez 



he acquired 
ind-3 de art. 



celebrity by 



■fetch my cane. Every day 

cannei. tout Mi., jour m. pL 

works calculated to fix the attention of an enlightened 

de art. ouvragc m.pl. /a.j pour 2 

pubhc. Would you have rae acquire riches at the expense 

1 voudriez-vous que subj-2 rfe art. depens m.plJ^ 

of ray honesty 1 He had acquired by his merit great influence 

probite f. m. une f, 

over the opinions of his contemporaries. I have enquired aboui 

sing. contemporain s'e7iquerir ^nd-i de 

that man (everywhere), and I have not (been able) ^lo hear 

homm£-ld partout pu c,p avoir 

any thing of him). Who has requested it of you 1 

de nouvelles Qui est-ce qui 3 4 cn2 * 1 

Sesostris, king of Egypt conquered a great part of Asia. The 

ind^S art. 



formidable empire which Alexander conquered did not 
2 1 __— .if^g ind«6 dure)- 



last 



wmmm 



OF THE VCRB. 



1S3 



/Isia. The 



longer th&n his life. I have heard lh«t he terill not r^m* 

plus long-temps C ouir dir^t in(l-4 revcnir 

He dressed himself in haate and (went out) immcdiateiy. 

se vdlir ind-3 d art haie f. s<w/t> ind-3 sur-le-champ. 

I wi«h she toffttW rfrea the children with more 

voudrais que vitir «ubj-2 de 

care. If Ids fortune permitted him, he loutdd clothe all the 

permeitait 2 le lui 1 
poor of his pari'^h. Two eervants clothed him in his ducal 

paraisse f. 'tomestique Tevttir <J« . 8 

mantle. It begins to be very warm; one might 

marUeaum. I conmiencer d /aire chavdt pourraU 

(throio off some clothing), 
se devUir, 

140. BRANCH III. OUVRIR. 

CuBiLLiR, to gather. 

Part. pres. cueillant Past, cueilli Ind. pres. cueille 

Imperf. caeillais Pret. cueillis I\it cucillerai* 

CoND. cueillerois'* Imper. cueille Sitbj. cueille 
Iniperf. cueillisse 

The irregularity of cueillir, in the future and the condi^ 
tional, is remarkable ; these two tenses arc formed from the 
old infinitive cueiller. Thus accudlUr, to welcc " * 

recueillirf to collect. 

SaiJHr, to project, has only scdUant, sailli ; a^ ' 
lowing forms : il saille, il saillait, tl saillera^ il . 
quHl saille, quHl saillit. But saillir, to gusli out ; : 
larlv conjugated like^mV; saillissant, je saillis, etc., .. 
saillissenl, etc. Its principal use is in the third persons. 

Absaillir, to assault. 

Part. pres. ae^saillanl Past, aseailii Ind. vres. assaille 

Imperf. assaillais Pret. aasaillis F\it. assaillirai 

CoND assaillirab Imper. assaille Sub. pres assaille 
Imperf. assailUsse 

Tressaillir, to start, conjugated like assaillir^ makes in the 
fut. je tressaillerai, or tressaillirai, etc. 

EXERCISE. 

I wiU gcUhcr v/ith pleasure some of these flowers and of these 
fhiitG, since vou wish to have some. Do not gather 

puisque ' etre bien aise de en 

these peaches, bofore they are ripe. That is a country 
f. pi. ava7it que ne subj-1 wtV Ce pa^ 



where they neither 



reap 

l^MI »%■% I lit 



corn, nor (gaihev) grapes. \/e 



-..• a; 



ilKl 



iH 



184 



OP THE VERB. 



in ancient history 

2 1 (/« art. 



uiiu valuable 
precieuM 3 

received ui in the moet polite manner. 
accueiUir 'i \ de 9 maniift f. 1 

misery, mckncRs, persecution, in a word, all 
f. art. tnaladie t'. '\rt. en 



important 

—a 

polite 
9 



■ha)] collect 
recueiUir 

fkctn. He 
faUl 

Poverty, 
Rfi. f. art 

the misfortunes in the vrorld (hnve fallen upon) him If you 

malheur m. pi. de ' accueiUir ind-4 

give six inches to that cornice, it vriU project too much. 
donner pouce m. cornichei. trop 

That balcony pi ejected too much; it aarkened the dining- 

balcon m. ind-2 trop obscwicir ind-Si f^ d 

room. When Moses struck the rock, there gushed 

manger f. Quand Moise frapper ind-3 rocAerm. u ind-3 

out Cof it) a spring of (fresh running) water. The blood gufhed 
2 en I sov — ' — '" ' ' • ^ «. 

from his vein 
vciTie f. 

to-morrow in their entrenchments. 
demain ' retrancheneiu 



source f. ' vif2 
with impetuosity. 



f. \ ' ind.3 

We iJuitt assaiM the enemy 
assaiUir pi. 

Were we not overioJcen by a 
ind-3 ussaiUi 



horrible 



storm 1 At every word which 

tempite f. d chaqice que 

concerning his son, the good (old man) leaped 

da vieiUard iresfaUlir Lad-2 



whey said to him 
on disait 2 hit I 

foi joy, 
de jaie 



141. 



IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE THIRD 
CONJUGATION. 

Avoir, to have, is conjugated at length, No. 101. 

Ravoir, to have again ; and se ravoir. to recover, are 
only used in the present of the infinitive. 

Choir ^ to fall, has only the participle past, dm, chue, btre 
chu, 

Dechoir, to decay. 
fNo Part.prcs.) Part.past. Atchxt. 
IH-D.pres. dcchois, dechois, dechoii, decho^ons, dechoyez, dechoicnt. 

No Imperf.) Pret. A^chxis—Fut. decherrai— Cond. decherrais. 

IMPER. dechois, dechoie, dechoyons, dechoyez, dechoient. 
Sl ii.;?rej.dechoie, dechoies, dechoie, d6choy-ions, — iez, dechoient. 
Imperf. dechusse. 

Echoir, to fall to, to expire, h ', only now in use the Inl« 
jpres. il cckoit, sometimes pronounced il echet, the pret. il 
eekut, fat. il echfirra, cond. il ccherrait, the imperf. oubj. 
que pechussse ; Inf. and Past echoir, echeant, echu. 

Choir, dechoir, echoir, take the auxiliary etre and avoir^ 



i 




valuabio 
precieuic 3 

anner. 
fuiniife f. 1 

, word, all 
n If you 

1 too much. 

trop 

the (lining- 
salle d 

ind-3 

[)od gurhed 

ind-fJ 

the enemy 
pi. 

aken by a 
Mi 

lid to him 
uit 2 l%i y 

foi joy, 

2 de jaie 



HIRD 

« 

;over, are 
chue^ tire 



echoicnt. 
rrais, 

choient. 

ethelNL* 
lie pret. il 

5rf. OUBJ. 

chu, 
id civoir. 



OF TH(t VURB. 



f85 



(ztm«r ind-3 veux est<iy«r d« •. 

of falling. How *m he /utt#» into 

worki he hw 

he do not 



Falloir, to be necessary, is an imperional veto, ihe con- 
jugation of which ha ' l)cen given 

BXERCISC. 

I had aparttoenU (hat I liked ; I will endo^vour to have them 
ind'2 un logenietU 

again, rioware 

prenex garde inf-1 conwent 

poverty 1 Since the publication of hie la«t 
pauvreti tkpuis demief 

much fallen in the esteem of the public. If 
dec/utir 
alter his conduct, ho icUi gradually lose hit reputation 

changer da * dediairdsjtmrenjourde f. 

and credit. )3.e ha» pwt in iht ItHtery aiid he hopes 

pi. nron. — m. misd loteriei. 

that a capital prize will :faU (t' hi« share). That bill 
♦ t\^.gros lot m. echcir hii Ut't/re f. 

of cxchanj^o has expired on the twenty-fifUi. The first term 

change echoir * le vingt-ciifq terme m, 

expires at Midsummer. You have Jriwn on me * Ull of 
a la Saini^Jean t'^rer sur nun 

exchange ; when is it payable 1 I did not believe that I riiitst 

echmrinA-l croire ind-2 faUoir txA>-2 

80 noon (have taken) that journey. He must 

fairc voyage m. ind-4 ^te 

have sunk under the efforts of (so many) enemies. 
succonU/er iub-2 tanide 

MouvoiR to move, 

Part.prcs.mo}l\D.nt--Parl.pasLmvi. 

1nd.w«. meuB, mens, meut, mouv-ons, — ez, meuvent. 

Imperf. mouvais — Pret. raus — Fut. mouvrai— Cond. mouvrais. 

Impeu. mens, mcuvc; mouvons, roouvez, meuvent. 

SvBJ.p-es.menv-^, — es, — e, mouv-ions, — iez, meuvent. 

Imperf. musse. 

Thus are conjugated etnouvoir, to move, to excite, stir up ; 
se 7nouv(nr, to move, stir ; s'emouvoirf to be moved, affected. 

Pi'omouvair, to promote in rank or office, has only the 
infinitive, and participle joroww. 

Demouvoir, to induce to desist, has the infinitive only. 

Pleuvoir, to rain (impersonal) 

Pa>-/.pr«. pleuvant Past plu Ind. pe«. il pleut 

Iinpcrf. il pleuvait Pret. il plut Put. il pleuvra 

Cond. il pleuvrait SuB.;>res. qtfilpleuvc Imperf. qu'ilplut 



rrl 



1B6 



OF THE VERB. 



m 



EXERCISE. 

The spring wbich woves the whole machine is very inee- 
ressor^m. 2 tmtl —f. ^ 

niou8, though very simple. It was passion wtuch moved 
qrnique — Ce ind-1 art. *. ind-4 

him to that action. Can you doubt that the sml, though it 
— f pouvez f^ ° * 

is spiritual moves the body at pleasure 1 That is a man 

* tvMTKmh-l dsavolmte ce 

whou: nothing 7noves. We had scarcely lost sight 
emouvotr ind-3 d peine perdu vue f, 3 

«,f t^^'f 1 ^^^" ^^^^"^ .'^"'"^^ a violent tempest 

an. leire^ r. i que il semouvoir ind-3 grand tempete f. 

We were inoved with fear and pity. When the famous 

ind-d emus de crainte £. pr. pitie t qucmd celebre 

d'Aguesseau was provioted to the dignity of chancellor, all 

"^"'"^ =f. chancelier tout 

Francb shewed the greatest joy. That bishop well 

art. f. en temoigner mii'i £ eveque 



ot 

2 



should fwmote him to the dignity of primate 
8ub-2 2 hi "primat' 



The people 



think that it rains 



frogs 



and 



smw. 



insects 



^'■'''* '^ art. grenouille f. pi. pr. art. insecte m. pi. 

at certain seasons. It loiU not mm to-dav but r 

en — temps ]A. • "- * 

(am feartul) of its 

que * 



aujoicrd^hui 



craindre 



raining to-morrow. 
ne sub-1 



PouvoiR, to de able. 



Part. pres. pouvant— -J^flr/, past. pu. 

Ind. pres. puis,* peux, pent, pouv-ons, — cz, peuvont, 

^7n''L.Sr^T'^^'''^' P"«-^'^- Pourrai-CoND. pourrais. ' 
{^No Imperative). Subj. pres. ipuiBse—lmperf. pussc. 

♦Conversation and poetry admit also je peux, Mi not 
jpeux-je ? ^ J y 

^ There is an imperative used, not to express command, 
but a wish that a thing be, as a sort cf imprecation. 

vous, pmssent-ils. Ex : puisseiz-vms arriver a temps, 
may you arrive in time. . 



?ery inge- 

ich moved 
ind-4 

though it 
* 

is a man 



of 

3 



ght 
•f.3 



!nt tompest 
I tempete f. 

he famous 

celebre 

rellor, all 
lier lout 

bishop well 

veque 

t the king 

he people 
sing. 

sects 

sccte m. pi. 

but I 



ws. 



X, bu^t not 

^omniand, 
precation. 

a temps. 



Oi: THE Vfiliti< 



M 



Savoir, to know. 

Part. pres. sachant — Part. past. su. . 

Ind. pre:^. sais, sais, sait, savons, savez. savent — Imp&tJ/ sav«i#, 
Pret. BUS — Put. saurai —CoND. sauraiu. 

Imper. sache, sacbe, sachons, sachez, sachent. 
Sub J. p'es. estche — Impeif. susee. 

Seoir, to be bscoming, to befit, has only the pari, preS» 
seyant ; anr* the third persons of the simple tenses, il sied, 
il sieent, il seyait, il siera. il sieraitf quHl mee. But 
seoir, to sit, is used only in the two participles, scant and 
sis. This verb is also used impersonally. 

AssEoiR, to set, 

* 

Part, pres, asseyant — Part. past, assis. 
Ind. pres. assieds, aasieds, assied, assey-ons, — ea, — ent. 
Imperf. asseyais. — Pret. assis. — Put. assierai, or asseyerai. 
CoND. assierais, w asseyerais. — Imp. assieds, asseye, a^sey-ons. 
— ez, ent. — Subj. pres. asseye. — Imperf. assise. 

N.B. This verb is more frequently reflected, as s^asseoir, 
to sit down. Its compound rasseoir, to set again, to calm, 
or to sit down again, is conjugated in the same manner. 



EXERCISE. 

When he arrived at home, he 

e^7cind-l arrive chez lui 

The minister had (so many) people at 
ministre ind-3 iant de monde a 

could not speak to him. Are you afraid 
ind-3 3 1 craindre, ind-1 



(was quite exhaturted). 
u'eii pouvoir ind-2 plus 
his levee, that I 
audience 

that he cannot 

pouvoir sub-1 



accomplish that affair 1 
venir a bout de 



I know that he is not 



your friend, 
de (d. 

Let them ktuno 



but I A;7ww likewise that he is a man of probity. 
av£si * Men 

that their pardon depends on their submission. I could wish 

grace dejjendrede soumissiori desirer cond-1 

that b.eknc20 a little better his lessons. Let us see ifthisnew- 

sub-2 voyons d^un 

fashioned dress becomes you, or not. Be assured that 

nouveau gout 2 robe f. I 2 1 non 

colours too rich ^cill not become you. The head-dress which that 

art. f vcnjavi coiffure t que 
lady wore did not become her at eJl. These 
porter ind-2 seoir ind«2 



2 lui I du iaat 



CuluUrS ueCCraU 



inf-3 



you =u TTcii, j-..-.t \--.----5-t -•-••5/ — — J 

avoir tort cond-1 de en porter en 



others. Sit that child in this arm-chair, and take care he 

asseoir m. faulevil m. prenez garde que 



%r^ fy;j&-iii^i<iim»tmi- - 



1^3 



OF THB VBrtB. 



does not fall. I wiU sit dmon on the top of that hill 
ne ^bj-1 s'asseoir sommet m, coteau m, 

whence I shall discover, a prospect (no less) magnificent 
decouvrir scene f. aussi — qiic 

than diversified. We (were sitting) on the banks of the 

bord m.pl. 

myriads of vessels, 
millier vaisseau 

of the two hemis- 



vane 



s'asseoir ind-6 

Thames, whence we contemplated 

Tamise (. contempler ind-2 de art. 

which bring, every year, the riches 
apporter art. pi. 

pheres. 

Voir, to sec. 

Part. pres. vojrant. — Part. past. vu. 

Ind. p^'es. vois, vois, voit, voyons, voyez, voient- 

Imperf. vcyais. — Prct. vis. — FiU verrai. — CoND. verrais. 

Imper. vois, voie, voyons, voyez, voient. 

SuBJ.prgJ. voie, voies, voie, voyions, voyiez, voient. — Imp. visse. 

Revo^f to see again ; and entrevoir, to have a glinripse of, 
are conjugated in the same manner ; but prevail; to foresee ; 
makes in the future and the conditional, je prevoirai, etc. 
Je prevoiraiSf etc. 

Pourvoir, to provide ; makes in the pret. jepourvus, iu 
pourvuSy etc. fut. je pourvoirat, etc. cond. je pourvoirais, 
etc., and imper f. subj. que je pourvusse, etc. 

Surseoir, to supersede, though a compound of seoir, is 
conjugated like voir, except that it makes fut. je surseoirat, 
etc., COND. jc surseoirais, etc. and part. past, swsis. 

Valoir, to be wm'th. 

Part. pres. valant — Part. past. valu. 

Ind. pres. vaux, vaux, vaut, valons, valez, valent 

Imper f. valais. — Pret. valus. — F^ivt. vaudrai. — Cond. vaudrais, 

Imper. vaux, vaille, valons, valez, vaillent. 

Subj. pres. vaille, vailles, vaille, valions, valiez, vaillent. 

Iniperf. valusse, 

Revaloir, to pay off, and eguivaloir, to be equivalent to, 
follow valoir ; but prcvaloir, to prevail, makes in the subj. 
pres. guejeprevah, que tu prevales, quHl private, que nous 
prcvalions, etc. 

VoDLOiR, to be unlling. 

Pai't, pres^ yoxilBLtit^—Part^ Tyast^ vquIu^ 

Ind, pres. vcux, veux, veut, voulons, vouloz, vculent. 

Imperf. voulais, — Pret. voulus. — Fut. voudrai. — Cond. voudrais, 

Subj. pres. veuill-e, — es, — o, voulions, voulicz, veuillcnt. 

Iiripetf. voulujJse. 



that hill 
coteau in. 

magni£rent 

— qiic 

ks of the 
i in.pl. 

Is of vessels, 
vaisseau 

I two heniis- 



OF TH£ V£RB. 



189 



s. 

visse. 

glimpse of, 

to foresee ; 

voir at, etc. 

wurvus, iu 
ourvoifais, 

of seoir, is 
surseoirai, 
ms. 



udrais. 



livalent to, 
I the suBJ. 
e, que nous 



: 



The imperative is veuilkf veuillons^ veuilhz, but the last 
person only is commonly used, in the sense of be so kind or 
so good as, please to 

EXERCISE. 

BeJiold the admirable order of the universe. Has he again seen 
2 ml 

his country and his friends 1 (Had he had a glimpse of) the dawn 
pays aurore 

of this fine daj 1 To terminate their affairs^ it would be neces- 
pmtr faMoir 

sary for them to (see one another). I clearly foresaw^ 

cond-i qtie * ils * s'eiUrevoir Buhy2 bien2 

(from that time), all the obstacles he would have to surmount. 
dis lors — m. (7^2 d surmonter 

Would you have had the judge (put off), the execution 

vouhnr ind-2 qiic juge surscair subj-2 

of the sentence that he had pronounced % 1 shall not put off the 

arret ind-2 rendu 

prosecution of that affair^ If men. do not provide (for it), 
poursuiie f. pi. art. 2 y 1 

God win provide (for it) (But for the cooking), this fish (would be 
2 y 1 sam la sauce ne vaJvir 

good for nothing) You have not paid for this ground more than 
rien * terre f. 

it is worth ; (are you afraid) that it is not worth six hundred 
ne craindre que subj-1 

pounds 7 One ounce of gold is equivalent to fifteen 

livre f. pi. sterling ? once f. 

ounces of silver. Doubt not that reason and truth will 

douter art. art. ♦ 

prevail at last. I can and I vriU tell the truth. If you 
ne subj-1 d la longice dire h 

are wiUi '.g, he wUl be willing too. Let us resolve to resist 
fe aussi vouhir * cmnbatirt 

our passions, and we shall be sure to conquer them. (Be so good (is) 

de vainae 2 1 vovMr 

to lend me your grammar. 
• pretcr 1. 



voudrais. 



190 



OP THE VERB. 



142. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE FOURTH 

CONJUGATION. 



BRANCH I. On liENDRE. 

Resoudre, to resolve. 

Part. prcs. r^aolvant. — Part. past, r^aolu, or rSsoui. 

Ind.;««. r6sou8, resous, rdsout, r6solv>onB, — ez, -ent. 

Irwperf. r^solvais. — Prct. r68oIus. — FStt. rSsoudrai. 

CoND. rfisoudrais. — Imper. resous, resolve, resolv-ons, ez, -ent. 

S'JBJ.^res. resolve, — Inipcrf. r^soluscie. 

This verb has tv^o participles past, resolu, in the sense o*^ 
to determine, to fix ; resous, without a feminine, in the sense 
of to resolve into, to turn into, 

Jlbsoudrcp absolve, is conjugated like resoudre ; but has 
neither ^re<. Ind. nov imper f, subj. ; its participle past is 
absous, m. absoute, f. 

Dissoudre, to dissolve ; has the same irregularities, and 
wants the same tenses as absoudre. 

CouDRE, to sew, 

Part.prcs constLHt—Part. past, cousa. 

Ind. pres. couds, couds, coud, cousons, cousez, couscnt. 

Imperf. cousais. — Pret cousis. — Ii\it. coudrai — Cond. coudrais. 

Impbr. couds. — Subj. pres. couse. — Imperf. cousisse. 

Dccoudre to unsew j and recoudre, to sew again, are con- 
jugated in the same manner. 

Mettre, to put. 

Part. pres. mettant. — Part. past, mis, 

Ind. prcs mets, me^s, mot, mettons, mcttez, mettent. 

Imperf, mettais. — Prct, mis. — I<\t. mettrai. — Cond. mettrais. 

Imp£R. mets. — Subj. pres. metto. — Impei-f. misse. 

In the same manner are conjugated the derivatives : 



admcttro 

commettrfl 

comproiuettro 

se d^mottra 

omettre 



to admit 

to commit 

to compromise 
{ U> pvt out ofjoiiU 
\ to resfs^n 

to omit 



perraettre 

promettre 

rcmcttre 

soumettre 

transmettre 

s'entremettre 



to permit 
to promise 
to replace 
to subject 
to transmit 
.to intermeddle 



EXERCISE. 



Wood when burning resolves itself into ashes and smoke, 
art. Ms m. que Von bride se resoudre en cendre f. 4ir, fumec f 



l-i'»:!W«!M5.Sl»«J*i»«tt*!:!««, 



01^ TH£ V£&B. 



161 



I 



The fojt haa 

brouiUardm. se 



Unpick 
deamdre 

Does ho 



tJave they resolved on peace or war 1 
♦ art. f, art. f. 

resolved itself into rain. Would that judge thus lightly 

resoudreinHiA 2 pluief. si legiremeTU 

absolve the guilty 1 Strong waters dissolve metals. 

cond-1 coupable m. pi. art. fcnt 2 t pi. 1 art. (m 1 

Those drugs were dissolved before they were but into 

drogv-e 3 ind-2 avarU que de les * mettte 

that medicine. My sister did sew all day yesterday. That piece 
rfitn^de m. ♦ fiier m. 

is not well sewed, it must (be sewed over again) 
faJloir la inf-1 

that lace, and seio it again very carefully. 

deiUeUe f. 2 1 avec beaucoup de soin 

set a great value upon riches 1 I never admitted those 
m^tlre prixm. d art. ind-4 

principles. Has he conunitted that fault "? If he (would take my 

Jaute f. me 

advice), he woxiXd resign his charge in favour of his 

croyait se demettre cond-1 de {. en = 

son. He put his arm out of joint yesterday. I vnll omit nothing 
se demettre U bras ind-4 

that depends on me to serve you. God frequently 

de ce dependre ind-7 de pour souvent 2 

permits the wicked to prosper. Put this book 

1 que viechaid m. pi. ♦ prosperer sub-1 reviettre 

in its place again. Under whatever form of government 

— f * quelque govemementm.que 

you (may live), remember that your first duty is to be 
vivre subj-1 se souvenir devoir m. de 

obedient to the laws. It frequently happens that fathers transmit 
soumis 2 airiver 1 art. 

to their children both their vices and their virtues. 

et 

with public affairs; but his 
de art. 3 1 

endeavours have not been crowned with success. 
ejlJorl couronner de art. m. 



He has long muddied 
s^entremettre ind-4 long-temps 



MouDBE, to grind (corn, See.) 

Part. pres. moulant. — Part. past, moulu. 

Ind. pres. mouds, mouds, moud, moul-ons, — ez, — ent. 

ImperJ. moulais. — Prei. mouius. — Kni. moudrai. — Cond. moudrais. 

Tmper. mouds, moule, moulons, moulez, moulcnt. 

SuBJ. pres. moule.— /wiper/, moulusse, 



i 



i 




192 



OF THB VERB. 



In the same manner are conjugated the derivatives : 

^moudre 5 5?^r*^*^ ^ I vemoudre to grind again (corn, etc.) 
. ( (kmves, etc.) | remoudrti to gnnd again (knives, etc.) 

Prendre, to take. 
Part. pres. prenant.— Par^. past. pris. 
Ind. pres. prends, prends, prend, pren-ons,— ez, prennent. 
Jmperf. prenais.— Pre^. pna.—Fhit. prendrai.— Cond. prendrais. 
iMPER. prends, prenne, prenons, prenez, prennent. 
hvBj. pres. prenn-e,— es,— e, pren-ions,— iez, prennent 
Imperf. prisse. 

In the same manner are conjugated : 

apprendre to leani 

desapprendre to urdea/rn 

coraprendre to understand 

deprendre to separate 



entreprendre 
se meprcndre 
reprendre 
surprendre 



to undertake 
to mistake 
to retake, to reply 
to surprise 



rom- 



RoMPRE, to break. 
Part. pres. rompant. — Part. past, rompu. 
Ind. pres. rompa, romps, rompt, romp-ons, — ez, — ent. 
Imperf. jompais.— P/-^^. xam^is.— Put. romprai.— Cond. 

prais. 

Imper. lomps, rompe, rompons, rompez, rompent. 
SvBj.pres. rompe. — Imperf. rompisse. 

In the same manner are conjugated corrompre, to cor- 
rupt ; and interrompre, to interrupt. 

SouRDRE, to rush out of the ground, as u^ater, has only 
infinitive, and il or elle sourd. 



I took great ^„.. 

ind-3 oeaucoup de sing. 



EXERCISE, 
pains. Grind those razors with care. 



rasoir m. 



Those knives (are just) ground. This corn is not sufficiently 

couteaum.venvr d'etre grain m. assez 

ground, it should be ground again. I wish that you would 
faUoir ind-1 le vouUnr cond-1 

taJce courage. What news have you learnt? Philosoohv 

8»^J-2 f pi. art. ^ ' 

.comprehends logic, ethics, physics, and 

^Tt. logiqii£t Mt. morale i. art. physiqtte.t art. 

metaphysics. It is is (with difficulty) that he divests himself of 
metaphysigue f, Ce difficilement que se deprendre 

his opinions. He has forgot/en all that he knew. I fear 

desapprendre ce que savoir ind-3 craindre que 
you loUl undertake a task above vour strftnirth r'.oj.?.; 

nemhyl tacks i, awdess^isde " f. pl.° "" 



pr. 



0» THE VERft. 



m 



vea : 

I, etc.) 
^es, etc.) 



mdrais. 



Kd ^t)« A««^n 



ertake 

lake 

ke, to reply 

trise 



ND, rom- 

, to cor- 
has only 

ith care. 

ufficiently 
assez 

ou would 

'hilosophy 

and 

art. 

himself of 
vire 

I fear 
lindre que 






wiJte^eR so grossly ? I reptoted kini 

ww«^e»uirecond-2 grossiirement re^endre indl-Q Si 
eontiiiually for his faults, but (lo no purpose). We surprised 

the enemy, and cut ^ to pieces. In the middle of tli».: 
pi' miUer'ti I en a 

roaif thb aXleirte of our carriage broke. Bad 

themm esst^iia. carrosse se rompre ind-3 art. mawmis 

copipany anrnpts the minds of young people. Whv ds 
compagme pi. sinir \^J., »» uy ^ aa 

yeu twtem<!pi your brother> when you see him busyl 

S^nd 3 i accuse 

SuiVRB, tofoUciix. 
Part. pres. Bui^tnt^Parl. past smvi 
hity.pres. suis, suis, suit, suivons suivez, suivent. 
tmperf. smvais-Prc^ suivie~JW. suivrai-Com s«ivrai«. 
IMPER. suiB, suive, sHivohs, suivez, suivent. 
&UB#.^es, auive— /»tg»0^. suivisse. 

Poursuivre, is conjugated in the same way. 

liiTaUnf^* *^so, but it has the third persons singulur aa^ 

Vaincre, to eo7iquer-, to vanqv4^ 
Part. pres. vainquant— Par<, past, vaincu. 
Iso.pres. vaincs,* vaincs,* vainc,* vainqu-ons,* —ez — «nt 
Iniperf, vamquais— Pre^. vainquis— i?^ij5. vaiAcrai— Cond Vaincral.. 
Sdsj. pres. vfuncvae—Imperf. vainquisse. vaincrais, 

.All the peraons Of this verb, marked with an asterisk, are 
very little used. But its derivative, convaina-e, to convince, 
IS generally used m all its tenses and persons, 

EXERCISE, 

(For a long while) wc followed that method, which was only 
U,ng~temps 2 i„d-3 1 f. j^tg "^g 

""Xt'^^'aT^f^T T/*^'^SS^^ Seetheerror. 

true. We^mtterf our course when some cries which 

suivre md.2 chemin lorsque de art. m,m. pi. ♦ 
came from the midst o^ the forest brought terror into nnr 

sortu fondm. forit f. port^ind^ art. jf " « 

Bouls. The Greeks vanquished the Persians at Marathon, Salamis 
^''^ Perse a nk .ck/--jvJ 

Plfttea, and Mycale. I have at hoi comnncei him. by 



iU 



b# THi vnnU: 



,. ■' '• P'- ' enomiUi fauU f 

(have no doubt) but he wUl renait it i, ■ 4 • 

^* "-don «u„,,e^ „,.,, ^^ ^.„„^^ 

^..3 "■' r?- ^'- - 4f^ "Hh u„:r,r 

and dispc-sed them in an instant R^nf ♦! ari./uife t. 

— ^' tebaU/rc nwipl/i^ m 

agaxn. Happy those who /tt. in solitude! Long 

art. relraiie f. Qw5 l Smg-temps 4 



Ziw that good king r He did Zt in«l • ^«»^-^»^i« 4 

was 80 dear ia Mm 1?^t^u jj... _ . . *' 

He 



WM .0 dear t« hun. ^Fathers live agam inlh^; chUdr^n. 
wasinagrea^d^^n ;f mind; the ne^ws which he has received 

has revived him. * ^ 

ontfail inf-i 2 1 



Battre, to beat. 



Part. pns. battant— /»a/f . pasi. battu. 

IND pres. bats, bats, bat, battons, battez, battent 

ImIT/' J*"'^V'^''- ^''^^^^i- battrai-CoND. battraiiL 
Xmplr. bat8-SuBJ.i>rer5.batte~/?«^/.battise "' ""^^^ 



Conjugate in the same manner : 



•battre 

rabattre 

rebattre 



^ puU dmon I combattra to fight 
to beat again j s'ebattre to be mmy 



VivRE, to live. 



Part. pres. vivvirA— Part. past. vicu. 

l^'prcs. vis, vis, vit, vivons, vivcz, vivent.--/»t«er/. vivai.. 
Pret. vecus—F^. vivra — Cond. vivrais— fS^ Ji 

SvBJ. pres. y'lve-Imperf. v^cusse. ^^'ais-lMP. vw. 

In the same manner are conjugated rem'vre, to revive 



^ •. J ^ f . _ _ 

"•*u uuw fki// 6j tw auirvxvo» 



P 



•f THK VKRB. 



195 



BRANCH II. Plaire. 
Braire, to bray ; is used in the third persons only and in 
the following tenses : il biait, ila hraunt, il braira, ik brau 
rant, il brairaitf Us btairaient. 

Fa IRE, to do* 

Part. pres. fHiatiiit— Part. past. Mt. 

Ind pres. fkis, fais, fait, faisons, fait-', font. 

Jnperf. ftMaiar—Pret. &a—F*ut. lerai—CoiJD, fenus. 

Impjbr. fais, fasse, fai«ons, fkites, fassent. 

SvBj.pres. fasse, fassions — Imperf. fisse. 

Some authors oa account of the similarity of sound, writ© 
nousfesmSffesant, etc. hut it \9 conlraryto the Opinion of 
the French Academy. 

In the same manner are conjugated : 



eontrefaiitB 

ddfaire 

red6faiit0 

forfaire* 

malfaire 



to couTtterfeU 
to undo 
to undo again 
to trespass 
todoiU 



j refaire to do again 

satisfaire to sati^ 

Burfaire to exact 

mefaire* to misJo' 

parfaire to perfuf 

Traire, to milk (defective.) 



Part. pres. trayani>— Par^. past, trait. 

Ind pres. trais, trais, trait, trayons, trayez, traient. 

Imperf. trayais--( A'o pret.^—Fut. trairai— CoND. trairaii. 

Imper. trais, traye, trayons, trayez, treient. 

SuBj. pres. traye — {No imperf.) 



Conjugate in the same manner : 



attraire 
abstraire 
distraire 
extraire 



to allure 
to abstract 
to divert 
to extract 



rentraire 

retraire 

soustraire 



tofinedraw 
to redeem, 
to substract 



All these verbs are principally used in the compound 
tenses. 



Do not maJie (so much) 

tant 



EXERCISE. 

What will you have him do ? 
Que vouloir * que il sub-l 

noise. Do they never exact 7 That women mimicked all the per- 
<fe bruit ind-2 f. 

sons whom she saw. It was with difficulty he (divested himself) 
pl- mrind-3 Ceind-3 peine que sedefaire 



* These four verbs arc only used in this form, and the partic. past, 
forfmi^ Tnalfait, mefait and parfait. 



196 

of the false 



OF THe VJBR*. 



opinioiM which had been mv«n hii" in b- ia&n— 

IW, Rome, ...d N.pte.7 H.„y..ha. yoa h„e off«,dThim, 
and that, if you dc not satisfy him quickly, he will liad mean. 

■e #Kt meme a,t. &wr m. pi. ind-2 



cow., which gave her a (great quantity) of whokBome mk^" 

(''(fondants * etminZ laUm.l 



milked f 
know 



art. 
the 



those gniltv 



ce qui ind-2 lui 

Have you miUced your goats? Are the cows 

Q ^ . , c4^mf.pl. vachef y\. 

Salt 18 good to entice pigeons. You will never 

Sel m. pnnr atlmtre art. m. pi. ccnmaWe 

nature <»'^^ bodies, if you aA,irac< not their accewwy qualiUe* 

from those which arj inherent (in them^ Tb*- lelst thing (diveL 

^'^ i moindre le 

dSS°' ^^'^y^^^o'^^f^A^ Planning passaged ^are 

What ! would you have roe screen 
H^oil ind-l • que je soustraire »m]}.\ 
perrons from the rigour of the laws ) 
* <i rtgueur f, 

BRANCH III. i>arai/>-«. 
NAlTRn, to be born» 

Part pres. uaissant— Par^. past. ne. 

rJ^If"' "^**' ?«i^i»a^t. naissons, naissej, naissent. 

iMpf/* "*.^««"«--P^'^«- Maquis-/^-^^. naitrai-CoND. naitrai. 

IMPER. nai8-SuBj.i>m.nais8e-/;7ip«/.naquis8e. """"*• 

«J/^i'?'l^K^'*^^ auxiliary efre ; but its derivative, «^ 
n«./r., to be born again, has no participle past, and, con- 
sequently, no compound tenses, i t > ^, ^Qn 

PAlTRE, to graze (defective). 
Pan.pres.psii8aMt— Part, past. pu. 

ImS/' Pa.««a^-(^''F-^<.)-/^/. paitrai-CoND. paitrai. 
IMPEH. pais~SuBj.p7«. pais8e-(iVrTm^/. P*««»«' 

12c;>ai/re, to feed, to bait, is, like paraitre, reimJar m oil ;♦. 
^,xnaKing inthe/>re^ iND.je repus, etc! and 'in' the 
«»»i>er/. suBJ. je repusse, etc. "» "it? 






fj 



or THE VfiRB. 



197 



■#»• 



Was not Virgil dom al 

iiMl-3 
source that have arisen 



naitre f. pi. 
Tlie fable saya that, 



E)i:£RC:3E. 

Mantua 1 It is from that poisoned 
ManUmc Ce empomnni 3 

all the cruel wars that have desolated 



3 f. pi. 1 desota- 

as soon as Hercules hod 

aimitol que Hercules h m. ind-2 
hydra, others Si,rang up 

hydre f. d'atares 2 il en reiiaUre 
flocks fed on the 



f. 1 que 
the universe. 

f. dU 
(cut off) one of the heads of the 
aniper ttte f. pi. 

While heir united 

ind-3 I tandis que reuni 2 troupeau m. pi. 1 p^Ure ind~2 * 

tender and flowery grass they sung under the shade of a 

«J Jleun 3 herbe f. 1 chanter ind-2 d o//iZ»rc 

tree iho sweets of rural life. Your horses have 

douceur {. pi. art. champctre 2 f. 1 
not /e^ to-day ; you must have them fed. Thai, is a 

repaxtre iVaujourd'hui ; ilfaul leurfairc donner a manger Ce 
man who /Atrs/s after nothing but blood and slauirhter 

nc se repaiire de 2 * quel v^- cat-n^ge ml 

145. BRANCH IV. Reduire. 
.Bruire, to roar, is defective j it has only the part, 
pres, bruyant, oftener used as an adjective, as : desjiots 
bruyans ; and the tu^o third persons of the imperf, Ind. 
il bruyait, ils bruyalent. 

Luire, to shine ; and reluire, to glitter ; make the 
part, past, lui, relui, neither the pret, ind. nor imperf. 
suBJ. are in use. '' 

J^uire, to hurt; making part. pres. nmsnntf past. 
nui, IS regular in all its tenses. 

CoNPJR, to pickle or preserve. 
Part. pres. confis&nt— Part. past, confit. 
i.VD. pres. conf-is,— is, it,— isons,— isez,— iscnt. 
Imperf. confisais— Pre^ confis— 2^^, confirai. 
CoND. con.^rais— Imp. confis— Scbj. pres. confisc. 
Imperf. conflsse. 

Its derivative deconfire, to discomfit, is rather obsolete. 
Circoncire, to circumcise, and suffire, to suffice, make 
in the part. past, circonds and sujgji, the rest is as coiifire. 

EXERCISE. 

The thunder which reared from afar an"QU"'^«'i 

lomierrem. f»^ire ind-2 da7is hrt. hiTUain m. ind-2 

a droadful etorm. They heard the roaring of the waves of 



terrible 2 of age m. 1 On 



ind-2 
n2 



inf-1 



fiot m. pi. 



im 



OF THIS VCRl. 



ftn agit&leJ Ma. That Htreet m ina nmsy for those **h8 !ov8 

rt^Ye 2 mw f. 1 »ve f brtiyant, 

retirement and study. I (have a ji^limpM of) aorae tiiinff 

art. ritraite f. art. entrevoir qudque chose 

that aAtn«i through those treM. A ray of hope thtme upon 

au iravtrs de rayon m. ind-4 2* 

ua in the midst of the minfortunea which OTerwhelmed us. Evear 
1 d milieu malheur m. pi. accabUr ind-2 

thing is well luhbcd in that house : every thing shines, even to the 
Af^^ y ixluirt jusque d 

floor. Would ho not have hurt yoa in that affair "^ Jesus 
plancherm. cond-2 1 

Christ was circumeised a week after his oirth. Shall you 

huitjoun ntiissancc f. 

preserve these peaches with sugar, vith juney, or with 
conjire d art. sucre m. art. miel m. 

brandy 1 Have you pickled cucumbers, 

art. eau-de-vie f. rfc art. concombre m. pr-art. 

purslane, and sea-fenntM If he loses his law-suit, all his 

pourpier m. pr. art. pcrce-picrre f. /;r<M:^5 m. 

property «nZZ not suffice, 
bisn 

Dire, to say. 

Part. pres. disant — Part. past, dit, 

IwD. p'e*. dis, dis, dit, disons, dites,* disent. 

Jmperf. disais — Pret. dis — F\U, dira'. — Cond. dirais. 

Imper. dxii, dise, disons, dites,* diaent. 

SuBJ. pres. diBe—Iniperf. dme. 

EcRiRE, to torHe. 

Part. pres. ^crivant — Pau. pact. 6cnt. 

Ind. pres. ^cris, 6cris, 6crit, ecriv-ons, — ea;^ — ent. 

Impeif gcrivais — Pret. ficrivis — Fut. 6cnrai — Cond. ^crirais. 

Imp. 6cris — Subj. p>es. ecrive — Imperf. ecrivisse. 



*Redire, to say agsir. • ..< loiiS* ly to "its primitive, makes redites, but 



conti-edire 

dedire 

interdiro 

m^dire 

predire 



to contradict 
to unsay 
to f wind 
t.0 slender 
ta foretell 



make 



vous contredi5«^ 
V0U9 dedise;r 
vous interdise. 
vous medi^^ 
vous pt^disez 



Maudire is conjugated Wke punir with the exception of the participle 
past, whicii is ntauiiu', e, rrJu/imtisuiU, jc mauiiis, nous maudissons ; je 
wiaudissais ; je vmudis ; je Diaudirai ; je maudirais ; queje maudisse j 
qru: ji maudissQ i maudii. 



Of trti Vi£Rli. 



m 



proHcrfre 
r6crire 
souocriro 
transcrire 



Conjugate in ihe same mnnner. 

cirponNcrira to circumscribe 

<16crir0 . to de$criAe 

insori<^ to inicribe 

I'MrMcruv to prescribe 

Lire, torevl. 

Part. pres. Ibant — Part. past, lu, 
Ind. pes. lis, lis, lit, lisons, lisez, Ksent- -Imperf. lis&is. 
Prst. lus — F^iU. Iirai---CoND. lirais — Imi'EB. lis. 

SvitJ.pres. Ywe^-Imjferf. lusse. 

In the same manner arc conjiiga^fi : 



to proscriit/ 
to write again 
to Siibiaibe 
to transcrib* 




Slire 



I to elect 



j relire 



I to raid over agam 



RiRE, to laugh. 

Part. pres. riant — Past, ri — Ind. pres. ria. ris, rit, riows, riez, ri«nt. 
Imperf. rials — Fret, ris — I>hit. rirai — Cond. rirais. 
Imp£R. ris— Subj. pres. ris — Imperf. risse. 

Sourire, to smile ; is conjugated as 7'ire, 

Friref to fry ; besides the present oftlie infinitive, haw 
only the part, past, frit ; indic. pres. je fris, tu fris, il frit ; 
fut.je frirai, tu, etc. ; cond. je frirais,tu, etc. ; imper. 8ing> 
fris. But it has all the compound tenses. The forms that 
are deficient are fully supplied by fatre, prefixed iofrire, 
as : faisGnt frire, je faisais frire^ etc. 



Never contradict 



EXERCISE. 

I Always speak the truth, but with discretion. 
dire f. 

(any one) in public. You thought you were serving nie in 
persorme en penser ind-4 * * inf-1 2 1 e»t 

speaking thus : well, (let it be so) ; you shall not be contradicted 
peeler ainsiehbien soit en dcdire 

What ! vwuld you forbid him all communication with his friends 1 

Quoi ! * inter dire 2 1 f. 

That woman slandered every one. Yon had foretold that event. 
ind-2 de ind-6 

Let us curse no one ; let vrn remember that our laws forbidn us 
ne peisonne se rappeler defendrs 

to curse even those who persecute us. Write dovyn every 
de persecuter art. pi. 

day the reflections which you make on the books which you read. 
Did he not read that interesting history with (a great deal) of 

pleasure 1 God is an infinite being who is circumscribed neither 

2 ctre m. I n^> ni 



i ', 




500 

hy time nor 
art. ni pr, art. 



OP THE VERB. 



place. 
I'iew m. [A. 



Shall you not cksaibe that 



t^':f!A ' '^'PP**' ^ Have those soles and whitings fried. 

n. merlmi '6 inf-1 2 



horrible 2 f. 'l fairp i v°' .^ . - - 

jf -u . ^ /«i?-e 1 pron. mrZari 3 inf-1 2 

^''' J^?. I'* ^^'^^ y^""* *"«^^' '■^^^^. ^^^ ^^«^^^ over and over 

lire ct relire ics anciens 

inS' '^'''^ \^ ^ ^''^' JH^t^'l ^'^ ^°'^^- VVe te Z««^;^^ 

heartily and have resolved to (so on^ Wp Hiri r.^^ 

bation, in the kindest manner. 
— dc gracieux2 avr m. 1. 

Poire, to diink. 
Part.pres.hmani—PasLXm. 
liin.pres. bois bois, boit, buvons, buvez, boivent 
fS ,^.^H«T^'t • bus-i^'^k boirai-CoND. boirais. 
-Z: kT' '''''^^' ^"^°"«' buvez, boivent. 

i^p^rit:: -''' ~^' '"^^^°^' ^"--' ^--»^- 

In the same manner are conjugated, 
reboire to drink again s'emboire to imbibe, a tecknicai 

,yj I termusedi.ipainthig 

nir 1 ♦ ' i" ^^^^•^^^^^^• J and the IMP. sing, clos. 

-Dec/ore, to disclose, .;ic'/ore, to enclos.e, are defective in 
he same tenses as clove; hut for dor e, to debar a la w 
term IS on y used in the inf. .Jpartpast. forcloJ.' 

Eclore, to be hatched, as birds, or to blow like a Power 

ou'l clc^^^^^^^ '^' 'fj'^^^^^' qu'ilcclo.e, 

formed w^r/^^^^^ its compound tense., which are 

lormea with etrcy are much used. 

CoNCLURE, to conclude. 
Part. pres. condmnt—Past. conclu 
Jnd. pres. conclus, conclus, conclut. conclu-ons —07 onf 

^fclure to exclude ; is conjugated like conclure, except 
(hat It has two participle, paot, exdu, e, exdns. cl' ^ 



OF THB VERB. 



201 



Croire, to believe. 

I ■ 

Part. pres. croyant— Pas^. cru. 

Lnd. pres. crois, crois, croit, croyons, croyez, croient. 

Imperf. croytds-Pret. cma—F^. croirai— Cond. croirais.. 

iMPER. orois, croie, croyons, croyez, croient. 

Imperf. crusse 

It has no derivative but accrdtVc, which is only used 
with f aire, as : faire accroire or en faire accroire, to im- 
pose upon credulity ; and s^en faire accroire to be self-con- 
ceited* 

EXERCISE. 

Seated m^er the shade of palm-trees, they milked their 

■^'^^ ^ art. palmier pi, traire ind-2 

Slwf r^ iTL-'^ , ^"^ ""^^"'y ^'•^"k that nectar, 

cAewef.pl. pron. brebis f. pi. avec joie 2 ind-2 1 m. 

which (was renewed) every day. Would they ^drink 
serenouveler ind'2 art.pl. doire cond-l 

their wine iced 1 This window does not close well ; when you 
d la glace f. "^ 

^^^00"^*^° ^"^® altc.ations (in it), it M?i« close better. He 

inUrS 2 3"- reparation f. 4 y 1 wicMx 

had scarcely closed his eyes, when the noise which they made 

a peine md-G ♦ art. que que 011 ind-3 

at his door, awoke him. Have they not enclosed the suburbs 

a remZZer ind-3 on faubourg 

within, the city ? TFzZZ you e^ic^ose your park with a wall 
m. pi. viUe f. ^^rc ^ mur m. 

or a hedge 1 Put the eggs of those silk-worms in ihe 

pr. haiel. metlez a»«/m. pi. ver-d-soie m. '^\. a, 

sun, that they ma^j hatch. Those flowers just blown 
^°^'' ^- sub-1 nouvcllement 

exhale the sweetest fragrance. When did they coTichuie th^«« 
repandre doux parfim m. ind-4 

treaty 1 His enemies managed so well, that he was unanimously 
trattem. faire ind-S ind-S unanimemeni 

excluded from the company. Dii you think me capable of so 

compagnie f. croire ind-1 

black an act 1 He possesses some kind of knowledge; but 

fioir 2 trait m. 1 avoir espice savoir 

(not so much as he thinks), 
U s^en fait trop accroire. 

146. BRANCH V. J&indre, 

Poindre, to pierce, to peep, to dawn, has only besides 
the infinitive il point, ilpoindra. 



202 



Of THE VIBRD. 



147. GENERAL GUIDE TO THE CONJUGATION. 

The following Tables, which exhibit at one view all the 
primitive tenses both of the regular and irregular verba, and 
most of the defective, with references to the pages where the 
other tenses are to be found, will, it is presumed, prove use- 
ful to. those who will consult them. 



TABLE OF THE PRIMITIVE TENSES OP THE 
POUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS. 



INFIN. 



PARTICIPLES. 



PRESENT, PART. PRES PART. PAST. 



INDICATIVE 



IND. PRES. I IND. PRETERIT 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 
Parlor | Parian^ I Parle | Jeparlc 

SECOND CONJUGATION. 
FIRST BRANCH. PuTlir. 
Punir { Piiniasant \ Pimi | Jepunis 

SECOND BRANCH. Sentir, 



Sentir 
Mentir 
Se repentir 
Par^ir 
Sortir 

Servir 



Ouvre 
Offrir 
SouffVir 



Tenir 
Yenir 



Senti 



M.enta7U 
3e repenU?*/ 
P&rtant 
Sorla?it 
Do tenant 
Servant 

THIRD BRANCH. OuvHr, 



M.enii 

Repen^i 

Par^i 

Sor^i 

Dorm 

Serui 



Je sens 
Te mens 
le me repens 
Je pars 
Je sors 
Je dors 
Te sers 



Qnvrant 
Offrani 
Souff' ant 



0\i\crt 

Offert 

Soxxffert 



j'ouvre 
J'off'c 
Je souffre 



I Jeparlai I 137* 



I Je punii I 147 



Te sen^ts '^ 

Je mentis 

J erne reyentis 

Te partis ^ 147 

Je aortis 

Je dormis 

Je seryis 



J'ouvris, i 
J'offrw > 147 

Je soufiWs 1 



FOURTH BRANCH. Teuir. 



Tenant 
Ycnant 



ienu 
Yenu 



Je tie/w 
Jo vie7is 



Je tins 
Je \ins 



\ 



Courir 



Recevioir 

Pevoir 



FIFTH BRANCH. Courir, 
I CoMrant | Count | Je cours j Jo covaus 
THIRD CONJUGATION. 



147 



147 



Recs«a/ii 
DsvanA 



Recw 
D'i 



Je ref ois 
Je dots 



U^ |,5.3 



0» THB VERB. 



1^03 



INFIN. 



PRESENT. 



PARTICIPLES 



PART. PRES. 



PART. PAST. 



INDICATIVE. 



IND. PRES. 



IND. PBETERIT. 



Repand^e 

Revdre 

Fondre 

Pondrg 

Rfipondrc 

Tondre 

Perdre 

Movdre 

Tordre 



Plairc 
Taire 



Vaxaltre 
"CroUre 
Connaitre 
"Repaitre 



Reduirc 
Iflstruire 



Craindre 

Peind?e 

Joindre 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 
FIRST BliANCH. Rendre. 



Repandaw-/! Repandji 
Rendaibt Rendw 
Fonda«t Fondw 
Pondant Pondw 
Rii\)oi\dant Repondw 



Toxxdant 

Verdant 

Mordant 

'Vordant 



.Tondtt 
Perd?i 
Mordw 
TordM 



Je repands IJe repandts 
Je rends Je rendis 
Je fonds Je fondts 
Je ponds Je pondw 
Jer6ponds Jerepondw 
Je tonds Je tondw 
Je perds Je perdis 
Je mords Je mordis 
Je tords Je toxdis 



156 



SECOND BRANCH. Plaire, 



J 



PXaisant 
Taisant 

THIRD BRANCH. Paraitve* 






Je filais 
Jetais 



Je plm 
Je ins 



Paraissant Parw Je pam/s 

Croissant Cm Je crois 

Connaissant Connu Jeconnais 

Rei^aissant Repu Jctepais 

FOURTH BRANCH. Reduue* 

Rtdxxxsant \Ridmt IJereduis I Je redums 
In^trnxsant \lnsixnU | J'instruis | J' intruisw 

FIFTH BRANCH. Craitidre, 



Je pamj 
Jecrjw 
Je con nt<^ 
Je repjw 



CrmgnaM 

Pcignant 

Poignant 



Ctoxnt 

Pem^ 

Joi?i^ 



Je crair^s 
Je peins 
Je JoiTis 



Je crai^ijs 2 
Je ^ignis > 
Je^oignis ) 



156 



156 



156 



156 



148. PRIMITIVE TENSES OF THE IRREGULAR 
AND DEFECTIVE VERBS. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 
Aller lAUant | A1I6 | Je vais 

SECOND CONJUGATION. 



f J'allai 176 



i' ieurir ^ 

Hair 
Gigsir* 



Pleurissa nt 
Florissant 
Haisant 
Gieant 



FIRST BRANCH. 

Fieuri 
Hai 



Punir. 

Jc fieuris 

Je hai8 
II git 



Je fieuris 
Jo haia 



! 



I 



179 



//; 



iiii i wiiitiiiii i i»iMi wiii»*ijppw 
i7 " 



"• Jty MinMiill 



-f'% - /^AA^- 



^04^ 



^/j^-t-iEU. (•».■»' >- ■ ■ » \T-^%^'f - r'^ ^-VU^w..^!'**^"'.'^' 



OF THD V^tlM* 



I 



INFIN; 



PARTICIPLES. 



PREBBNT. PART. PRES. 



PART;PAST. 



INDICATIVE. 



IND« PRBSt 



IND. PRBTBRiTt 



BECOltD BRANCH. SentiT. 



Bouillir 


Boiiiliant 


Bouilli 


Je bous 


Je bouillis^ 




Ebouillir 




El)ouilU 








Faillir 


Failiant* 


F^aii 


Je faux* 


Je faillis 




Defaillit 




Defaiili 


NouB defail- 
lons 


JedSfaillis 




Fair 


Fttyant 


Fui 


Je fuifl 


Je Aiis 


180 


Mourir 


Mourant 


Mopt 


Je meurs 


Je mouruB 




Acquerir 


Aoquerant 


Acquis 


J'acquiers 


J 'acquis 

T ■ 




Conqu6rif 


Conqueranl 


Conqui9 


Je cooquiers 


Jeconqms 




OUiir 


Oyant* 


Oui 




J'oiUs 




V^lu- 


Vetant 


V6tu 


Je vets Je v6tis 




Rev6tif 


R6v6tant 


Revetu 


Je revets Je revdtiB , 


^ 

TttIRD BRANCH. 


Oiiwir, 


Cvieillir 


Cu6ii!anl 


dueilli 


Je ciieille 


Je cueillia 1 


Saillir 


Saillant 


Sailli 


11 saille 


II saillit > 183 


Trossaiilir 


TreasaillaDt 


Tresaailli 


Je tressaille 


Jetressaillia) 


THIRD CONJU 


6AT10N. 


Recevoi 


r. 


Avoir Ayant Eu 


J'ai 


J'eus 




Ravoir 








Choir Chu 






► 184 


Dechoir Dechu 


Je dechois 


Je dechus 




Echoir Echeant \ Echu 


II echoit 


J'echus 




Falloir 




Falhi 


11 faut 


II fallut 1 173 


Mouvoir 


Mouvant 


Mu 


Je meus 


Je mus 


Promouvoir 




Promu 




Je promus* ' 




Pleuvoir 


Pleuvant 


Plu 


11 pleut 


II plut 




Pouvoir 


Pouvant 


Pu 


Je puis 


Je pus 




Savoir 


Saehant 


Su 


Je sais 


Je sus 




Seoir* 


Seyant 




11 sied 




187 


Seoir* 


Scant 


Sis 






> a 
189 


Asseoir 


Asseyant 


Assis 


J'assieds 


J'assis 


Surseoir 




Sarsis 


Je sursois 


Je sursis 


»^/" 


Voir 


Voyant 


Vu 


Je vols 


Je vis 




Prevoir 


Prevoyant 


Prevu 


Je prSvois 


Je previa 




Pourvoir 


Pourvoyant 


, iPourvu 


Je pourvcis 


Je pourvus 




Valoir 


Vfllant iValu 


Je vaux jJe yalus 




Vouloir 




Voulant 


IVoulu 


Jo veux 


Ue voulus 


J 



N.B.— The forms marked with an asterisk are rather <A«olet«, 



i..<.'- 



'W'■^■''^■'f'■■'■-^-JrJ^..:r' 



or THE VERB. 



205 



ETERITi 



/ 



illis 

it .. 
illia 



irus 

a 

luis 



s 

itis 



L18O 



lia 1 
{i83 

lilUs) 



a84 



hus 




18 

^ 1 


173 


lUS* ' 




is 


187 
. a 
189 


is 




irvus 




IS 

lus 





b«olet«. 



INFIN. 



PRESENT, 



PARTICIPLES. 



PART. PRES. PART. PAST 



INDICATIVE. 



IND. PRES. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 



FJRST BRANCH, Rendrc. 



Resoutlre 

Soudre 

Absoudre 

Dissoudre 

Coudre 

Sourdre 

Mettre 

Moudrc 

Prendre 

Rompre 

Suivre 

S'ensuivre 

Vaincre 

Battre 

Eire 

Vivr© 



Braire 

Faire 

Traire 



Naitrc 

Renaitre 

Paitre 



jRecolvant 

iSolvant 

JAbsolvant 

|Dissolvant 

■Cousant 

iMettant 

Mouiant 

|Prenant 

|Rompant 

iSuivant 

S'ensuivant 

Vainquant 

Baltant 

Etant 

Vivant 



Resous, -lu 

Absous 
Dissous 
Cousu 

Mis 

Moulu 

Pris 

Rompu 

Suivi 

Ensuivi 

Vaincu 

Battu 

Ete 

Vecu 



Je resous 

J'absous 
Je dissous 
Je couds 
li sourt 
Je mets 
Je mouds 
Je prends 
Je romps 
Je suis 
11 s'ensuit 
Je vaincs 
Je bats 
Je suis 
Je vis 



Faisant 
Trayant 



SECOND BRANCH. Plalre. 

II brait 
Fait Je fais 

Trait Je trais 

THIRD BRANCH. PavaUre. 



Naissant 

Renaissant 

Paissant 



Pu 



Je nais 
Jo renais 
Je pais 



Bruire 

Luire 

Nuire 

Confire 

Suffire 

Circoncire 

Dire 

Medire 

Maudire 

Ecrire 

Lire 

Rire 

Frire 

Boire 

CIore,clorrei 

Conclure 

Exclure 

Croire 



Bruyant 

Luisant 

Nuisant 

Confisant 

Suffisant 

Circoncisant 

Disant 

Medisant 

Maudissant 

Ecrivant 

Lisant 

Riant 

Buvant 

Concluant 

Excluant 

Croyant 



Lui 

Nui 

Confit 

Suffi 

Circoncis 

Dit 

Medit 

Maudit 

Ecrit 

Lu 

Ri 

Frit 

Rp. 

Cios 

jConcIus 

lExclu or 

iCru 



IND. PRETERIT. 



Je rfisolus 



Jo cousis 

Je mis 
Je moulus 
Je pris 
Je rompis 
Je suivis 
II s'ensuivit 
Jo valnquis 
Je bat^is 
Je fus 
Je vecus 



Je fis 



19) 

^ ^ 
194 



130 
194 



195 



FOURTH BRANCH, Reduive, 



Je naquia 1 
Je renaquis* > 196 



Je luis 
Je nuis 
Je confis 
Je suffis 
Je circoncis 
Je dis 
Je medis 
Je maudis 
J'ecris 
Jo lis 
Je ris 
Je fris 

!t-. !._;_ 



|Je clos 
Jo conclus 
exclusj'cxclus 
iJc crois 
S 



Je nuisis 
Je confis 
Je suffis 
Je circoncis 
Je dis 
Je medis 
le maudis 
J'ecrivis r 
Je lus 
Je ria 

Je conclus 
J'exclus 
Jo crus 



197 

a 

201 



206 



OF THE PREPOSITIONS. 



INFIN. 



PRESENT. 



PARTICIPLES. 



PART PRES. PART. PAST. 



INDICATIVE. 



IND. PRES. IND. PRETERIT. 



FIFTH BRANCH, Craindre, 

P«ndre | | | n point | | 201 

N. B. The derivatives, which are not in this Table, will be found 
with the primitives, to which we have given references. 



f c: 






CHAPTER VI. 
OF THE PREPOSITIONS. 
149. Prepositions, so called, from their being prefixed to 
the nouns, which they govern, serve to show the relation 
which exists between two words. Thus, in this phrase, 
lefrmt de Varbre, the fruit of the tree, de expresses the 
relation between /rmV and arbre. Likewise in this, «/e7e 
alhomme, useful to man ; a shows the relation between 
the noun hmnme and the adjective utile, De and a are 
^^repositions, and the word to which they are «refixed, is 
called their regimen. 

Prepositions being invariable parts of speech, they re- 
main the same whatever be the gender and number of the 
noun which they precede. 

They are generally divided into classes, according to the 
nature of the relation they serve to express. 

Some also require another preposition after them, de or a, 
whilst their equivalents in English do not, and vice versa. 

These peculiarities deserve much attention and will, 
therefore, be noticed in order. 

150. PREPOSITIONS DENOTING PLACE, 

Chez. 11 est chez son pere, he is at the house of his 
father, or at his father'^s, J^ous sommes chez lui, we are in 
his house. // est chez lui, he is at home. 

Bans. // se promene dans le jardin j he is walking in 
the garden. 

Devant. // est toujours devant nes yeux \ he is 
always before my eves, 

Derriere. // ne re garde jamais derriere lui ; he 
n ever \oo\iiB behind him. 



■M. 



^ 






-/ 



/ 



f 



or THE PREPOSITIONS. 



207 

fJulZ.gl^nf' ■^°"' P"'"' '" '^'»»"-' how many 
JZ": ^ '""^' "'■' ^<"" *^'' *« n-ole lives «„rf^ 
hef d.)' '^^ " '' '''"■P'"" '^"^ '« '^'^ ! he has his hat on (his 

OUTKK. Pe,.e rfWr. en outre,- lArougk and M.o„^A. 

EXERCISE. 

e find ,., ^^ „., ,^^^ .„,„ .,e,.Mc„ndmo„ than ,„ 

He walked te/„„e Th.J""^'™^ "•'•'V""& fw «rf 

hw house. Amone fm m.„v1 ja- . . *»«?««« m. I 

^ toSr^ d'fferent nations, there is not „„, 
that has not a rplim«.,= l- 2^ ^^ emr 

^«snb-,. ''"^'- „2tl-.rt '^«'""/7%» her riches 

tonVte 3 f?T& art s'T" T"? .L 
~ . fe..'" T^ "» '"e -™nut of the Alps. r^^^At 

north, ^^ nature presents a gl«„y and wild aspect. 

Av^.T^'TTTr^^^^ 
her jird\|^r:)?{tr'^ '^^ *^'"'- ">'"">"^ 

creaS:\hf;S„/Lf "'■'" •'^*^'« »-' /- the 
^o^r:::fi^ilZ^:t''' Z™- his infancy, des ,a 

■tt, . EXERCISE. 

" "'^- ^""-0 art. *" ' "■ * '-v.^'yojr uie 



108 



OF TUB |>ttKPOSITIOWS. 
e two mountains id a 



Between I 

Many very astonishing events (have taken place) 

I * dc art. 3 4 3 il s'est passe I 



Icep hollovr 
pro/ond 3 et crevix 2 



we could) 

mieux 
road. 

oiemmmi. - uc an. a i a ils'estpas 

within theaa ten years. rrom my earliest infancy I have had at\ 
^P'i's * art. tcndre * 

ahhorrence for felschood. 

horreur dc art. mensongem. 

PREPOSITIONS DENOTLVG UNION. 

AvEc. II faut savoii' avec qui oji se lie, we ought to 
know with whom we associate. 

DuRA.NT. Diirant /a guerre, during the war; durant 
/'e7e, during the summer. 

Pendant. Pendant Vhiver, in winter ; pendant la 
paix, in time of Peace. This preposition denotes a dura- 
tion more limited than durant. 

SuiVANT. Je me deciderai suivant les eirconstances, 
I shall determine according to circumstances, 

Selon. Le sage se conduit selon les maximes de la rai- 
&on, a wise man acts acording to the dictates of rfeascn. 



JBXERCISE« 
politeness, and a 



With wit, politeness, and a little (readiness to 

de art. [)r. art. fmt de prevenance 

oblige) one generally succeeds in the world. We arc fit for 

reussir mi propre a art. 

meditation dur'mg winter. (//^ the course of) that siege the cora- 

f* pendmit siege m. 

mandant of the city made some very successful sallies. 

ind.-3 de art. heioeux 2 sortie f. pi. L 

Bezides the exterior advantages of figure and the graces of 

2 I art. art. 

deportment, she possesses an excellent heart, a correct judgment, 
maintienm. avoir 2 I sain*2jugementl 

and a kind heart. Always act accm'ding to the maxims 

sensible 2 1 se condtdre * f. pi. 

which I have given you. 

incidqicer ' pi. 

152. PREPOSITIONS DENOTING OPPOSITIONS. 

CoNTRE. Jeplaide coTitre lui, I plead against him. 

Malgre. // Pa fait mf.lgre moi, he has done iiinspite 
of me. 

NoNOBSTANT. Nonohstant ce gu'on lui a ditj notwith- 
standing what has heen f?aid to him. 



I hollow 
3 et crevix 2 

iken place) 
itpasst L 

ive had at\ 



OF i'HIi PREPOSITIONS. 



EXERCISE. 



20D 



ought to 

r; durant 

endant la 
Bs a dura- 

onstanceSy 



de la rai' 
ascn. 



diness to 
^enaTiee 

it for 
opre d art. 

e the coin- 
ra. 

sallies. 
lie f. pi. Ir 

aces of 

art. 

judgment, 

Ijugementl 

be maxims 
. f. pi. 



;iTiOi>. 

yf him. 
it in spite 



W« WMinot long act {contrary to) our own disposition 
savoit cond-1 agir contre * caractere m. 

futtwUhstanding all the pains we take to disguise it, it shews 

?"« p»ur 2 I se mon- 

itself, and betrays us on many occasions. In vain we 
trer trahir 2 I m bien de art. 

dissemble ; in spile o/ ourselves, we are known at last. 
voir beau /aire mi mus connait a la hngiie. 

153. PREPOSITIONS DENOTLNG PRIVATION 

SEPARATION. 

Sans. Des troupes sans chefs ; troops mthout com- 
manders. 

ExcEPTE. Excepte quelques malheureuoc, except some 
wretches. 

HoRS. Tout est perdu hors Phonncur, all is lost save 
honour. 

HoRMis. Tous sont entrcs hormis mon frere, they are 
all come in except my brother. 

EXERCISE. 

{Had it iwl bceii for) your care, I should have been ignorant all 
^«^» pi. un 

my life. All the philosophers of s^ntXqoxiy^ except a few 

^^' tres-petit novi- 

have held the woild to be eternal. AH laid down their 
bre aoire * * j^^^.^ ^^ * 

arras, except two regiments, who prefered (making their way) 

^^^ sejairejour 

through the enemy. Every thing is absurd and ridiculous in 
au travers de pi . 

that work, e2;ce^^ a chapter or two. 

154. PREPOSITIONS DENOTING THE END. 

Envers. // est chantable envers les pauvres he is 
charitable to the poor. 

ToucHANT. II a ccrit touchant cctte affaire^he has 
written respecting that business. 

Pour. // travaille pour le bien public^ he works for 
the nnblic ffood^ 

EXEHCISF. 

I have written to you concei-ning that business, in which I take 

<i laquelle 

13 a 



■M 



I 






' 'I 




210 



OF THi PABPosrnelf*. 



tears 



the ino«t livolv interest; and as I know your benevolencn to- 

trari/,. the unfortunate, I (make not the least doubt) that yoa 

ne cUmter nullemenl 
will carefully . ttend) (to it) (not m much) for the aati^ftr 
nedonnertmdvos SOLUS mh-l 2 y\ mmis /^'^ »"« satMfac- 

tion of obliging me, as /.. the pleasure of justifying innocence, 

•ntl confounding calumny, 
pr. confondre art. f. 

155. PREPOSITIONS DENOTING CAUSE, MEANS 

% hrs^'pra/erf." ^''^' ^'^ ^^^i^'-^em, he has softened him 

MoYENNANT. II rcussiva moyennant vos avis, he wHI 
succeed 6y means of vour counsels. ' ' 

AttfxNdu. // ne ;,.t/i ^«,/,v, attendu les vents con^ 
tj aires, he cannot sail on account cf contrary winds. 

' EXERCISE. 

Is there any man that has never been softene.1 bv 
yavoLT auacn sub-1 ^^^^ \^ 

or disarmed Inj submission 1 Through the Dreeaut!on« «,k- u 
711 disariner art. *' precautions which 

to the bad state of my father's health, I shall not travel this 
year. 4 1 voyager 

annce f. 

156. The^prepositions a, de, en are so commonly used 
in 1* r. ich, that they deserve particular attention. 

A is generally used to express several relations, destina^ 
iion, tendency, place, time, situation, etc. being often a sub 
stitute for various other prepositions , Ea:.— destination -to • 
alter a Londres, to go to London.— Tendency -to, tomrd • 
counr a sa perte, to hasten to one's ruin. —Aim -to ftyr- 
aspirerh, la gloire, to aspire to glory.— Residence -atUn • 
etre a Rome, to be at Rome.— Time -at : a midi, at twelve 
clock.—Conccrn -on: a ce sujet, m this subject.— Man- 
ner -untn : supplier a mains jointes, to intreat earnestly — 
Means -with :peindre a Phuile, to paint in, or t^'M oil ; ^«5 
.. ..^.j..o, t.i;cc uiicau-5u>oiiiiigs, inai is, wa/t three threads. 
— Situation -at, with : etre a son aise, to be at ease Pur- 
pose -for : une table a manger, a dining table Suilable- 



f>* Till PntrOBiriom, 



Ui 



svolenco to- 
UlaTice f. 

) that yoa 

the sati^fac- 

innocence. 



fBANS. 
ftened him 

's, he will 

vents con- 
ids. 



h tears 
art, 

ons which 
St. Oioing 

travel this 

'voyager 



>nly used 

destina- 
en a sub- 
Jtion -to : 
, toward : 
-to, for: 
5 -at, in : 
at twelve 
t.-— Man- 
nestly. — . 
^ oil ; bas 
5 threads, 
e — Pur- 
Sui<able- 



better eiampfe* 
nieilleur I 2 



dessert, crime i ne jjas pardonner, a crime not to be forgiven, 

RX£RCI8E. 

Fathers! give good counsels, and still 

^ encore 3 f: 

to your children. A good minister only aims at thegtory tf 

ne aspirer que d 

^ttyoo 1 ,n(j.^ ^ i.ampagne{, can- 

'[al^r\r.^o '***' morning .> study, we walked at noor. 
sac,crinA-2 inatmcei art. s« ;,rme7t^ ind-Q S 

and, at three or four o'clock, we went a hunting, or fishing 

f^re ind-2art. cA«wi5ef?. pr art. ;7^cA« f! 



beaucoup 



art. fresquc f. ce 



^^i"^'^^ ir'^ P^''- ^"^ mahoganv feet. That man icith his 
mm. colonne ahvmre ft. pied d^accajou " 

gloomy looks and turly behaviour, 



sombre 2 regard m. 1 art 



I ' n ' seems 

brtisgue . 2 mainlien m. 1 pr. art. ne sevible 



fit only to serve as a scarecrow. 
proi>re que dc * epouvantail. 

De is generally used to express separation, extraction, 
possession, appurtenance, cause, shift, result, etc. and sup- 
plies the place of several prepositions, as^from : je viens 
de France, I come from France ; d^un bout a Vautr€,from 
one end to the other.— 0/: lepalais du roi, the palace of 
the king ; les facultes de Pame, the faculties of the soul : 

un homme di' esprit, a man of talent. In a partitive sense 

of: moitie de, quart de, etc. the half of, the fourth of, etc. : 
It IS used for par— % ; il est aime de tout k monde, he is 
beloved by eveiy body ; {ox^through, or by, etc. : mourir 
defaim, de soif, to die of hunger, o/ thirst : on, upon, with : 
vivre de fruits, to live upon fruit.— On account of, or for: 
sauter de joie, to leap for joy. 

\ EXERCISE. 

I come frovi London, where I have spent a week very agreeably. 

ou passe huit jours 

il rom one end of the horizon to the other, the sky was covered 

bout m. m. del ra. ind-2 

%vUh. thick black clouds. The marble <?/ Pares is not 

epaisQ et noir 3 nuage m. pi. 1. 



I 




*i«miili 



'f 
If 



i 



&t^ 



Ot TMK AOVBRB. 



finer than 4fea which we gel ><m Currara. Montiugno, Mad. de 

va jut 7WWJ vieiU Canarc. 

Sivigni, and la Fontaine, w ere writon* o/ truly original ije- 

ind-2 r/c art. er Ivain un 2 i \ 
niiu. One half of the terrestrial globe is covered with water 

fftoi^te f. terrecire H globe m. 1 

and above a (third part) of i\xr rest is uninhabited, either throuch 
Pius de Iters m. i^h^hns. „. __*> 



OM par 
In that happy 

the delicious 
8 



pLus lU tiers m. inAalnte 

extreme heat, or through excessive cold 

un 2 chaienr f. I un =•2 froul m. 1. 

retreat, we lived on ihe milk of our flocks, and 
asUem. ind-a " tn-elns pr 

fruits ufom orchards. 

1 verger m pi. 

En serves to mark the relations of time, place, situation, 
etc. and IS variously expressed, as c'etait en Amr, it was 
during winter ; e.tre en Angleterre, to be in England j alkr 
en Uahe, to go into Italy j €//e c«^ en bonne santc, she is m 
good health ; il vaui mieux etre en pmx, qu\n guerre it is 
better to be at peace than at war; il Pa fait en haine de 
lui, he did it out of hatred to him, etc. 

EXERCISE. 

He had for a Hong whUe^ lived in France j the troubles 
.J • depuis 1 ♦ Umg-t^mps 2 viwe ind-2 ^romues 

which agiUted that fine kingdom obliged him to retire to S wit- 

ind^ r*>ya«;/t« m. ind-4 ikserctirer SwilL 

xeriand, whence he soon after went. to Italy. We were 

a OM ij 1 ^ 55 re/trfre ind-4 j^j g 

fl^ peace, and «nJoyed all its blessings, .vhen ambi- 

pron. gonter md-2 en art, cAame m art 

titaally a^ war; he cannot remain «^ rest. Ue Jias acte^l on 
P^rs pouvoir en reros ' w 

this occasion, like a great man. 
en 



1 



157. The adverb is a word which is generallv nlarpd 
after the verb to express wkere, when, .nd^cZZtZt 




CHAPTER VII. 

OP THE ADVERBe 



OF niS ADVERBi 



213 



kigno, Mad. de 

ily original tfe- 
2 ll 1 

red with water 

either through 
ou par 

In that happy 

the delicious 
8 



e, situation, 
htvery it was 
?land J aller 
ic, phe is in 
tfUerrCf it is 
3n haine de 



i the trouhles 

ire to Swit- 

tirer Suisse 

Wo were 
iad-2 
when anibi- 
art. 
to put 
de mettre 
almost con- 
presgiie tau- 

acted, on 



IS or was done. Vous chantez bten, you sing well j il par- 
iira demain, he will set out to-morrow, etc. It is often also 
joined to an adjective, coupled with etre ; il est vraimeni 
digne d^amitiGi ho is truly deserving offriendship. 

Remark. There are adjectives which are gometiin«8 
used as adverbs, as, il chaiiie juste, he sings right ; elte 
chantefaux, she sings out of tune ; ih ne voient ])c^ clair^ 
they do not see deav ; cetteflcur sent bon, this flower has a 
pleasant smell, etc. The adjectives, yw5/e,/a«a?, clatr and 
boUf here supply the place of adveibs. 

Adverbs are of diflerent kinds. 

The most numerous are those wliich express manner, 
and are formed from adjectives, in the following manner. 

158. When the adjective ends, in the masculine, with d 
vowel, the adverb is formed by adding ment : as, modesie- 
ment, modestly j jjoli-ment, politely ; ingenu-ment, inge- 
nuously, etc. 

Exceptions. Impuni makes impunement, and iraitre, 
irnitreusement. 

The following six take e close beiore -ment, instead of the 
e mute which is in the adjective. 

conform^ment confwmabiy 
enorin6inent enormously 
opiniatr^ment obsliwitdy 



aveuglemcnt 

commodement 

incommod6raent 



blinUij 

comviodiomly 

incommodiously 

159. When the adjective ends with a consonant, in the 
masculine, the adverb is formed from the feminine termina- 
tion, by adf^ing mcnt ; as, grand^ grandement^* greatly j- 
franc, franchement, frankly ; naif, naivcment, artlet?s(y, etc. 

Observe that the adverbs, 

follement foolishly I bcllcment so^y 

mollement ejfeminaUhj \ nouvelleincnt .. ly 

Are to be considered aa coming from the adjectives jol, viol, bel, 
iiouvel, and accordingly belong to the foregoing rule. 

Exceptions. Gentil, makes gentimenf, prettily. 

The following eighth adverbs, 



Ily placed 
the action 



commun^ment co^iovmily 

confusement confusedly 

diffusement dijfusedly 

exprcssement expressly 

lake before ment the e close instead of the e mute, which is 
m the feminine of the adjectives, from which they are de- 
rived. 



impoTtunemrnt importvnntehj 
obscure ment obscurely 
precisement p-ecisely 
profon dement deeply 



2H 




OP THE ADVERB. 



Rem. The 



folic 



from 



comment 

incessamment 

notamment 



nrofusement lavishly 
iiUitamment bi/ night 
sciemment kikomngly 



adjectives. " ^""'^ *^''^''^' ^'® "'^^ derived 

how 

presently 

especialtv 
A J. . ^ — ^.xj.«ciii Kikowingly 

Adjectives ending in ant, ent, form their adverbs bv 
changiag them inio-mment as consta-nt rJ.Z ^ 
constantly; elogue-nt, elogue-mm^nL Lc^^^^^^ 
present the only two of this class, that follow ^el 59?h rnfi^ 
^" 1 rT^n^^'^''^^' P^eseniement. ^^^ '"^^' 

havP tL r ^^r*"' ^^"^^^"g manner, and a few others 

fondement, and h plus prof ondemmt, ires-pro^ 

The following degrees of comparison are irregular. 
Positive. Comparative Superlative. 



bien 

mal 

peu 



\ceU 
bad 
iittk 



mieux better 
P«8^ wmse 
motns less 



le mieux 
le pis 
le moins 



Vie best 
the worst 
the least 



EXERCISE, 

" T' ""*" *■' '■.-*-'"^''' ^^'^ ^--^ 

""""emngii^^ art. ^'"1" ' ^""^ *^^ ^°™^'^ ^^s pnncipaUy (pro- 

^'' " tS"> SZISS.'-' """■• ">' '-' »-« 

fon i, one of ,he be.. wri.,„ „f .h, l,st centu^ ; h^ think, *.^,, 
J .. - 2 Steele m.\. ^ •'* 

"""■"■ i°a, '"' '^'"-- '^-f <-'*^te"%). Co. 
"eille .nd Each.. .„ U,e .wo be.. F,.„oh . Jc p.^^ , .h. piece, 
of. he former are ,.r^.z„ b«. i«^,^^ ^,^„. ^^^ „, ^^^ ,^^_ 

tcr are more n>enfjMrlai »w!^..j.:a_« ^ _ - 

' "'' """ " Xar*' "*''*^ ^^^'^^'^ expressed, and more 
delicately conceived. 
peTuS 



Of fHE ADVERii 



'^ed from 



erbs by 
t-mment, 
ent and 
9th rule, 

others, 
dement, 
res-pro- 



ly Cpro- 

sepro~ 
eneraUy 

e'tf cha- 
1 
Buf- 

i deeply , 
Cor: 

3 pieces 
f 

he lat- 



161. There are likewise various other sorts of adverb? i 

n TTI mn a f 1 /%vk mm ^.^i.. . • . 



916 



Affirmation, as certes, certainly ; 



r Consent 
Doubt, 

or 
.Rank. 



our, yes. 



. . soit. be it so ; voUnUiersi willinffly. 
. peut^etre que, perhaps. 
>. nan tie, ne-pas, iie^pcnnt^ no, not. 
. . premiiremeni, first : secondement, 2dly. etd 

' • ?«^ ' ^* ^'■^*' *^^^> ^^^*. aftemard's, 
.. AvarU, auparavant^ before. 



fiiERCISEt 

,»„. . ^ '^ se passer v^aA 

thM „.„„„). Do y„„ ftij,k „,., h,„,^„, ^ ^^^ 

posal 1 Have you ever read in Racine the famous scene of Phcedra'a 

art. Sri ''"' '^^^^ ^t^*' *"' '^^ 'itison?ofl! 
fines, of the French theatre. PerUp, ,ou ™U di«ove,, on a «. 
4 dans 

■"" ■'°' r;^'L^ 2fis' ^■'' ''» »r „^e , ^. wm 

you «, have a„™e , The ™a„ who (i, «,,i„gj ,„ ^o .„„d u 

»M^&nr ♦ ♦ art.fem. 
him what I owe, 

but ?2o< all at once. 
nonpasd art. foisf. 

162. Of— place, or distance, 
J^M, where ; *«, here ; Id, there. 
^i^^,on thissidej de la, on that side j ;,ar/o«f, every 

Pres,procAe, near, nigh j /o«», fa,-, etc. 

EXERCISE. 

^ do good. Read b«ks of ^truction' >.., and ./1™«,* 

proceed_lo those of entertainment. If vo„ »;ii ,„ 

-."u-/ ■« axemen* ""™.Wri>S 

T «»;iSL. „"Jt^Vi '." •? -j™- The pain.., h«. 



voit 
not stopped by any obstacle. I will pay 
arrete aucun ^ 



you may 
awav\ sei 



216 



OF THE ADVERB. 



Mi 



iil 



j.?a! 



(brought tojrether) in the same picture, several different objects : 
rassembler un tableau 2 J 

here, a *roop of Bacchantes ; there, a troop of young people ; here, 

Bacchdnte eeTis 

a sacrifice; there, a disputation of philosophers. Sesostris carried 

dispute pausser 

hia conquests farther than Alexander did afterwards. Call 
ind-4 conqu€f£ .-.•'. 

upon your cousin ; ho lives nmr here. 

^"^^ loger 2 id 1 savoir cond-1 

am not tiear it. When he knew where he was, he be- 
md-1 aupes * quand savoir irn\-2 ind-2 com- 

gan to foar the consequence of his imprudence. Contem- 
rtiencer ind-3 d suite 

plate (at a distance) lofty mountains, if you wish to behold 
de loin art. haul f. vouhir * decouvrir 



ne ind-4 depuis passer 
I cannot see that, if I 



de art. 



prospects ever varied and ever new. 
s? 7 m. 



263. Some express the present, as^ maiiitenant, now j a 
present, at present ; actuellement, this moment, etc. 

— ^the past, as, hier, yesterday ; avant-hier, the day be- 
fore yesterday ; autrefois, formerly, etc. 

— the future, as, dethain, to-morrow, apres-demain, the 
day after to-morrow, etc. 

— indeterminate time, as, souvent, 
generally j quelquefois, sometimes ; 
soon \ iard, late, etc. 



often ; d^ordinaire, 
matin, early j tbt ; 



EXERCISE. 

I have finished the work you prescribed me ; what do you 
achever que mdonner ind-6 que 

wish me to do now 7 Formerly, education was neglected, 

vouhir que je * subj-1 

it is now (very much) attended to ; it is (to be hoijcd) that 
on* 4 beaucoupS s^occuper 2 enlfal r espercr 

new views will be adopted soon. They grieved 
on de 3 4 adopter ind-7 12 on s'affliger ind-8 

(at it) yesterday; now, they laugh (at it); to-mmrow, it will 
€n 1 aujourd'hui rire 2 en 1 07i 2 * 

no longer (be thought) of. It is one of those accidents which 
ne plus 3 penser ind-7 2 y 1 c^est 

it is sometimes impossible to avoid. The evening air incommoded 

de serein m. ind-4 

me (very much) ; I shall not {in future) walk so 1/itc, Rude 



d^sormais se proynener 



mat" 



mt objects : 
J 

ung people ; keref 
gens 

Sesostris carried 
pausser 

ifterwards. Call 
depuis passer 

lOt see that, if I 
1(1-1 

he was, he be- 
ind-2 com- 
mence. Contem- 

.vish to behold 
ouloir * dec&uvrir 



enant, now j a 

nt, etc. 

r, the day be- 

^eS'demain, the 

; d^ ordinaire, 
I, early ; t6t ; 



5 ; what do you 
(jue 

•n was neglected, 

be hoped) that 

espercr 

grieved 
s^affliger ind-8 

'■o-niorrow, it will 
on 2* 

accidents which 



Of THE ADVERB. 



217 



and coarse criticism generally (does greater injury^ 
hownete 2 grassier 3un f, 1, ' nuirephis 

to the person who indulges himself in it, than to hini Who Is 

se permettre 2 * la 1 celle 3 

the object (of it.) 
Z enl 

ifi^. Spine express quantity ; as, pen, little, asseZy 
enough ; trop, too much j beaucoupi muchj very much ; 
tant, 80 much, etc. See rule 105. 

165. Others express comparison ; hs,/)/w*, more ; moins, 
less ; dussi, also ; autani, as much, etc. 

EXERCISE. 

There are rnahy people who have pretentions; but very feto 
y avoir beaucoup de * * d 

who have such as are well founded. To embellish a subject 

ewsub-1 * * ♦ ♦ defondef.^l * 2 3 

ido much, frequently betrays a want df judgment and taste. One 
1 souvent etre faute 

terij often experieucea disgust ih the midst of the most riotous 
irouver art. ennui a bruyaTit 2 

pleasures. She is a giddy and thoughtless woman, who speaks 

1 ce leger2 inconsequent2 1 

muck and reflects little. She has si much, kindness in her, that it 

reJUchir de bonte * * 

is impossible not to love her* These stuffs are beautiful ; conse- 
de ne pas etoffe f. aussi 

quenUy are^ dear. This book has merit; but there are 

elles couter cher . du yen avoir 

others ax good. If he has done that, I can do {as much). She 
* de en autant 

is six years younger than her brother. Nobody is more into- 
avoir de mmns ne 

rested than you are (in the success) of the affair. You do 

* d ce que 1 reusir subj-1 3 ♦ 2 

not offer enough for this garden ; give something more. The mors 
offrir de \ 

ignorant v ^ are, the ks$ we (believe ourselvep, so. 
4 OH 2 3 * croire Vitre 



air incommoded 
ind-4 

80 fate, Rude 
>w mcU- 



218 



! ?f 



' iP! '^ ' ' 




^^Bi j 


* 


9 ' 


f 


8B'« ' 





I- 



OF CONJUNCTrONS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OP CONJUNCTIONS. 

166, The conjunction is a word which serves to con- 
nect words or sentences, as, // pleure et nt en meme 
temps, he cnes and laughs at the same time j the word et 
unites the fire t sentence, il pleure, with the second, ilnt. 
Likewise m Pierre et Paul riant, Peter and Paul laugh ; the 
word f^ unites these two sentences into one, Pierre rit and 

J67. There are different kinds of conjunctions. 
Conjunctions are of different kinds, and serve to dif- 
ferent purposes. < *.«. 

1st. To unite two sentences or two words, the same 
affirmation, or under the same negation, et is used for the 
attirmation, and m, neither, nor, for the negation. 
M. 2n4Iy. To denote an alternative, or distinction, ou either, 
^^ V^ ^^^' whether, or ; tantbt, sometimes, etc. 

drr^Iy. To restrict an idea ; sinon, hn% except; quoique, 
encore que, though, although ; d moins que, unless, tilL 

EXERCISE. 



To 



Gold and eUver are metala less useful than iron 
*"• art. deaxt. ^^ 

listen with Joy to a slanderer, and to applaud him, is "to cherish 
the serpent who sUngs, that ho may sting more effectually. I 
^hke neither flatterers mr the wicked, Those who have never 

suffered, know nothing; they know neitha- good nor 

savovr neconnaitre art.i^l^pl. 

J^t'nir.1 raay choose either a happy mediocrity, or a ' 

art. wmi pi. avoir a chosxr de f. d 

sphere more elevated, but exposed to many dangers. He is an 
. ■ . bien de art. ce 

af another. 1^ have (n^hta,^more) .„ say .„ y„„, ^, aat I 

Jja. have^i. ,„. , .ha,, „„. j^_^ ,. the.peruXrthe 

•uthowofthe second class, unim you advise me to it 

ordrem. n* amseilkr %\xh-l * 



or CONJUNCTIONS. 



219 



ves to con- 
it en 7neme 
the word et 
cond, il rit. 
il laugh ; the 
°rre rit and 

IB. 

3rve to dif- 

, the same 
sed for the 

• 

► ou either, 

• 

t; quoique, 
s, tilK 



iron. To 
•t. 

to cherish 
♦ rcchauffcr 

lectually. I 

%rement. 

have never 
good nor 

crity, or a ' 

r. de 

He is an 

ce 

d sometimes 

only that I 
sino'n que 
isal of the 



ithly. To express conviction, mats, but j cependani, yet 
nevertheless ; neanmoi/is, for all that, however ; pourtant, 
however, though ; toutefois, Hen que, although. 

Sthly. To express a condition ; si, if; sinon que, except 
ihz.ix pourvu que, m\G ihdA, a condition que, on condition 
that. 

To express consent ; a la verite, indeed j a la bonne heure, 
very well. 

7thly. To explain : savoir, c'est-a-dire, viz. that is to say j 
comme, B.S, 

EXERCISE. 

The serpent bites ; it is only a bite ; but from this bita 

(ie ne que morsure 

venom coramur--' itself co the whole body: the slanderer 

venin 

speaks; it is >u; word; but this word resounds every 

ce ». :• parole f. retentir 

where. (That is) certainly a superb picture; nevertheless, there 

voUd tableau 

is some incorrectness in the design. Although Homer, according 

incorrectimiigi. dessin 

to Horace, slumbers (at times), ho is nevertheless the 

sommeiller sub-1 quelquefois He n'en est pas mmis 
first of all poets. You will succeed, jprovirferf you act with 

art. reusstr poui-vu qiie agir sub-1 

vigour. We have within us two faculties seldoin united, vizi 

^'* Art. 

imagination and judgment, 
art. 

8thly. To express relation, or parity ; comme, diS', ainsit 
thus, so : de meme, as, just as j ainsi que, as j autani que, 
a^ much 'as; *« ^wc, as, etc. 

9thly. To express augmentation, </'ai7/etir*, besides, fur- 
thermore. 

For diminution, au moins, du moins, pour le moins, at 
least. ' 

lOthly. To express the cause, or the reason of a thing; 
car, for; comme, as ; parce que, because ; puisque, since ; 
/?owr ywe, that, in order that, etc. 

EXERCISE. 

The most beautiful flowers last but a moment: iAus, human 

ne dnrer que 2 




220 



(■ : : 



II 


i : ■ 


[ fltl^ 




]'■ 
j; 


I 


Si 


yH|y 


I;: . 



OP CONJUNCTIONS. 



art "a" ^r ""T^' '^^^ ^^i""'^ ^'^> ""^ >«^»>^ind have, like 

*"•, * pluparti. art. AoOTwe pi. 

plants, hidden qualities which chance discovers, 

art ca.Ae2^art.;^o;;nc^ef.l art. Ao^a^rf/atre rfect^r^mr. 

Mad. d^ S6vmn6'8 letters are models of elegance, simpli- 

^ art. f. 1 de art. pr. ^ 

city, and taste; *^5w/«, they are replete with interesting anecdotes. 

P'^' plein de 3 f. i. 

JHothmg IS more entertaining than history; besides, nothing is 

more instructive. Circumstances make us known to olhers 

art. occasion ^\. faire connaitre ' 

'""^ ^i- '"'"■' '" o""el^C8- I shall always advise you to- take 

the ancients as your guide, at least, leave but 

pow/ * ^ ^ecarter que raiement de. 

seldom the way which they have traced for you. We must, at 

rmtet que tra^ee * ' * famr, 

least, know tlie general principles of a language, before (we take 

^ 1 l^TigueJ. de se 

upon ourselves) to teach it. Certain people hate grandeur 
meler de * enseigner f, ^ art 

^"""""''lesrZZr ^"^i^^ ^-^^-^^^^^^^n, .nd ' makes 

lesraoaisser pron. ^e elle 2 

them feel the privation of flie advantages which they love. 
t^i'f'i bienpl. 

llthly. To draw a conclusion o;- in " rence ; or. now 
thTreforr ' ^'''' ^^^^e^cnf, consequently ; c'est pmrquoi, 

12thly. To express a circun^stance ;- quand, lorsque, 
when ',penda7it que, tandis que, etc, whilst, while; tant 
que, as long as ; depuis que, ever since ; avant que, before • 
des que, ausstmque, d'abord que, as soon as j ^Jin, in fine 
nnally, to conclude, etc. ^ j 9 5 

13thly. To express a transition year, for ; en effet, indeed, 
.1 effect; at. reste besides, other^i?^; d propos now 1 
think ofit;apre5<owf, after all. r -^ ' 

EXERCISE. 

able ; therefore we ought to love virtue. W 
* " * art, * 

commands us; now it commands 



-..-III lu prauuse 



'aUoir 



fbe evangile m. 



1 



«6, not only 



OP CONJUNCTIONS. 



221 



ikind have, like 
le pi. 

discovers. 
faire decouvrir, 

gance, simpli- 
pr. 

ting anecdotes. . 
f. 1. 

des, nothing ii 

* 

'n to others, 
itre 

you to- take 
r dfi 

but 
? rarcment de 

We must, ai 

* falUnr^ 

fore (we take 
de se 

ite grandeur, 
art. 

makes 
ueelle 2 

e. 



; or, now; 
it pourquoi, 

id, lorsgue, 
while; tani 
jUBf before ; 
nfn, in fine, 

ffet, indeed, 
r)os, now I 



irtue is amv- 



* lO practise 



W6, not only 
twn 



'^./SLT '"'"""' ""'^e^" '°™ "'«■»• D''P'*»«w„ 



extremely particular in not 
dc la plus grande exactitude 



coming late, when he 



. „, ^ , — was 

..,,,,. , »nf-l i^op ind-2 

invited to dinner; he said that all the faults of those who fkeeD 

wid-2 defaut ^ se 

others waiting) present themselves to those who wait for them. 
Jaire attendre atkndre * 

The pride which possesses us, visible as it is, escapes our eyes. 

posseder tout que a 

while it manifests itself to the eyes oi the public, and displeases 

cJioquer 
every one. After we had examined that singular effect, wo 

art.espn^pl. ind-5 y i ' 

(inquired into) its causes. We had hardly done, when he came 

rechercher ind-3 en art. ind-3 Jlrdr que entm- 

in. None but an Englishman can (be a judge of) Shak- 

* tln'yaque qui sahj-l jicgeide 

spcare : for, what foreigner is sufficiently versed in the English 

language to discover tlie sub'ime beauties of that author 1 
l(vigu€ f. pour 

168. The conjunction que is always placed between 
two ideas, and serves to connect them, so as to form 
of the two one preposition, as Je a'ois que vous vous 
trompez, I think you are deceived. The conjugation that 
IS almost always understood in English, whereas que is not 
only always expressed in French, but repeated before each 
member of the preposition. Je crois que vous vous trompez 
et que vous ne reussirez pas, I think you are mistaken, and 
that you will not succeed. 

The frequent use of que, under several iG-_..s, and the 
government of conjunctions in general, form an important 
chapter of the Syntax, No. 388, .vhich must be read 
attentively. 

EXERCISE. 

(As long a^ I ..vc), this image will be before mv eves 

tout 7na vie — f. p^^i ^ -' 

and if ever the gods permit me to reign, I shall not forget 

fatre * * 

ttitcf 50 tcfnuic an example, thai a king (is not worthy) to go- 

7t'est digne de com- 
vem (nor) h ppy iji his power (hit in proportion as) he 

mander et n'est puissance f. qu^aja^ que 

t 2 




IMHi 



i 







\\\ 



222 



Ol- INT£RJ£CTlO?r«, 



subjects it io reason. I am very glad lo aee thi you do not 
toumettre art, j/g ^ 

love flattery, and that one (runs no risk) in speaking to you with 

ft"- ne hasarder rien d inf-l • 

sincerity. 



CHAPTER IX, 

OF INTERJECTIONS. 

169. Interjections are words which serve to expregs the 
sudden emotion of the soul. The only point to be attended 
to is not to place them between words which custom has 
made inseparable. There are interjections for every feeling, 
or passion, viz : — ' bj 



< Cpain 
grief 
fear 
'joy 

ave)'sion 
disgust 
iiidignation 
imprecation 
disbelief 
Of "^ surprise 

astonishment 
warning 
checking 
encouraging 
applauding 
encoring 
calling 
derision 
^silence 



ahi ! aie ! ouf ! ah ! 

hdlas ! mon Dieu, etc, 

ha ! he ! 

ah ! bon, bon ! o ! 

f • fi done ! oh, oh ( 

pouah, pouah ! 

foin de 

peste de, la peste de 

chansons, tararc 

ouaia 

oh ! bon Dieu ! misericorde 1 peste ? 

gate ! hem ! hola, ho ! 

tout beau ! hola. 

alerte ! allons ! ^a, courage ! 

bravo, vivat ! 

bis, bis 

hola ! ho ! hem ! 

oh ! eh ! zest ! oh ! oh ! oh ! 

chut! paix! at. 



hi you do not 

ing to you with 
■1 • 



PART 1*. 



to express the 

to be attended 

^h custom has 

every feeling, 



SYNTAX, 

OR 

GRAMMATICAL CONSTRUCTION 

OP 

WORDS IN FRENCH. 



p«6tet 



CHAPTER I. 

§ I. 
OF THE SUBSTANTIVE OR NOUN. 

Thu substantive has already been considered as to its 
individual nature, that is to say, its gender and number ; its 
functions in a sentence are now to be considered. 

The noun is either the subject of the verb, or the 'govern- 
ing word ; or it is governed by the verb, or what ig called 
the regimen. 

170. EXPLANATION OF THE TERMS REGIMEN DIRECT, 
REGIMEN INDIRECT^ OR CASES. 

In lepere aime ses enfants, the father loves his children ; 
le pere is the subject, or governing word, or nominative 
case : and enfants is the governed word, or regimen, or 
accusative case. Ses enfants is also called a direct case, 
because there is no preposition intervening between it and 
the verb aime. 

In hs enfants obeissent aupere, the children obey to the 

verned noun or regimen ; and the regimen is called indirect 
because it has a preposition (<z) before it. It is also called 
the dative case. 




224 






iff 


1 ' '■ 


1 ^p 


tf 



it m 

lii! 



11 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



In lep^re cnvoie un present a sea enfanU tl.A r«*u 
sends presents to his children j /./.^/^^^^^^^^^ 
Mtre de leur oere th« r«hJhi,.or. y^'/^-^f regoivent une 

father, /e «e>f /S «nf!« l^^^^ receive a letter from their 
/w/J V ' «njants,are subjects, ww oreVw/ ..>,. 
/cKre are objects, or arnisnfWro ««^- ^ °f "^"' jjresem, une 

position, the former being wliat is ca»JiZ ,,■ ^ * ?''''" 
latter, the ablative case '^ '''""'*' ""-l "-e 

Ja"ide,:d7fr"o«"„:i; r"''"'" '"" "■■"«' "» "' •'^ 

ME»T, or cases ' "' '"•™"6«"'«"- 2nd. Govrrn- 

OP ORDER. 

veri\';a''»t;rs:;^t:^^ ^"''^^<='' *"•- "- 

9n^. TU ^''\"^""^ P^« '« P^"' «'aimM-il pas 

*'iSdssa??^^-^-^"' 

;;. indirect confes ne^'t^tt '4;^!^.: SXt! 



My 



mother received 
recevoir ind-4 

. given) her * much pain. 
ind-4 2 lui 1 ^'e^t <^ /« peine 

commands of their officers 1 
ordre 



EXEBCISE. 

tviro letters this 



morning, which (have 

Did not the soldiers resist the 
resisterd'mf\4. 

iXJ^^ ^""^^ "" ^'' ^- Have 

you not thought of your sisters? My uncle Chas J„«n » ,. 

penser d ^ ^"^^ J"^U nought a 

t .-r 1 u . ^ vemrdef 

le.uuf„l hou._,„ P„i,. Ha, the n^.. „.id ,;,,„ (^, .,,„^ ,„ 



* Perfional pronouns mc, te, nous, vons lui hur in th i »• 

snbsta^vvco. ' *' '" ^^''*' ^^ understood solely of nouns 

t See examn.'es nn niffi«i,i*:«„ r«u-..^. -.^x,, . 
refers. The learner' mu7t b^JTrln mSSlLt'ft' «" ^^^^^t^'ji^ figure 
c^»o„a,„ „.ee. ,vith in .he eUS"^'^; t .tf ^enrXS^'"} 



I!!; 



OF THE SUBSTANTIVE* 



225 



nts, the father 
regaivent une 
tter from their 
1 present, une 
», a ses enfants, 
ned by a pre- 
dative, and the 

ngs are to be 
5nd. GovjsRN- 



whether the 



I pas 

56 or object; 
r ablative. 

direct case, 
f obeissent au 

t is called an 



I which (have 
faire 

resist the 
'sister dindi 

^r. L. Have 

Jst) bought a 
le t 

(any thin^r to 
d mangi r 



e dative case, 
onmm Perso- 
ilelyofnoims 



tat) to these poor children? Will not Jaiijca send aicve 

* cnvoyfir ind-7 

hoof •» to hia cousin when he has read tiiem 1 

a^' md-7 

GOVEIlN^l£NT OR CASES. 

172. By government, is meant the cose in' which a noun 
is to be put after the verb, that is, whether it vviU be direct 
or accusative, indirect or dative, genitive or ablative, or, to 
speak more plainly, whether that noun will be preceded by 
d or de. "* 

173. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO LANGUAGES 

AS T.O THE GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. 

To those who are acquainted with the Latin language, this 
will present little or no difficulty, accustomed as they are to 
the proper distinction of cases ; but to those who are not, and 
to female learners principally, the distinction is not obviously 
clear. As in learning the French language, much of the 
task consists in turning English into French ; and also, as, 
when endeavouring to speak, people first think in English, 
and then translate, a very natural propensity leads them to 
translate literally, thereby expressing themselves in a way 
little in accordance with the peculiar construction of the 
French language. We cannot devise a more efficacious 
method to guard them from such erroneous proceeding, than 
by showing the different cases used in the one or the other 
language, after the con-esponding vero. 

EXAMPLES. 



penser A une chose 

obeird la loi 

dependre de son pere 

naourir de peur 

re[K)ndre a une question 

jouir de sa fortune 

se rejoujr d'une chose 

plaire d ses amis 

se rossouvenir d'un accident 

Jouer du violon 

6couter un avis 

Til- _ f . 
i. ii6 iiST 



to think of a thing 

to obey the law 

to be dependant on one^s father 

to die y/iikfear 

to answer a question 

to enjoy one's fminne- 

to rejoice at a thing 

to please one's fnejuls 

to remember an accident 

to play on the violin 

to listen to an advice 



of the iusiaiices in which the two languages differ, 
in respect to the case of the governed words, might easily be 
extended to several pages, but the few examples here given, 
must be sufficient to awake t|ie attention aod carefulness of 



f- i>^.j.t».-tai.....^^- 



mmmmm 



mmmmmmm 



SYNTAX AND fPrOMS 

the learner, and to make him eenaibie of the neceaiity of 
mastenng this point. 

A few more remarks n.ay tend to impress still deeper in 
his mip. ' the necessity of attending to it. 

174. NECBSStTY OF ATTJCNDING TO THB GOVERNMENT, 
WITH REGARD TO THE REJ FIVE PRONOUNS. 

Sometimes, and even frequently, verbs govern a relative 
pronoun representing some noun antecedently expressed, 
and such pronoun must be put in the proper case, according 
to the preposition which would be placed before the noun. 
* or instance, to translate " such is the law wAicA you have 
not obeyed, » telle est la lai que vous n'avez pas oUL 
w ^uld be wrong, it must be k laquelle, because we have 
Been thai o^ear requires the dative, or the preposiUon a. 
Again, to say jcvoMj donne de bans avis auxquels vous 
n ecoutezpas, would be literal and wrong, because, as we 
Have seen also, ecqw^cr is active in French, that is, requires 
no preposition. -> h 




; r. \. i r.; EXERCISi;. 

serepenttrde Avoir he^de p^er 

ITinTa^ ^^ ^'°**'' '"'°^^^'' ^® "^"^ "°* Jischarge his duty 
ftn m„ .;«• r .• r , s'acquUter de, ind-4 devoir m. 

to my satisfaction. I advke you to go and change your .hoes. 
: - cofiseiUer2i d'aller * changer tk * "'^ ' • 

I,. ^ jT , ""^ tire recovAiaissant de 

kindness. You have gone too near the river. Are yo;i not afraid 

ofthatcrr.lman1 We did not expect such an answer. If you 
-» i s'cU/eitdre a ind-2 2 1 3 

"""'" ^cT^Jf^ ""' '^'" "^'■^^ ^^'^"^ ^''r'"«- I «>^ not fond of 
<^ 5<;ir co^^ti;e,Mr de ms candUwn aimer * 

'IT' 1":>^""^ ^^y' ^"^ ^'^^ brother left the 

_ , iorlir de ind-3 

room very abruptly. Do not mind his threats.* 

/aire attention d 



* Tjw same difficulty occurs with r^irard to the nrenosition i,««i 
before the infinitive fn French, ^ee in&tive^mU^r^^ ^ 



I necesiity of 
till deeper in 

VERNMENT, 
V0UN8. 

rn a relative 
Y expressed, 
!e, according 
e the noun. 
:A you have 
-3 pas obet, 
se we liave 
reposition a, 
QUELS vous 
use, as we 
is, requires 



Mjn 1 I \rna 
hr. penser 

e his duty 

1-4 devoir m. 

I your flioce. 
tic * 

efu! for your 
nt de 

»vx not afraid 
'aindre 

wer. If you 

not fond of 

\imcr • 

lefl the 
lir de ind-ii 



josition used 



tW THE 8UBSTANTIVB. £27 

175. king's palace, etc. etc. 
Thisforniof tlif» -enitive case, or of the casemarkin«r 
possession ,s render^S in French ii . nver^d mZcr af 
If .t were the palace of the king, U palms dTrai! ' 

176. OP COMPOUND WORDS. 
air.K-sTc^itiNas, niNma-RooM, etc. etc. 

is UkZ^J'^ "" '?''!i .''^^«'»P«"n^ word of which *ho order 
IS hkewise inverted ,n Fmnch. Bas de soie, salU a manger. 

thP chlTo? ?vv' 'r/^'T P^«P«-tions'are used («,% 
pt^ssion ''^^''^' "P^" *^*« "^*"^ ^^ the ex- 

thFleloT^Vj^^'' "^^ '' ,/o^/^oW 0/ comm^/ro^, of 
incy belonging to, can ^ understood. &J ^ j 

EXAMPLES. , 

SiVc sf^ckings, i e. i^^vt^ ,ruuk J „ , 

"/st^A-. " I Basdcsoie. 

Bwgw.i^jiohie/x.e. wine coming i ^,. , „ 

/?ww Burgmukf. , Vm de Bourgogno. 

Ckambervuiid, i. e. watrf o/ <A« } 



CkaTniemuiid, 
chambo 



>: 



Back door, i.e. ^/i« ,/«,,- <,/-^J „ 

^oack of the hmcse. \ "orte de derriftro 



Femme de chanibro 



Oarden'secU., i.e.leat belonging to} 
thegarde^i. ^ 6 j 



Banc du -ardin. 



EXAMPLES. 



moulin d vent 
nioulin a papier 

fille aux yeux bicus 



wind-mill i. e. mill going by wind 
paper-mill i. e. miU for the purpose 

of making paper 
blue eyed girl i. e. girl with blue 

eyes. 

EXERCISE 

frontdoor Whati. 1. ," *""'5 "T"'""^ 

me the letter box. Wharfl ]« the ~i k^**'- " '-•-- „ _• 

• v.ti;; r «•.•«»; aic a )*Uw glass, 



»nd a tea spoon. Did vou 
tii cuiller I 



kuue 

observe 

remarquer :nd-4 U 



verre 



that man with the 



228 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 




long cloak 1 My sister has given me a penknife with an iyoty 

2 1 canif * ivoire 

handle. They have lately discovered a copper mine on his es- 
manche m. on venir dt dicouvrir cuivre 

tate. Where is the milk jug 1 Is this the hay market 1 
t^rre f. lait pot fain marche 

CHAPTER II. 

OP THE IND^.FINITE ARTICLE, A, ANr 

1. The article a, an, used in English before national and 
professional names, in explanatory sentences, is not rendered 
in French.* 

EXAMPLES. 



je sicis FraiK^ais 

il est epicier 

soil pere etait avocat 

le Due d'York, pnnce du sang 

royal 
notes aUdmes d Caen viUe considi' 

ruble de Norinandie 



I am a Frenchman 

he is a grocer 

his fether was a barrister 

the Duke of York, a prince of 

the royal blood 
we went to Caen, a large tDwn 

of Normandy 

2* P t it is expressed after c'est^ and also when an adjec- 
tive i oined to the noun, or when it is followed by a rela- 
tive pronoun or some other restrictive circumstance. 

EXAMPLES. 

he is an ofRcer c^est un officier 

I am a Frenchman of an illus- je suis un Frant^ais d^une Ulnstre 

trious family famiUe 

I am an unfortunate prince je suis un pnnce infortune 

3. The article indefinite is also omitted in French after 
gtiel, quelle, in admirative sentences, and before tititv of i 
books. 



EXAMPLES. 



quelle beaute ! 

histoire de France 

il d^pense beaucoup d'argent, 

chose qui d6pla!t a son pere 
I'excellent homme que voire 

frfere 
la belle ville oue Londrea 



what a beauty ! 

history of France 

he spends much moneys a 

which displeased hisfaihei 
what an excellent nian your 

ther is. 
what a fine city London is. 



thing 
bro- 



n m w I 



Sec personal pronouns, No. 237i 



with an ivojry 

♦ ivoire 

nine on his es* 
it 



, AN: 

Q national and 
IS not rendered 



pnnce du sang 

ten viUe considi' 
die 

'hen an adjec- 
ed by a rela- 
rtance. 



lis d^wne iUustre 

niune 

n French after 

before titiv of. 



momy, a thing \ 
hisfaihef 
man your bro-\ 

ndonis. 



or THE ARTICLE, 



EXERGISK. 



229 



T am a Frenchman and a merchant; after having (been at) the 

negociani inf-l parcoum 

wost faraoua (trading towns) in the Levant, my commercial con* 
ecAeflef.pl. ,/e _ m. /^s affaires de trwn 

6erns have brought me liere, I aaj an unhappy Frepchman 
commerce condmre * xci..wiiumB 

who, a striking example of the vicissitudes of fortune 

* inemoralde'2 1 ^^j '""""^i 

seek an asylum where I may end my days in peace. He was a 

chcrcher asilem. puisse finir ^ "e 

man of uncommon probity and of tried virtue- Tas a^ 

U7t rare 2 f. l ^n eproute 2 1 ' %o«r 

reward for the services he had rcndored to the church 

te recompenser de que ind-2 m. pi. ""J^ 

""1 urf '*^^^' *^^ ^'"'^ ^'*' ™*^^ ^'"^ "" ^"«^0P- NeoptoJemus 
u i\ II .,, .w , ^""^^ Neoplolevie 

had hardly told me tliat he was a Greek, when I Tcried ont^ 
€ula pet:i,e dit „,,^ ^„>- • • <„ 

^, , ^. , ^ ?'*^ secrurmd-^ 

""■ ''''Tr';:A,i '"^^ " "^"^.^^^^^^ ^^ «^-- -^^ 

sa/isZSSsnr r"' ^""^ '^"' ^^''^ misfortune, what storm, 
or rather, what propitious wind has brought you luther to Pnd 
f. pim favorable 2 I conduh-eindA po^.r 

"^ S. ph ^.^;S„a-3 ^ ^"^ ^^ ^^^ 't^ o^ ^^^-> I 

ar^KT^^ ^:^r\e^^' ^-on of Achilles. 
What a noise you make ! What a mistake ! A letter to Lord L. 
We read the account of his death, an event full of interest. He 

has not yet returned, a most unaccountable thing. He is modest 
etre revemr fort extraordinaire 2 chose 1 

a rare quality among poets. He is a very rich man. 
"« I cliez Ics * 

178. The English make use of a or an, before nouns of 
measure, weight, and purchase, as : wheat is sold for a 
crown a bushel; braver sells for sixpence a pound / wine 
^old yesterday for forty crowns a hogsfiead, it is more than 
a g. oat^^ bottle. ^ The French make use of the article le. la, 
as ; .c- aic se vena an ecu ie boisscau ; te beurre se vend' six 
sous la livre; le vin si vendit hier quarante ecus le muid. 
r. est plus de guafre sous la bouteille, ' 

V 




tso 



SYNTAX AN1» IDIOM* 



il 



Prinlh K ,h^" '''^"^'"« "*■ '™'' « «' «» is expressed in 
rendered by lapiece; a man, par hommc or cAacun. 

_ ' EXERCISE. 

.rt.*S".,.^L ''^' «gh. shilling, a b»,hel. veal a„<. 

., , coissemia.Tt.veau art 

mutton cost ten pence a pound. This lacp ia «nM «♦ i, i<- • 

an eU. The he»t _^Wh^.i^. ^^ . .„ .,„„„,. ^, 

him a day. Sh. comes twice a week. We had an excellent 

3- - , /«"■<? ind-4 

dinner at five shillings a he^. What beautiful peaches, how much 

do they cost a piece ? '^^'^^^ ^' 

OF THE ARTICLE DEFINITE. 

• ^^^* ^)^s ^^5"'*® ^'^'''^^ '^ "^^^ ^^ French, (^w/ omitted 
tn English) before substantives spoken of in a general sense • 

^Ll 'f " rnr-^ ^^^r' ^''^'^^^' pass^nsT tenses] 
mJals, etc., etc., taken m the abstract. ' 

EX \MPIjES 

^'iThLTre^P"' '''P ''"^'"* ^'^'^^ ^''^ 'f''^ fi^'^ -^ ^^ir. faru^ies 

^^lllT "^^^^^ P'^*"'^"^ sold is a precious metal 

evitons la paressc let us avSid idleims 

Before nouns specified by an adjective or some particular 
and individual circumstance. ^ ^u^^uiar 

EXAMPLES. 

iiioiruii, informed 

voici la maison de mon pere ^Ais « my father's hovse 

181. It is also used before adjectives used substantively. 

... ^ EXAMPLES. 

Alter tout meaning every. 

iiSAlvIPLES. 
lout le monde le voit i»««v». ;.„ j«. - 



^m^^mmmmifmm 



expressed in 
'ccA;, tant par 
ut a piece is 
cun, 

veal and 
vmu art. 

half a guinea 
2 13 

s-hiilings per 

do you give 
do?iner2 

an excellent 
t 

^s, how much 

r. 



[but omitted 
neral sense ; 
s, sciences. 



vain fancies 
I 

e particular 



arc ever un- 
speak is well 

Btantively. 

give 



<&P TUB ARTICI.B, 



2XERCISE. 



2S1 



IrJn 1 • /-(. '^'^P'^'^g^ions2, while 1 they * see 3 the rest of mnn 
theLTef4;orh^?^;S^ *^ r P^^^^^o-^ «^^-- ^ t^ths" * "LS 

presen^TSn?^ ^''''' ""'^"'' ^" ^^^"^"'-^^ ^ sense 1 of the divine 2 
J^er' momVSrZ' ^/^fF^"^' cheerfulness of temper, and enjoys 

6. When he returned, he found tiie whole school in an uproar, * 

is ^e^ It^l^ZT' ^'^ '^"'^'^^ ^"^ ' ^^' '^^^^^' appears, sc monlrer , 
S^?r;h;,pr ^^'''''' constituent, («;Ae.A c.,«Ee); hesitation^ 

obvious, 




>K<^/-g, f. ; through, 

vnesura: 

coSilvY^li^I:. iV' ' ^''"''''^ ^«nw:c«w«; preserves, conse9^,er: perpetual 

^1'IT;./:S^ tofind,^.^.er,ind-3jin an uproar. 

nrnl^!;7^-®, ^l""^® '^P"* ^^^""'^ P'"^?^'' "^»"«s of Countries, 
provinces, islands, regions, rivers, winds, and mountains.. 

Alpes^rf Mo ""'''' /"*.!" 'P""'^'"^ of Montagues, we say : zS 
cSw ^'"■'''S''^' ^'' Al'P'^^ i^ CasteUam, or £ Mlntagne^de la 

wSSq;^-f^!i:S:-[:;^^ to do with grannna, bu. 



I 



232 



SYNTAX AND IDI0N3 



£'^^^^^ ^ ^^ /'*y^-e?tee5 ct lo 
Medilerranee au sud, ki Suisse 
et la, Savoie a Vest, Ics Pays- 
Bos a^ 9wd, ctVoceanaVon- 
cst 



EXAMPLES. 

Fraiue is bounded 07i the smith by 
the Pyrenees mid the Mediter- 
ranean, on the east by Switzer- 
land and Savoy, mi the north >y 
the Netherlands) and on the west 
It. i^in..» 7 y-4i- . by th^ ocean 

l^MarlLS^Ijt '"^ftTf' J'^V^'h Chvna, Mexko, Martiniqi,^, 
laT^nZ^i^r\ll^''^fh''^'''^^ Mogul, India ^' 

LlZltca^Z' ^'^^"'^^"' "^ '^''*«^^^. theRhm., theno^th 
ies Alpcs, k Cantal ^i^ind, the Alps, the CanUil 

EXERCISE, 

south wX'M.T;'^''^^"'H""'^^^y*^^ F'°'«" Ocean; en the 
r he Lit hv^h *'"f "^^" ^r' .^^^^ ^^mrtiien it from Africa ; 
Ocean I rnL ^' 'ff *!?^!'* ?^ ^'''' ' «" t^« ^^^^ by the Atlantic 
Sweden DeZ^I'^'^^'S'^^^^^^^^ «« the north, No>way, 

Tanrihe^^Z, l^'^-''''''')^ P^^^i^, G^- 

ISmia m^.^ ^^ot7«.«, the Netherlands, F\ance, SwUzerUnd, 

ftatTLr^^^r^^^^^^^ ^^-^' ^^^-i-^l 

Tm^'Lf7hlK ^"^f * ^" ^"'•^P^ "« • t^e Wolgo., the Don or 
tL Si and tf^'Sr- ^'^^P'^-' i» Muscov?; the Danube, 
PolnT^i,.? • !u^^^''" ^^'■•"^"y; the Vistula ox WezeL in 

the& the T^S.f '^T' 't ^^--'/a«^the Garmne, in France" 
TW^' and »?l^T'^"*^-*^^^f^^^^ ^" SP^" ; the P^, in Italy ; the 
7 tos and the^,^,,^, ,„ Eng and ; anJ the Shannon, in Ire'and. 

between nSJw.T J"°""t^i"* ^» Europe are the Daarne Fields, 

R^nV^J^- ZIZ^^^^^^^ between Poland and 

S Xh i5vi£T''''''^"T/f''''' ^^*^^^" F^^°*^« «"d Spain; the 
4 Thl . i^ u ^ ^r^ncG and Germany from Italy. 

nieristemSr'S'''''^f."^Tf'^ Wows here, and the heat of sum- 

^tLtTt^^lJadtoTtt^^^^^ ^'-^^^ --*« -^-^ ^'- 

wi/i^. M^A-f"""^' ^'^'^^ ' °"' * ' ^'•<«'«". 'n^r glnciale, f r south, 5^/rf, or 
!!!?lV.?^.".'^!^f "^"^il" «^«. Mediterrcnie J. ; east, «« or orient ; w^st^ 

59 ; British Isles, ilcs Brilan- 



oucst or Occident ; Norway, etc. Sec n 




Rhfne^."''S ^^rn':J^«tuIa, Vist^cle,l- Loire, f , Seine, f ;. 
5te,"fV.Wr^^^^^^^ T^=-«' '^S^^^'^ Thames; 

S^*) Pyj-^ean Mountains,' Pyrenees. 

raWichh^nt yf "'''''' ' ."o^th Wind, a^uillon ; heat, arrfe^r ; cooling, 
'"'P^^i'^hissant; come, vcmr; ti^xefreBh, admicir. *" 

183. Exceptions. The article is omitted before the 
names of countries. 



J. iVIlAtl +Vl«c^ ~ _. . 5_ 

■• -"'--c iiic gUV'UrJicii ij'y 



'J , '^-~- 'iic 6"vv^ij»cu u^ iiie preposition cw, as: 

t/ e^f en France, he is in France ; i7 c*f en Espa^tie, he is 



*t the smith by 
i the Mediter- 
st by Switzer- 
n the north /i/ 
*id on the west 

0, MartiniquCy 

one, the nmtk 
2antfd 



cean j en the 
from Africa ; 

the Atlantic 
Tth. Nmway^ 
Prussia, Ger- 

Switzerland, 
in, Portugal, 

the Don or 
the Danube, 
jr Wezel, in 
te, in France; 
in Italy ; the 
in Ire' and. 
%arne Fields^ 
Poland and 
id Spain ; the 

leat of sum- 
> refresh the 



mth, svd, or 
rieni ; weet^ 
lies Britan- 

*. , Seine, f j, 
, ; TharaeSj, 



ur ; cooling^ 

before the 

>n cTi, as : 
'7ie, he is 



*T->'wj^«s»nPR'ii»'-'«^i'i 



^f THK ARTICLK. 



233 



2. When those names are governed by some preceding 
noun, and have the meaning of an adjective, as : m £ 
!< ranee, kmg of France; vins de France, French wines: 
noblesse d'Anglderre, the English nobility. 

3. When speaking of those countries as of places we 
come from, as : je viens de France, I come from France • 

farrived'Italie,l am just arrived from Italy. However! 
when speaking of the f6Wr parts of the worid, custom re- 
quires the use of the Prticle, as: je viens de VAmerique, 

f arrive de VAsie. 

4. The article is also omitted, before proper names 
ofplaces, and of persons j Maples, Venise, Cesar, etc.* ^ 

EXERCISL'. 

1. iVa/>te may be called a paradise, from its beauty and fertility 
From this country 2 some suppose 1 Virgil took the model of the 
Llysian 2 Fields 1. 

2. I have been a * prisoner in Egypt, as a * Plicariician : under 
that name I have long suffered, and under that namj I have been 
set at liberty. 

3. ^o' has received French and Spanish wines, Italian silks, Pro- 
vence oil, and English wool. 

4. We set s^iXp'om Holland, to go to the Cape of Good Hone. 

5. I was but just arrived from Russia, when I had the misfortune 
to lose my father. 

G. I had set oKfrom America, when my brother arrived there. 

(1.) From, a. came de ; from this country, que c'est Id, oil ; some 
suppose, qiielqnes personnes penser qu^. 
0-0 Prisoner, captif, under that name, dest sous ce nom //;*<?, (both 

(^.) ^Gts^xW, partir ; to go, se rendre. 
(5.) I was but ju5t, ncfaire que de, 
(6.) Setoff,j7arftV; there, J/. 

184.. The definite article is not rendered in translating the 
following English sentences or others like them. 

EXAMPLES. 

book the tmfA, chapterVi\& fifth - livre dix , chauitre cino 
Louis the :^IVth. Louis auatorze 

George the Fourth. George Quatre 

he 7narned^mry, the dmighter of i\ enousa Marie, fiile dc Louis 
LtOuis Philippe PliiJippe 



M »,„I-T^®u- ffu'^'^f. P'^VPe^ n^n»e.s of authors,_painters, l^^^dl^om 

CatalariilelMuri,laChampniesle, VAri,>ste, le Poussin, UDominiquin 
b Oirache VAlbanc.^ There are also some names of French towns wS 
take the definite article. La Plech^, la Rochelk, la Fertc, le Hdvre ll 

v2 



234 



i 



SYNTAX AND IDlOMf 



you Aave, the less you plus voua avez, moina vous donnex 



tAe more 
give 

%st.!sr"' '"'"^ ''^'^' p'T. ^'""^ ^'^ "^^«' --- vo«« 

TU« J-.C 'i • 1 . P'"* ** ^^ modeste. 

rfan^. ^ '' "^'^®' ""^'^ ^^'^' '""^ ^"^ «^way8 after 

EXAMPLES. 

il n'est pas en France he unci in France 

"voricTot";^ ^^^"^«' ^^^ ^-^ j;,-Lr ^"*^^' '^ ^'^ -^^ 

wJj^h ' J r1^ ^^^^'^ t'^'''^^ '^ "°* "««^ ^^^^^ the word 
which qualifies the substantives espece, genre, sarte, multt 
tude, genre, amas, qtmntite, etc. ^ '° ' ' 

tXAMPLES. 



Borte de fruit 
genre d'ouvragc 
naonceau d 'argent 
bande de voleurs 
pile de livres 
meute de chiens, etc. 



a sort of fruit 
a kind of work 
a heap of money 
a troop of robbers 
ap-'e of books 
a pack of dogs 



h. ♦k!' ■ ^ ''."^^ "'^^ ^®^«'^ substantives preceded 

by the pronominal adjectives man, ton, son, nohe, vXe 
leur,ce, nul,aucun, chaque, tout (used for chague\ certain 
plusieurs, tel, or cent, mille, ^ ^' ^ermtn. 



EXAMPLES. 



nosmocurs mettcnt le prix a nos 

richesses 
iowte nation a ses lois 
c^nt ignorans, doivent-ils I'em- 

portersur un homrae instruit 1 



our manners ftx the value of our 
Itches 

each nation has its laws 

are a hundred blockheoxls to be pre- 
ferred to one learned man 7 



EXERCISE. 

1. The roads are bordered with Uureb, pomegranates, jessamines and 
oth^ trees, which * are ♦ ever green, and eve?in blooAl The m'oun 
tarns are covered vrith flocks, which yield a fine wool, in great r^o nest 
among all the known 2 nations 1 (of the world.*) ^ ^^^^*' 

2. The fleets of Solomon, under the guidance of the Phoenician*! 
made fr^uent voyages to the land of Opfiir and Tharsis (of Z 1' w' 
domof Sophala, in Ethiopia), whence they returned k the end^ff 

Lin7sS.S.S!' ^^^' ^'"^' ^■^^^^' ^^^ ^ ^^ ^' -<^ othef 

nor sumpinums feasts, nor golden palaces. * j''^^*^ autre, 

4. AVe contemplated with pleasure the extensive fields covered with 

^^•llow cars of corn, tho * riJi. giffs of btmntcoue Ceres. °^^^ ^"^ 



t)ii THfi iHtiCLfi, 



iib 



V0U8 donnez 
moins vous 
onnaissancoy 
I way 8 after 

iat you vnli 

the word 
rte, mulii- 



i preceded 
tre, voire, 
), certain, 



Hue of our 



is to be pre- 
man? 



amines, and 
The moun- 
reat request 

Phoenicians, 

t>f the king- 

the end of 

, and other 

icerU attire, 

)vered with 



6. He was in a kittd ofccslacy, when he perceived iw. 

b. In the most cornint age, he lived and died a wise man*. 

7. Are you surprised that the worthiest 2 men, t afe Imt men, hrid 
betray remains of the weakness of humanity, amid the innumerable 3 
snares 1 and difficulties which ♦ arc ♦ inseparable from royalty 1 

0. He excited our pity, when we saw him after his disgrace. 

9. Hear, then, O nations full of valour ! and you, O ckiefs so wisti 
and so united ! hear what I have * to * offer to you. 

10. Out of this cavern issued, from time to time, a black 2 thick 3 
smoke 1^ which made a sort of night at iiiid-day. 

11. Tlwse imitative^ sounds 1 are infused in all languages, and form 
as It were, their * real basis. « = > i 

12. Every man has his foibles, his moments of ill * humour, even 
his irregularities. 

13. Each plaiU has virtues peculiar to itself, the knowledge 2 of 
which 1 could not but be infinitely useful. 

14. In all his instructions, he is careful to bear in mind that gram- 
mar, logic, and rhetoric, arc three sisters, that ought never to be 
disjoined, 

(1) Roads, cAemiw; with de ; pomegranates, grenadier; inMoom, 
fleun; yield, fournir ; wool, laine, pi.; in great request, recherche; 
among, de. 



f2.^ Made, /aire, ind-2; end, bout; jaden chojge. 



, , Js not allowed there, on n'y souffre ni ; furniture, meuble; costly, 
precieux ; attire, omement ; feasts, repas. 

(4.) Extensive, vaste; fields, campagne ; cars, epi; bounteous, /e- 
cond. •' 

^5.) In a kind of, comme en. 
6.) Age, siede. 

7.) That, de cc que ; worthy, eslimaUe; but, encore; betray, moniren 
remains, reste ; snares, piege ; difficulties, embarras. 
(8.) He excited our pity, il nous fit pitie. 



■ (9.) Hear, ecouter. 



^ L) Out of, de; issued, sortir, ind-2; thick, et epais; smoke, 
jumee; f. mid-day, milieu dujour. 

(11.) Infused, fofidu ; to, dans; and form as it were, et ils en sont 
co/nnie; real, fonaamenlale. 

(13.) Pocnli&T, qui sont propres ; to it, lui; could, cond-1 ; not but, 
ne que. 

(14.) He iscaroful to bear in mind, ?ic point pcrdre de vice ; ought, 
on devoir, ind-1 ; to be disjoined, separeK 

187. Proper names of deities, men, animals, towns, and 
particular places, do not take the article. 

EXAMPLES. 

Dieu a cr6e Ic ciel et la terre, God has made herwen and earth 

Jupiter etait le premier des dicux Jupiter was the first of the gods 

:iu.- cynUiv G;.ai& 16 cnovai uiiiex- uucepfuiius was Ai6X(iii<itr's iun&n 
and re 

Rome est unc villc d'une grandc Rome is a city of great beauty 
beaute 



i236 



SFNTAX AND IftlOMS 



4' -rn ..^x;":r: '''-'''" "^'^ ^'^ '^'^'«' 



//? Dieu des Chretiens 

le Dieu de paix 

/tf Jupiter d'HomSre 

^ Bucephale d^Alexandfo 

I ancienne Rome 

/* Rome moderne 



EXAMPLES. 



the God of Christiam 
tho Qoi of peace 
Homer's jvpiter 
AlexuTuier's Bucephalus 
ancient Rovie 
modern Rome 



EXERCISEr 



two brothers, Neptune and PluS^ ^ "' inheritance with his 

them to an agreement, referred the deciSn to pi^^^a l.nh T% 
mount Ida, with directions that a golden annle «hnn hT'ho ^^^^^^j\^^ 
fairest />a.i5 assigned to K.n.« I tllrgolfi r^^'.^ ,' ^'^^^ *° *^^ 

I' ^it "itil ^1,'^^T}' ^ "S^* ^' «"^ *h«r« *"v^s 2 light 1 - -^ 

Jth'^fl^rTnce^'^''"^'''^'^ *^ '^^ ^"^^^ ^"°"*h» -^ the year in the 
6. The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, was the only trtie Goaf " 

[2 ] orS ."tTf f * Ji^i'l^d ^*i^«^^.-^; .uheritance,;ie;tte^c. 
t.<i.; yjn, aans ; at a feast, okiI v eut a im ffiiu, . k«; "*«*'■• 

T'otV ; to bring to an agreement LZ^^- . U V ^""^ ^^^®' P'"^" 

«»„. ... ."fha. . giaen^T ■ ^'S^t.' ^^S^::%;^r^^, 

OP THE PARTITIVE ARTICLE du. 

,nJ^?^J"*^,''''^'''''^'0"*everb ctotV, No. 102 10? 
104 105, we have already had occasion io no ice ,1 at rf« 
de la des are used before a noun, not ment oned L^f 
speaking of the totality of the species but oXs a trt o( 
.t, and when, m English, the word some may L IdeSod 

EXAMPLES. 
*pS " * ''""' "^ ''°™''"' """^ ''"""^ "'' «*='• «"M phase 

.„.,. .-rrircn, us I/mi aa 

And also that de alone, without the article, is used when 
an adjective, an adverb of quantity „r a negation precedes 



or THK ARTICtE- 



237 



the noun thus spoken of in a partial sense ; no regard being 
paid ihen to its gender or number. 



EXAMPLES. 



yoila de beaux tableaxtx 
j'achctai hier beaucoup de lines 
^le de livres, j'achctai hier ! 
il n'y eut jamais plus de lumieres 
il y a vioim a'/ia/ntans a. Paris 

qu'a LondrcB 
je ne manque pas d'am,is* 



there are beautiful yictures 
Ibimght yesterday mamj books 
how viomj Looks I bought yesterday 
titere never was more tearrnng 
there are fewer inhabitants in Paris 

than In Jjondmi, 
I do not leant for friends 



Exception. Bien is the only adverb of quantity which 
is followed by the article. 

examples. 

i J a bien de I'esprit he has a great deal of wit 

elle a bien de la grace she is very g-raceful 

190. Observe. These expressions : despetits-maUres^ 
des sages-femmeSf des petits-pdtes, etc. are not exceptions to 
the rule which requires de before an adjective, because, in 
cases of this kind, the substantives are so united with the 
adjectives, as to form but one and the same word. "We 
must likewise say : le propre des lelhs acUcns, hsstnii- 
mens des anciensphilosophes. etc. ; because, in expressions 
of this kind, the substantives, are taken in a general sense. 

191. It as been seen that, generally speaking, an article 
or some other sign precedes the noun in French, so as to 
point out whether we speak of a thing as to its general kind 
or merely as to a portion of it. There are however, many 
phrases in which no article or sign is required before tho 
noun 'j we subjoin those which are most commonly used. 

avoir faim faire profession 

soif .,., — tort 

dessein plaisir 

' honte . peur 

• cou( ume provision 

■ pitie defense 

•— — compassion gagncr pays 

froid chcmin 

• chaud mettrc fin 

— — patience — ordre 

• fnvie jmrler francais 



I 



* See rule 109, Ins. 




93$ 



• ywTAx \KD miom 



I 



donner envio 
" occasion 

" IcfOll 

■ permission 

■ parole 

entendre raison 

raillerie 

malice 



parler allcmancT 
porter cnvic 
•— ■ • bonheur 

' malhcur 

prendre parti 

f)laigir 

• patience 

jour 



EXERCISE. 

covered 1 w1 h TS.n o 1 ^S^'^'^^ly situated, lands every year I 
^ndCL Tisbrnfd^Zh ^"'''* ' ^^«'/^^^, abounding iVflocks 

sounds 3 oftheir pipes and flutrA'^"^ them G repeat 2 the sweet 
BweetnesB. ' ^ ' ^^^^^*» and grapes of an uncommon 

i^U^hora8b'^?nbllnV\TV'''\?^r*'. "^^^ '« ^« * ^"nd 
almost, he^rcdves h ^f ;;^ d'^s without having seen any thing; 

andrfrtS^l^^ve'n^ ^^^'^^' vad skadL 

i«.«-^orT4X~ to'o^ain"^^^^^ convicted of havin. used 
for ever. ^ °^*'''" ^"^ "^'<'®» were excluded from it 

have^X"ii«J17J"/'^ ^'^ ^^^^«*^^' 2 bodies 1. which 

4'|?:Lt;X:r:f„Sdr^ ^"^ ^^ ^^^ «-« ^me .... 

ani;ic;^?S';';,Ja hit* ^ '"^s >^'""*^'^«i> '"^^^ ««« "^ ^^^v 

ofpogteity hadrnot4fhr.J^^''''f** ^"-"^ ^'^'^ ^"^'^'"^ i" the eyes 
country aVoUcdc^^Vthatst^^^^^^ ^'^^'^^ ^^ rendered L 

in, mWrfe^fl^M^nd hon^^^^^^ abounding 

-.^.^T lrZt'i}:t:!lttT'' '' P'^^' ^^'^^'"'^^-'* '^« -hoes, 
ink any thTn'^V^^iJ^l'tro^f ;:7 ''^'?°"' having, nW>,-«„,a/,, 

^'|iS;a;ii!!iS:^ --, .^.. ,..., ,. 

resVy^r' *^'^^'^^^'- -lendour, e.^a/; np r^st, (that have no 
(6 ) What, tfue de. 

^vref^ileZflJnT3^^^^^ -/^%e;-*.m ; artifices, no. 

render^; indlt b£ o^T^/^;ct5^i^Xf lO^!: ^ '" '^^^^ "^ ' 



, 



h 



thout seeing 
every year 2 
ijn^ in flocks 
e Iruits, nnd 
2 the sweet 

,figs, olives, 
uncomiuon 

is as * blind 
any thing ; 
ai7i shadows 

having used 
jdedtrom it 

' 1, which 

! time what 

se of many 
n the eyes 
•endered his 



, apercevoir ; 

abounding 

laieiit acca- 

the echoes, 

ivoir jamais, 
apercevoir ; 

illicile, cu 

it have no 



fi 



h 



61- THl ARTICLU. 239 

deputy oTheT'"''' '"^ ^'''*' ^'""^"^ "" blindnew of mind «„d 
grL^tfron^'them."^^" ""'''' ^^^* ^'^^^ ^"^'^ ^^^ -P-- 

^o ^ S^m'"'^' ^'*- "^'■'^' «f heart, rte, art. c^swr/ 
(,^0 JNoblcmen, gentUhomme ; should, dt^mr, ind-L 



CHAPTER IIL 
OP THE ADJECTIVE, 
192. CONCORD OF THE ADJECTIVE WITH THE jffOU** 

pillh' "^f ^"^^ ^^^" '"^^ ^l'^^ '^^ "^^"^ «f ^*>« adjective ill 
French is to agree in gender and number with the noun to 

mmson, de bans hvres, de bonnes plume,, and the mam,er of 
forming the plural and the feminine of adjectives has also 
been explained. (No 4<2.«) 

An adjective referring to two or more substantives sineu- 
ar of the same gender, all subject of the same verb, must be 
jn the plural and assume their gender. 

EXAMPLES. 

^^'it'^oSfro'nV^rnf f P"''^"' ^^ clemmcyand mnjesty tmpnnled 

obsUcles. ^^""^"t'^r des make us surmoSnt obstacles. 

Ji!t^^ substantives are of different genders, the adjective 
must be in the masculine. j tvc 

EXAMPLES, 
votre frfire et votre scEur sont ymr brother and sister are not well 



peu instruits 

la beaute et le vice reunis dans 

un mo me individu ne sau- 

raient attacher, etc. 



informed 
beauty and vice united in the same 
individual cannot attach, etc. 



When in speaking of things, (not of pei-sons), an adjective 
belongs to two or more nouns which are the object of or 
governed bt/ a verb, it is customary to make that adjective 
agree with the last noun, next to which it is placed. 



I 



See the FteCTiUaritws of feu., %v; deml, bm, cmrl,fifrt., bas: 



840 



iVNTAX ANU mio'is 



EXAMPLES. 

il ovftit la bouche ct lea yeux his mmith and eyes were open 

ouvorUi 
il avait les ypux ct la bouche Aw njes and month were open. 

ouvcrte 

We say customary , bee use it is more grammatical to 
atttich on idea of nuinbors to the a<yctive, when it e"ni*e8fle8 
a quality or state common to several objects and to say, 

EXAMPLES. i 

il avait les ycux et la boucho his eyes and month tcere open, 

ouverts 
c'eHt im horanio d'uiie valeur, he is a man of tried valour, virtue 

d'une vertu et d'uno fidelity and fidelity 

fiprouvecs* 

EXERCISE. 

His impetuoflitj and courage, long rculrainc], soon surmounted 
= '■■ — eiichalne 2 vaitw)e ind-3 1 

all obatacles. The king and the shepherd are equal after death. 

This comedian acts with delightful taste and grace. He found 

acteur joiia- charmant'i 1 — 2 ind-3 

the rivers and ponds frozen over. His whole life (was nothing 

2 etang m. 1 glace 3 n'elre que 

but) constant labour and occupation. It was lost time and trouble 

ind-3 3 1 2 c'eLiit 3 1 peine 2 

Honours and riches are ever envied. Music and drawing are very 

entertaining. I teach the French and English tongues. Have you 
amusant enseigner langue f. 

read the Greek and Roman histories 1 

= f. 

ADJECTIVES OF DIMENSIONS. 
193. In speaking of the dimensions of an object ' •" 



French make use of a very different form from the Ei 
thus J 



:^ ^H. 



■'i 




* There are certain locutions on the correctness of which gramma- 
rians are not agreed : this is not the place fcr discussing such questions 
but we will give both modes of expr^.^sion, placing in the second co- 
lumn *;hose which are preferable, 

Les coles personnelle, mobiliare, Lc cote personnelle, lamobiliare et 
et fonciere. Ia somptuaire. 

TT— ._^ j_ J .. n . • T. Tf ' ' _ ' 

lienne, et Espagnole. lienne, et Espagnole. 

I^es langues Fra nf aise ot Espagnole La langue Fran^aise ct I'Espagnole, 



i 



lamobiliare et 



I 



V>t THE AD/ECTIVIB. 



241 



une tour ^e deuir cmU pieds d* 

kautem or de haul 
cetle tour a deu,^ eenls pieds d€ 

hauteur 



EXAMPLB3» 

1. A tower two hundroil feet 

high 
ft. Tnifl tower is two hundred 

feet high 

In the first example, de is used before the noun of nun)* 
bert) and before the adiective, to which the substantive of 
dim., ion may elegantly be substituted^. 

In the second, to be is rendered by avoir, and conde* 
quently, the substantive of dimension hauteur, can alone be 
used, since an adjective cannot be coupled with avoir% . 



EXERCISE. 



You 



This box, wliich is six feet lang, is very convenient. 
coffre, m. com /node 

>will be stopped ir your march by a n^er three hundred feet broad 
arrite f. 

This observat '"^. (is twel^'e hundred) feel high. It is a terrace 
=r detix ce^its taises ce terrace f, 

(a hundred and eighty) feet broad^ and (twelve hundred) feet 

trenie toise f. pi. Uirge deux cents * 

lang. The walls of our garden are twenty feet high and three 

mur m, pi. 

iroad. It is one of the huetH stones that was ever seen : it is 

75 on '^^t jamais vues 

twenty feet long and six thiicki, This ditch is nine feet six 
longueur epainseur fosse m. 

inches deep and six feet broad, 

pouce m. pi. profondeur f. 

194*. Adjectives, used gabstantively, require the definite 
article. 

EXAMPLE. 

lesfous inventcnt lee modes, et fools invent faihions, and toise men 
les sages s'y conferment confurm to tkem 

EXERCISE, 

1. Were the learned of antiquity fo come to life again, they would 
be much astonished at the extent of our knowledge. 

2i The Ignorant have, in a * large stock of presumption, what 
they want in real knowledge, and that is the reason they are admired 
hy fools. 

(1.) Were the, siks; to come again, rcvenfr, ind-2; life, mondef 
at, de i knowledge, connaissance. pi. 

(2,) Large stock, /(wYerfose; they want, iZ Zmr 7»«7t^fc ,• knowledge, 
science ; the reason, c<? qui fait que ; they are, etc. me fools ^mire 
them. 



242 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



When a noun IS accompanied by two adjectives, expres- 
sing different qualities incompatible in tae ame rbiect The 
article must be repeated before each adjective. ^ ' 

EXAMPLES. 

a fmt freqLnter la bonne com- w omhTfl<^"JiT ^ . 

i\.^^!^-^^^' -^"^ '^ *^^^® qualities be not incompatible, 
the article is not repeatec, as : h sage et pieux fSu' 

If merely expressing different ideas, "it is perhaps Sr to 
repeat it, as : /. sensible et Vingenieux FLelon. 

EXERCISE. 
^r^ The anttait 1 and 7naern 3 r^riters 2 are not agreed upon that 

orlJfbrt^" ™'" P^'"^^^^ '^'''"^^ tranquility of mind in ^^ood 

Bhuns^i^^o" "•''"'^'^"^ ^'^"^ ^^P"*^^^-" frequents ^..^ and 

genius^""''^ ^"'^ ""'^'""^ '^'''''^^'' '^^^-^ ^l^^y« »he offspring of 

^o*^ Jjr^^^f^' '^"^^^^ ; are agreed, s'accorder. 
(J.) Vigourous,/wi!; offspring, /ri^i^, 

195 The article is used before the adjective which is 
joined to a proper name, either t . express its quality, or to 
distinguished the person spoken of from those who might 
bear the same name. ^ 



le sublime Bossuet 
Louis le gros 
le vertueux Fenelon 
Louis le Juste 
le tendre Racine 
Louis le Grand 



EXAMPLES. 



t/i£ subliine Bossuet 
Lo ids the fat 
the virtuoiis Fenelon 
Louis the Jxist 
the tender Racine 
Louis the Great 



Remark. If the adjective, which is joined to a proper 
name, precede that name, it expresses a quality which mav 
be common to many ; but if it follow, it expresses a 
distinguishing quality. Thus : le savant Varron, and Varron 
le savant, do not convey the same meaning : in the first ex- 
ample, Varron merely obtains the qualitv of savant .. in th« 

secouu, Karro/i is distinguished for his learning n-om alf of 
the same name. 



Of THE ADJECTIVE, 



243 



EXERCISE. 

hJiJf^^^T^^''^''''^^ astonishes by beauties of tho first order and 
by faults ot the worst taste. If the tender Racine does no often Se 

2. The more we read the fables of the good and aHless La Fontaine 

ta^eJ^M-,!?!^ SSc^:Slt^Kl.r^ 
«:Ae Greai that it was carried to perfection. " 

«iy ^^' ^''' ^'' '■ °''^^'' "" '■ '' ^^^^^y' ^*1"^^' '^ soutenin possesses, 

(2.) The more wr, ^/w5 wi ,• artless, simple ,• are convinced wi se 
convamcre; (hey are, <?«..;..J ; a, le ; fo'r, .^f manual, ^7 ' ^'' 
( iJ.) Only, 7^e jj^e ,- earned, porter a, 

196. When a superlative relative precedes a substantive, 
the article is used once only ; if it follow, it must be repeat- 
ed betore the noun and the adjective. 

EXAMPLES. 

fc5i;k5A^fes gens font quelquefoisZ^5p:i/5^m7i^5 fautes<7rfe5 een. 

lesplus Juaues font quelquefois ks fautes Us plus gravies ^ 

m ablest men sometimes co?nmU the grossest blunders*. 

EXERCISEt 

1 . It has been said of the Tclemachus of the virtuous Fenelon that it is 
the happiness of man be produced by a poem, it would be by that. 
gv% T '"'^'' ^ °^*'" ^^"'^^' *^' '^'"'^ dlngtrm, 3 



(I .) It has been said, on a dit ; present 
3 ; could, (if the, etc. could, ind-2); be pro' 
be, natire, cond-1. 

(2.) Smoothest, tranqiulle. 



t que ; have made, iubi- 
jd by, naUre de ; wouid 



* Observe. Cette planete est la pins eloignee du solell. Lorsauo 
cctte pbneto est Ze plus eloignee du soleil. i-orsquo 

«rfj!^!l*';'!v f ^'^T,"^^ ^l«'"e with regard to the declinability of tho 
article which must be understood. ^ 

,^}^^^V''^\^ comparison implied the article is declined. Thus in 
the first sentence, wc sneak of the nlan* ts whu-li n,«,i;=»o^* /•-.„ '.i!" 
sun, and allude tothat which is mostso; but inlhe"second; ounhought 
bears on one planet alone, inclependant of all others ; le pks is merf y 

LalUdi'erbrlr:.'''^ ''" ''"^^"''' '"^ consequently is undecS 
These remarks apply also tofe moins, la moims, ks mains. 



■»'>i^'.w)B anLm.i:j |iii»HBiB8BiW 



21.4 



SYWTAX AND IDIOMS 



saw 






REMARKS ON SOME PARTfCULAR MODES OF EXPRESSING 
I COMPARISONS. ^ 

197. The manner of expressing comparisons of equality 
and of superiority and inferiority will be explained, (No. 
211). But there are some phrases which it is the place 
to notice here. 

Equally with is used for as well as and is thira rendered^ 

EXAMPLES. 

He blamed it equally with me ilk blama aum Hen que mot 
He was biamed equally with me Ufut blame aussi bzen que moi 



is if IS ren-^ 



Nothing aophasant, goodf difficult, etc. 
dered. 

EXAMPLES. 

Nothing so easy as to do it rien de si facile que de lefairt 

Nothiag so pleasant as to raeet Hen de st agreable que de rencoU' 
with Friends trer des amis 

Quoi, what ; quelque chose, something ; ritn, nothing ; 
before adjectives require de. 



Quoi de pins agreable que d'etre au 

coin d'un bonfeu ? 
II n^y a nen de dotix dans sr hy- 

sionomie. 
J'ai remarque quelque chose d'exta-a- 

orditxaire 



EXAMPLES. 

what is there tadtt jf)iea*ant t'tdn 
to sit by a good fire I 

there is nothing sv^eet in- her 
countenance 

I noticed somettiing eiirsoi^i- 
nary. 



THE PLACE OP ADJECTIVES, 

198. Pronominal and numerical adjectives precede their 
substantive, as do generally the following sixteen ; heau, 
bon, brave, cher, chetif, grand, gros, jeune, mauvais, mi' 
chant, meilleur, moindre, petit, saint, vieux, an'^ vrai, 
when taken in their literal sense. 



monpdre 
quel homnie - 
vieUefemme 

plusieurs ojfLden 
grand komme 
xix arkres 
fJtetive mine 



EXAMPLES. 

my father 
what man 
old woman 
ten ^uijufSa 
several officers 
great man 
six trees 
mean lode 



iXPRESSING 



o£ equality 
aimed, (No. 
iS the placei 

as rendered^ 



^pie mot 
n que vioi 

Is at IS ren*' 



de kfairt 
que derencon- 

!«, nothing; 



! f)Ieafliant t'^dn 

Sre I 

trWeet in her 

ing exiTMtdir 



precede their 
tteen ; beau, 
lauvais, me- 
?, an^ vrai. 



'W^ 



■•iitfi- lir '"•* • ■!!'«*•" 



j>-^--*aji,\'' 



i-^^j>if*^^a* 



OF THE ADJECTIVE. 



245 



Exceptions. 



EXAMPLE. 

in whatever manner. 



The pronoun quelctmque. 

iVuTie maniere quelconque 

EXERCISE. 

1. There have been ages, when a. great man was a sort of prodigy 
produced by a mistake of nature. 

2. In almost all nations, the great geniuses that have adorned them 
were contemporaries. 

3. Young people, says Horace, are open to the enticements of vice, 
lavish, presumptuous, and equally impetuous and light in their pas- 
sions ; old people, on the contrary, are covetous, dilatory, timid, ever 
alarmed about the future, always complaining, hard to please, pane- 
gyrists of times past, censors of the present, and great givers of advice. 

4. Wkat man was ever satisfied with his condition, and dissatisfied 
with his abilities. 

5. Thirty ch-ambers, vvhich have a communication one with another, 
and each of them an iron door, with six huge bo.ts, are the places 
whtre he shuts himself up. 

(1.^ Ages, des siecles ; when, oil; produced, enfantei: 

(2.) in, c/iez; nations, peuple ; Si(ioTned,iUustrer,ind-4. 
^ (3.) Old people, vieilks gens ; open, souple; \di\ish, pre digue ; im- 
"petuous, vif ; (all those adjectives are m. pi.); covetous, avare ; dila- 
tory, tertiporiieur ; about, s?<?-; complaining, plaintif; hard, difficile; 
please, conterder ; times, sing. 

(4.) Dissatisfied, mecontent ; abilities, csprits. 

(5.) Have a communication, communiquer ; each of them, dont 
chacun avoir; huge, gros; bolts, verron ; places, lieu, sing.; shuts 
himself, renfermer. 

199. Adjectives of number, joined to proper names, 
pronouns, and substantives, are placed after the noun, 

EXAMPLES. 
George Trois George III. 

chapdre dix chapter 10 

page trcnte page the 30th 

. 200. The adjectives mentioned 198, when connected by 
a conjunction with another adjective, which is to be placed 
after the ^substantive, are themselves placed after the noun. 

EXAMPLE. 
c'est unefemine grande et bien faite she is tall well-madr woman 

201. In English, two, or even several adjectives may 
qualify a substantive, without a conjunction : but in French 
et is always placed before the last adjective c'eoi un homme 
aimabie ei poli, he is an amiable, weli-beliaved man. 

Observe that all the adjectives are put after the noun, 
un hommc richcyjeune et aimabUy except one of them, is one 

V 2 



11 



246 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



of those which precede it, c'est un grand AomiM sec, he is 
a tall thin man. 

202. Are placed after the noun, adjectives formed 

from the participle present of verbs — ouvrage divertusant, 
entertaining work ;— from the participle past; all those 
expressing form, physical qualities, etc. figure arrondie, 
round figure ; table ovale, oval tabk ;— colour, maison 

blanche, white house ; — taste, herbe am&re, bitter herb ; 

sound, orgue harmonieux, harmonious organ; — action, 
procureur actif, active attorney ; — effect, coutume abusive^ 
custom founded in abuse ; — arrangement, ordre grammali- 
cal, grammatical order ; species, qualiU occtute, occult 
quality ; — nation, generosite Anglaise, English generosity ; 
—those ending in -esque, -il, -ule, ic, ique, -in • 



style burlesque 
jargon pueril 
fet-n^ credule 
^ bien public 
ris sardonigue 
voix enfantine 



burlesque style 
childish jargon 
credulous woman 
public welfare 
sardonic grin 
childish voice 




but in this, custom is the best guide. 

EXERCISE. 

1. An affected simplicity is a refined imposture. 

2. The smiling images of Theocritus, Virgil, and Gessner, excite in 
the soul a gentle feehng. 

3. In that a,ntique palace are io be seen neither wreathed columns, 
nor 5^Wgrf wainscots, nor valtiahle basso-relievoes, nor ceilings cxui- 
oualy painted nor grotesque figures of animals which never had exis- 
tence but m the imagination of a child or a madman. 

4. Ifhuvmn life is exposed to many troubles, it is also susceptible of 
many pleasures. *^ 

5. A ridiculous man is seldom so by halves, 

6. Spanish manners have, at first sight, something harsh and uncivi- 

7. IVenck urbanity has become a proverb among foreign nations 

(1.^ Refined, dellcat. 

{%S Smiling, rlavi . excite, porter i soft, dnux. ; feeling, sensimUi, f. 

(6.) Are to>e seen, onnevoU; wreathed, torse; wninnocA. lamiris : 
basso-rehevoes, bas-relief; ceiUngs, plafond; curiously, ariistement : 
had existence, exister. 

(i.') Many, bien de; troubles, peine. 

(5. ; So. le : by halves, a dj?mi. 

(60 Spanish, Espagnol; manners, mmurs ; at firet sight, au premier 
abord : uncivilized, sauvage. 

(7.) Become, passer eri ; among che.i:. 



01^ tHB IbJkcTiVk, 



U^ 



€ seCf he is 

I formed — 
iverttssanf, 
; all those 
5 arrondiey 
ir, maison 
ier herb ; — 
1 ; — action, 
ne abusive^ 
grammali' 
tltef occult 
generosity ; 



ner, excite in 

i^i columns, 
ceilings curi- 
ver had exis- 

iiuceptible of 



K and uncivi- 
I nations 



semibUili, f. 
ic«t- lo/ipJbris } 
artistement ; 



it, au premier 



203. Although it may seem that adjectives expressing 
moral qualities are placed indifferently before, or after the 
substantive, yei taste and a correct ear vi^iii assign them their 
proper situation. 

In conversation, or in a broken, loose style, it may 
be indifferent to say femme aimable or aimable femme • 
talents sublimes, or sublimes talents, etc. ; but in the dig- 
iiified style, the place of the adjective may, in a variety of 
instances, affect the beauty of a sentence.* 

EXERCKSE. 

1. An amiahk woman gives to every thing she says an inexpressible 
grace ; the more we hear, the juiore we wish to hear her. 

2. The majestic eloquence of Bossuet is like a river, which carries 
away every uiing in its rapid course. 

3. The svilime compositions of Rubens have made 1 an English 
traveller 3 say 2, that ih\& farrums painter was born in Flanders, throuch 
arciBtakeofnature. ° 

f i.) Give to, repandre sur ; we, on. 

(2.) River, ^we; carries away, entratner ; its rapid course, la ram- 
dite de son cours. f i 

(3.) Say, dire a; famous, celiln-e; through, par; mistake meprise. 

GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 

204.. Adjectives are frequently follovj^ed by another sub- 
stantive than that which they qualify, thus : un Aomme digne 
de recompense, un homme enclin au bien, they are also 
sometimes followed by an infinitive, capable d' aimer, prompt 
a bien f aire, etc. In such cases a preposition is used ac- 
cording to the case or regimen which the adjective requires. 
That is called the government of adjectives. 

205. Adjectives which govern the preposition de. 

digne comble fou 

indigne tax6 avide 

capable charge ennuye 

incapable plein libre 

aise accuse qualifie 

ravi fatigue vide 

joyeux las dependant 



content 
mecontent 



contrit 
enrage 



cheri 



noun 



i 



♦ Such adiectives are more expressive when placed before the nc 

m the French Language can feel t.'ie proper place of the adjective : we 
recommend to the Uamer always to place it after the. noun ; which is 
quite correct, if not elegant. . , u* , 



246 



BTNTAX AND TUIOMS 



206. Adjectives -a 

^droit 

bon 

beau 

laid 

agreable 

ingenieux 

contraire 

oppose 

contbrmo 

semblable 

pareil 

207. Adjectives which require envers, complaisant, 
genereux, affable, indulgent, prevenant, cruel, bon, or any 
other expressing kindness or unkindness of feeling towards 
individuals. 



icli govern tr 


le prepositioa a 


porte 


Apro 


enclin 


lent 


adonno 


nuisible 


sujet 


prompt 


propre 


pr6t 


inexorable 


utile 


dSsagreable 


inutile 


affile 
alerte 


sensible 
aise 


habile 


facile 


ardent 


cher 



Are you 



after ridies. 



pleased 



with 



your horse 1 Do not be so 



greedy 

avide 



I am not unworthy of his friendship. They say 

indigne * (^ dit que 



he is very dissatisfied 
rrii^content 

after him. Are 



with 



his son. We 



running 
counr 



we 



brother 



IS not 
propre 

those which 



fit for the 



like 
pareil 

I will order the 
comviander ind-7 

injurious to the health 
nuisible 

Let us be kind 



my sister 



were dred with 
md-2fatigne • 
at liberty) to go? My 
li^e jKiiiir 

Send rae some gloves 
gant, m. 
has. If you are ready to go, 



(not 
place. 



Too much exercise 



carnage. loo much exercise may be 

pouvoir etre 
You will not find that easy to do 

cela facile 

me another). He was so kind to 
ks uns envers les au(/res bon 

his sisters. 

208. Observe. A noun may be governed by two ad- 
jectives, provided they do not require two diflerent preposi- 
tions. Thus you may say : cei homme est utile et cher d 
safamille, that ruan is useful and dear to his family ; but 
you may not say, il est utilt et cheri a sa famille, because 
cheri, beloved, requires the genetive, or preposition de 
Doiwic a nor-j;. oucn 5ciiieiiee» must Dc luiiieu tiius, ii est 
utiledsafamiUe et en est cheri,hG is useful to his family 
and beloved ort!}'m. 



t»F THE ADJECTJVR^ 



249 



or. 



mplaisani, 
oUf or any 
ig towards 

80 greedy 
avidc 

rhey say 
on dit que 

tired with 
fatigue • 

go ? My 
jwHir 

«e gloves 
gant, m. 

Jy to go, 

may be 
wuvoir etre 

!asy to do 
icik 

> bind to 
don 



two ad- 
i preposi- 
et cher a 
oily ; but 
', because 
•sition de 
us, ilest 
is family 



« 



feTRB WITH ADJBCTIVKS. 

209. Je suis bienaise, fdchSf conirarie, etc., or any 
Other phra' ^ expressing p^iadness or regret at a thing, re- 
quires the subjunctive mood, or the infinitive with dje, as : 

je suis enchante que vons soyez 1 am delighted that you have re- 
de retour turned 

je suia enchante d'etre do retour I am delighted that I have returned 
a, temps. in time 

In the first example, there are two different subjects je 
vous ; the verb is on that account put in the subjunctive 
mood. 

In the second example, there is but one and the same 
subject, the second verb is in the infinitive* 

EXERCISE. 

She will be delighted to see you. Hotv sorry I am youi 
enchante 2 1 ^ic 2 1 

were nf at home last night. Call upon him, he will be 
subj-3 chez vous hier au soir oiler 1 voir 3 2 

glad to pee you. I cannot tell you how vexed I am 

d^ aise jene saurais cmitrarie 2 

at my servant I'ein^ so slow, and at your net receiving 

etre subj-3 jie recevoir pas subj-5 

my note. We are ull very sorry you cannot come, for 

^i^^ m. Irien fdehe ponvoir subj-1 

we shall have a delightful evening. 
passer 2 soiree f. 1 

210. Tl est, impersonal, joined to an adjective requires 
de before the infinitive. Cest requires a. 

EXAMPtES^ 
77 est beau de mounr paur sa pa- it is noble to die fdr one's 



trie 
c'est Iiorrible d voir 



country 
it is horrid to be seen 



to 



EXERCISE. 

It was amusing to see them. How pleasant it is 
ii ind-2 gtue Qgreable2il 1 

enjoy good health ! This is most painful to hear. 

jouir de ce on ne pent plus penible 

It Wnc vnrv /lionrrvcAoltla ffnv m«\ i^ <.r^4M^«~ 



ii 2 ind-2 
quarrels. 

useful 1 



It 
ceh 



me 1 etre jyTescnt d 



an iiicil 



may be pleasant to look at, but is it very 



voir 



250 



SltNTAX AND IDIOMS. 






ADJECTIVES IN THE COMPARATIVE DEGREE. 

211. The verb which follows an adjective in the com- 
parative requii^s ne before it. ^ ^"^ 



vous 
n 



EXAMPLE. 

%^ ^'' ^^''^^^ ^"^ ^^'" you are happier than you were. 



But if the first member of the sentence is negative or 
interrogative the ne is suppressed. negative or 

EXAMPLES. 
*T™:'iSi?:' "'" '^'"^ ^^ "»" "" "<" happier than y.„ 
"^^/■te/"" *""■""■ ^' -nJAnebe happier than yo« 

an'adrrb' *''"' ^"P'"'®'^'' '''^'' ?"«"''' <'««« '« '«»?«. or 

EXAMPIE. 

Towf aw/re, auirement, mieux, moins bun, plus maL 
also require the ne, before the verb. 



i/ «^ ^w« attfor quHl n'etait 



EXAMPLE. 

he is quite different from what he 
was 

EXERCISE. 

He is much richer than you think. You sing better than 

penser 

^7 '■^'?nd-2^^^ ^** ^^"^ ^^"®'' '^**'''^^"^ tha" ^»c thought, 
o • woire ind-2 

{sciences are now more cultivated than they were. Since 

etre ind-2 
the mvention of gun powder battles are less bloody than they 

were. That war was not less successful than it was just. 

e^rcind-3 henreiise ^/rc ind-2 

peiu!L °"'^ ^^ '"*"'^ ^'^^'^ *^^ '^^ '" • I« »^« not 

much richer than he was 7 The poor are not so sick, 

/r -. ^ /^ - . P^* moins maladc 

^ fnJJ'^i "^ ^'^' °' ^^ "'•^ "° ^«^ taking too much. 



'>W|»J 4HIMH P' * < li fo w y -T--- J^ — 'S 



OF THE ADJECTIVJB. 



251 



ADJECTIVES IN THE SUPERLATIVE DEGREE. 

the preposition rtSl ^"'"™ *="*' ""'* "' '«'^« 

EXAMPLES. 
''"Z"^i'"'""^''^"'""<-^ give me the be,t pen you have 
lap^ ieuejlrur iuiariin. ,he p„«ie,. flower in th. garden 

EXERCISE. 
You see the largest tree there is in the nark U h« 
grand arbre y avoir ^ " "® 

not the richest man in the tnwn -j t • 

ricke * ^^"^ ^ ^ /'^« :o" the only one 

She i. eertainly ,he prettiest girl I ever saw. I .„ „„, .t, 

«„!„ T ,. ,. persmne voir s»ibi-3 

only one, I believe, wlio acceptea his invitation Th 

acequejecrois accepter snhjT '"^'^^^'<*"- There 

S '^r.^^^r.L ^' *'^ "^-' '^^^^^^^'^^ -n in Euro,:;, 

2 

213. By^ after a comparative, is rendered by de. 

EXAMPLE. 
il est plus grand d'un pouce he is taller by one inch 

ADJECTIVES OP NUMBER. 

214.. Unieme, is used only after vinjrL trente ouaranU 

TaZZht ^^'} 9--*re^r^^^ celt 1^1^'';^':^ 
la vmgt-et-umemefms, it is the twenty-first time. 

\J^t:^J^^'^'^ except when Mowed by 
j " "■ -'""ii^'vij as ; 

there were two hundred 

three hundre<^ nen 

there were i^-o hundred and ten 



ils etaient deux cents 

trois cents homines 

ik etaieni deux cent dix 





252 



iYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



Vtngt in guaire'Vinc^t, and six-vingty also tak« an S) 
when followed by a subdtantive, as : 



qtuitre-vinf^ls hommes 
six vingls abricots 



eighty men 

six score apricots 



But it takes no 5, when followed by another term expres- 
sing number, quatre-vingt-un arbres, quatre-vingt-dix 
hommes. 

The ordinary numbers, collective and distributive, always 
iake the aign of the plural : les premieres douzatneSj the 
first dozens j les quatre cinquiemes, the four fifths. 

For dates the French write mil, as : mil sept cent-quatre- 
vingt-dix-neufy one thousand seven hundred and ninety- 
nine, etc. 

Remark. Cent and mille are used indefinitely, as. 



U hdfit cent caresses 
faites'lui mille amities 



he shewed him a hnidred marks 

of kindness 
present him a thousand compli* 

ments 



.V 



EXERCISE. 



1. It was the thirty-first yedit after so glorious a peace, when the war 
broke out again with a fury of which history offers few examples. 

2. There were only three hundred, and in spite of their inferiority in 
numbers*, they attacked the enemy, beat and dispersed them. 

3. He has sold his country house for* two thmisand Ave hundred and 
fiftt/ Tponnds. 

4. Choose out of your nursery ground eighty fruit trees and ninetp 
dwarf-trees, divide them into dozens, and put in the two first dozens of 
each sort, those whose fruits are most esteemed. 

5. When Louis the Fourteenth made his entry into Strasbourg, the 
Swiss deputies having come to pay their respects to him, Le T^llier, 
archbishop of Rheims, who saw among them the bishop of Basle, said 
to one near him : that bishop is apparently some poor beggar. — How, 
replied the other, he has a himdred thousand livres a year — Oh ! oh ! 
said the archbishop, he is then a respectable man, and shewed him a 
thousand civilities. 



ind-^. 



1.) Year, annee ; when, que; broke out again, se rallumer > 

*2.^ Only, nc <iue ; in spite of, malgre. 

fS.I Pounds, livre sterling. 

[i.) Out of, dan>s; nursery-ground, pepiniere; fruit-trees, 
d^arbre fruitier ; dwarf-trees, arm-enain. 

(5.) Swis3, (ofthe Swiss); pay, picsentef ; respect, hoinriiiigef 
one near him, son- voisin ; that bishop, etc. c^est un mifeTable apparem- 
ment que cei evequi' ; a year, de rente ; shewed, fain, ind-3 ; civilities, 
caresses. 



pied 



pi.; 



or TUB PRONOUNS. 



ttbZ 



ike an S) 



rm expres- 
'Vingt-dix 

ve, always 
^atneSf the 

8. 

mt-quatre" 
nd nineiy- 

iy, as, 
7idred markf 
sand compli- 



irhen the war 
am pies, 
inferiority in 
em. 

! hundred and 

es and ninetp 
first dozens of 

trasbourg, the 
n, Le Tinier, 
9f Basle, said 
eggar. — How, 
r— Oh ! oh ! 
shewed him a 



wmer ; ind-^. 



ait-trees, pied 
« 

lOmTilugef {A. f 

'able apparent' 
id-3 ; civilities, 



The French say, le onze, du onze^ au onze, sur les onzc 
heureSf sur les une heure^ pronouncing the words onze and 
«ne, as if they were written with an h aspirated. 

215. The cardinal numbers are used for the ordinal. 

1. In reckoning time, that is, the Aowr of the day, the 
day of the month, the year of an era, as : il est trois heures, 
It IS three o'clock ; le vingt de Mars, the twentieth of 
March ; Van mil sept cent dix, etc., 

216. 2. In speaking of the order of auccessron of sover- 
eigns, as : Louis seize^ George irois, except the first two of 
the oeries, as : Henri premier, George second. Quint for 
cinq is only said of the Empereur Charles-quint, and the 
Pape Sixtc-quint* 

EPERCISE. 

1 They made in the parish and in the neighbouring places a collec 
tson which produces a hundred and twenty-one guineas. 

2. William, surnaraed the Conqueror, king of England and duke ef 
Normandy, was one of the greattst generals of the eleventh centuarv • 
he was born at Falaise, and was the natural son of Robert, duke of 
Normandy, and of Arlotte, a fttrricr's daughfcr. 

A'h ^^^^ ^*?*^ i. '^ ^^'^ ^°<^" ^e ^^ o'clock. We shalfhave a great 
difficulty to arrive in time. ^ 

.1. \ I^^ "^'intet was so severe in om thausand seven hundred and nine 
that there was but one olive tree that resisted it*, in a plain where 
there had been more than ten thousand. 

5. It was the twenty-first of January, one thousand seven hundred 
and ninety-three, that the unhappy Louis the sixteenth was led to the 
scaffold. 

^oX WM?-' ^ ' "cig^^^ouring Places, voisinage, sing. ; collection, queU, ^ 
(Ji) \y\\\mxifChi,ill<uime\i\xtnQx,fourreur. 

(3.) Make haste, se depecher-, will be, ind-1 ; great difficulty, bun de 
to. peine ; in a. •" 

(4.) Severe, rud£i but, ne que, had been, y en avoir^ ind-2. 



CHAPTER IV. 

PRONOUNS. 

§ I. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS, 



WWamv^f f%r»*m^m^ . ^ ^^ _ 

i--i5 i li^wiioii iSKiVVKKri THiii SUBJECT 



AND THE OBJECT. 

217„ Personal pronouns, like the substantives which 
they represent, whether persons or things, are either the 
Bubject or object of a verb. 

X 



254 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS' 



ft! 



As object or regimen, they are also direct or indirect. 
See 170, 173. 

SUBJECT. 

Common to persona and things tu,je, il, elk, nous, vous, 
its, elles. 

Also 7710?*, toi, lui\ eux. 

OBJECT DIRECT. 

Common to persons and things, me, te; h, la, novs, vous, 
Jes, m. f. 

Also moif tot. 

OBJECT INDIRECT. (DATIVE.) 

Of persons, me te, lui, m. f. wow,9, vous, leur, m. f. 
Also, moi, toi. 

Also a moi, a toi, d lui, a elle, a nous, a vous, a cux, d 
elles. 

Of things, y of both genders and numbers. 

OBJECT INDIRECT, (genitive or ablative.) 

Of persons de mot, de toi, de lui, d^elle, de nous, de vous, 
d^eux, d dies', sometimes en. 

Of things, en of both gender and number. 

PRONOUNS GOVERNED BY PREPOSITIONS, 

Moi, toi, lui, elle, nous, vous, eux, elles. 

PRONOUN SUBJECT. 

218. The place of the subject is before the verb, if affir- 
njative, after it, if interrogative. 



EXAMPLES. 



je parle 

il raconta aon histoire 

est-il heureux 1 



/ speak 

he related his history 

is he happy 1 

219. Sometimes there are two or more subjects to the 
verb, such as you, he, and I are agreed logo; in such 
cases, moi, toi, lui, eux, are used instead of je, iu, il, ils, 
and it is polite to place the first person last. 



My 



EXAMPLE. 

VOUS et moi, nous irons you and I we shall go. 

EXEaCISE. 

sister and I we were walking by the last rays of (he 
sepromener ind'S a rayons m. pi. 



Of THE PRONOUNS. 



255 



' 



Aill spread over all nature ! In the long *^inter even- 
, '^ 4 ne ripatid 1 art. % q ®^^": 

lugs my father, my brothers, and I used (to spendj two 
, ■ ^ , „ ,., ftmis passer jnd-2 

am m the hbrary, and to read the.e, (in order t,>) 

Inblwmqyet. nmu Hre, md-'H y pour 

seiek^e,- '"'"'^'^ ^'''™ '^' 'T^' '*"f ''« °*' ^^^ ^*3^' t^ow 
amiable poets who interest most the heart, by the charms o( a lively 

. . ,. , , ^P"'* ' riarUi 

imagination, and make us love truth, by disguising it under tho 

^ - 1 art. eii diguiser 

trau'm^l^ *" ingenious fiction. You and your friend shall 

~«rK T *° *^' ^"''^'"' '^^^''' ^^^ ^^^^" «^^^y "*turo in her 
pagyier 4 i vmsee m. oic 

kingdoms. 

regne m, pi. 

^ 220. Moi, t&i, lui, eux are also used instead of jc, /m, i/, 
1st. After yt^e in comparisons. 

EXAMPLE; 
V0U8 6teB plus grand que :r-oi you are iaUer than l. 

2nd. After c^est, and in answer to a question. 

EXAMPLES, 
ce n'est pas mi 1 qui I'ai fait it is not I who did it 

que vous reste-t-il? Moi whom have you left ? J 

3rd. Before a relative pronoun or an infiiiitive, speaking 
emphatically and by apposition. 

EXAMPLES. 



moi, dont il dechire Ja reputation 
toi, quifais le brave 
moi, trahir le meilleur de mcs 
amis ! 

vondrez-vous me perdrc, moi 

votre allie 1 
eux m'ont releve, et lui m'a 

panse 

Observe. In English, it is allowed to place the adverb 
between the subject and the verb, / certainly do not think 
^ would come. The adverb must always come last in 
t rench, Je ne pensais cerlainement pas guHl viendrait* 



I whose reputation he destroys 
thou who lookest 30 valiant 
I, betray wy best friend ? 

would you ruin me, wlio am your 

aUy? 
they picked ine tip, and lie dressed 

my wounds. 



256 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



You write (a great deal better; than I do. If ycu aro not so rich 

, becmcoup mieux » 

as he is, I think you are as happy Who calb t I do 

9^''^ * tout aussi heureux * 

Is it you or he who tiaid so ] It is not I. I! stoop to the 

Chavez dit m'aiaissef devani 

man who dipped h» hands in the blood of his king ! Yarn 

trcmper ind-4 

brothers ajid mine undertake it. They find tho money and he 

s'en charger fournir 

will manage the work. It is I who have prevailed upon him to un- 
conduire 2 engage 3 * le I d 

dertake that journey. Can you act so towards him, he who ever 

2 
was your beRt friend 1 
ind-3 1 






THINGS MASCULINE OR FEMININE* 

221. It is almost useless to repeat that inanimate things in 
French are either masculine or feminine, and consequently 
that the pronouns il, elle, its, elles^ are used accordingly 
in speaking of such. 

Thus speaking of a rose, irose f. we say 

Ky\MPLR&.- 

elle est belle il is beautiful 

ne sent-elle pas bon 1 does it not smell nice ? 

Of a book, livre, m. 

EXAMPLES. 

it is well writt^i 
has it amused you ? 



il est bien ecrit 
vous a-t-il amuse 1 



EXCRCISEJ. 

(Look at) that magnificnnt building; it unites grace to 
JRcgarder —fique baliment m. reunir art. grace f. art. 

beauty, and elegance to simplicity. Ignorance is jealouay 
= f. an — f. art. = f — f 

presumptuous, and vain: it sees difficulties in nothing, (is 
presomptucux — ?ie de = f pi. d rien nc 

surprised) at nothing, and stops at nothing. Let us gather 
s'eionner de ncs'arreter d cueillir 

these roses ; what a sweet fragrance they exhale ! Never judge 

— isr 



OF THE PRONOUNS. 



257 



not so rirh 
calh ? I do 

to the 

evarU 

ing I Yottr 

ley and he 

him to un- 
le I a, 

he who ever 

2 



I 



te things in 
nsequently 
ccordingly 



race to 
rmce f. art. 

! is jealou<>^ 

lOthing, (is 

lien nc 

i us gather 
cueillir 

^ever judge 



from appearances; they are often deceitful: th« wise man ^ex. 
8fu,x art. f. ^ 

amines thera, and does not decide upon; theiT^^ till h^ htmS. 

♦ se decider d/apres f. quelorsqiie ',"1 

had time to fix his judgment, n» 
art. m, de fixer 

A0SSI, ENCORE, PEUT-ETft% ETC. POLLOWeX) BT THEMr. 
INTERROGATIVE FORM; 

222. Although placing the personal proriotin subjecfyBM^:^ 
the verb, is the sign of a question, there are some cases itt^' 
which custom reqaires or admits, that the pronoun shVnild 
be so placed, though no interrogation is meant; 

'ist>i After mism^dM on that account, and for this reasotf/"- 
peut-etre, may be, perchance ; encore, and yet, besideiS^,^ 
v»rifh all that ; toujours, still ; en vain,m v&it\,du moins, 
au moins, at least. 

2nd. In narrations, as in English, said I,^ c^iWe: replied- 
I, repondis-jei' .•'^' " 

3rd. In the imperative mood of /?0Mt>OTV,(/e2>d>in 



EXAMPLES. 



puissg-jele voir ! 
dusse-je mourir 



ok that I may see him. 
wne I to die 



OP PRONO JNS BEING DIRECT AND INDIRECT REGIMEN. 

223. It has been shown (No. 170), in speaking of the 
government of the substantive, that the use of the proper 
prepositicn before the noun, or the using no preposition 
at all, entirely depends upon the knowledge of the regi- 
men of the verb ; and it has also been shown, by com^- 
parison, that the two languages are far from agreeing in' 
that respect, because the French equivalent of an active 
English verb, maybe neuter, and vice vers^ ; o6e2>, for. 
instance, requires a, obeir d la hi, whereas in English to 
obey, is active, to obey the law. Now, if instead of a noun^^^ 
a pronoun is use d, as the object of a verb, it must necessa^; 
sarily be put in the same ca^e as the noun itself would • 
pams must therefore he tiken to ascertain whether the 
governing verb requires a direct or an indirect case. I re- 
sist him. for example, mUst not be rendered by je le 
resiste, but byje lui remte, because to resist a man, is, in, 

Ces at besom, but^'at besoin d'eujc, btcauee to want apersok, 



25a 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 




ia avoir besoin d'une personne. Again, the English make 
no difference between the direct and indirect case j him, 
he\ hem, serve for both ; not so in French, him is rendered 
by ce or lui, not indifferently, but according to circumstance. 
Thus we say, / see him,je le vois, and / send him a book, 
je lui cnvoie un livre, because him being the case direct or 
accusative of I see j so is h jfje vois j but him is the in- 
direct case or dadve of / send, and book the direct case, 
consequently lui must be used in French, to show, that 
difference. 

Having endeavoured to point out the different manner of 
using personal pronouns in French and in English, .,ve will 
now give rules -^s to the place they are to occupy in 
French, as direct and indirect cases of the verb. 

In order to give every assistance to the learner, the pro- 
per preposition will be placed after the infinitive, in the 
exercises, 

224*. The pronouns me, te, se, lui, leur, le, la, les, nous, 
vous, y and en, are generally placed before verbs. 



EXAMPLES. 



f I me (lit 
Je le vois 
Je les ecoute 



He tdls me 

J see him 

I liskn to them 



Je lui parle I speak to him 
J'y songorai I will think of it 
J'en suis ravi / a:n delighted at it 



patience, and you will disarm even envy itself. 

"* . >' -. desarmcr * art. 



EXERCISE. 

(As soon as) he had explained to m the maxims of Socrates, 

Desque expliquer ind-5 * Socrat€ 

he said: you see that it is not without reason he (is looked 

"^d-3 ce qiieon regarde 

upon) as truly wise. He was continually saying to mc, yet a little 

unvrai ind-2 * 

You hav^ 
etref 

no dcubt (some ground) for reproaching hm with faults ; but h 
sans dmte Jonde a reprocher inf-l d^s m pi. 

there (any man) on earth that is exempt (Jrom them)? T^ 
guelqw'un art. qui subj-1 en pmsa- 

please fi^, you must never flatter her. To abandon one^ s^lf U. 
lui faUoir jiatt^ 

metaphysical abstractions, is to plunge into an unfathomable 
ttes metaphystqtie^ — 1 c^j * se jeter sans fond 2 

a^yss. 






i 



- /. •nciigife^-^i^'j- -"ijS 



OF THS PRONOUNS. 



269 



make 
; him. 



nouss 






225, The pronouns moi^ ioi, soi, nous, vous, lui, etix, 
elle, and elles, are j-laced after verbs, when they are pre- 
ceded by a preposition. 



cela depend de moi 
je pense a toi 
on s'occupe trop fie soi 
que dites-vouH d'cux 1 



EXAMPLES- 

t/iat depends on me 

I think of thee 

we think too much about ourselves 

what do you say of them. 

EXERCISE. 



My father loved me so tenderly, that he thought of none but 
ind-2 ne penser md-'a a. * que 

me, (was wholl> taken up) with me, and saw none but me, in the 
m s'ocmper ind-2 que de voir ind-2 ♦ q%te a 

universe. If you wish to obtain that favour, you must speak to hiin 

de * falloir ' 

himself. It depended on you to excel your rival? but you 

ind-2 de de Vemportei sur 



would not. 
voJtloir ind-4 



Philip, father of Alexander being advised 
Philippe 2 comme on conseil- 

to expel from his dominions a man, who (had been speaking) 
lait a de chasser etat m. pi. ^;ijr/e/- ind-6 

ill of him ; I shall take care not to do that, said he, he would go and 

segardcrbien * * * en ind-Z oiler * 

' slander me everywhere. 
medire de 

225*In imperative phrases, when affirmative, 'moi, toi, 
nous, vous, lui, leur, eux, elle, elles, le, h , us, y and en, 
are placed after the verb ; but, when negative, me, te, se, 
nous, vous, lui, leur, le. la, les, y, and en, are placed before 
it. 



EXAMPLES. 



9'1 



ne me dites pas 
ne 5 ^en donii 

Doint 
n'y songez; pas 



dites-moi tell me 

donnez-m'm give me }mlf 

la moitie of it 

songez-y se- think of it se- 

rieuseoient riously 

Remark. If the pror /ms me, te, mot, 
betwixt an imperative and an inf r.itixe, me, .. 
when the impeiative is without a regimen direct. 

EXAMPLE'?, 
vcnez nie purler, /,,„<. r n,d speak to me 

^oam< get thy ka'*^ drc^:'i . 



■ io not tell vie 
do not give tne 

any 
do iwt thinJc 
of it 

toi, intervene 
te, are used 



va to laire coiiier 




260^ 



SYKTAX AND WIOMH. 



^^Biit «d*Vf<)*', are used if the imperative haVe a 



regittien 



. laissez-nioi fairc 
fais-toi coiffer 



m 



EXAMPLES. 

let me do it 

get thy hair dressed 

r,r^^^Y"*?'^''*' ^""^^^ P^^^^i ^^^ the imperative, be 
followed by the jHonour^, en, they are changed \Jome%e 

EXAMPLES, 
donnez-m'^n give me some \ retourne-t'cn go back 

t>i5?!;-^^^" ^^T ^'*^. *^^ imperatives joined together by 
the conjunctions ef, ow, it is more elegant to repeat the pro- 
noun before the second verb. ^ ^ 

EXAMPLES, 
roWfcsanscessectferepolis- pdcsh and re-polisk it continually 
gardez-Ies, o^c les re/tiwyc^ ^.,,^ ^;^„, ^ ^^ ^^,,^ ^^^ 

EXERCISE. 

li'r i' ''^' ^^ ""' '^'^^'"" ^^' ^J^hout a hearing. Com- 
_, • ^, . , * m^entem're se 

notgivr^y. Thiu. ,/^i(). Do not think »/ a. Repe.t to ««, 
continnally, that, without honesty, „„. can never oeeeed in the 
World. Do not repeat to them continually the^^e things. Ac- 

... ., -^ «*t marcher 

that spider and kill it, 

araignee f. ecraser 

228. When several pronouns accompany a verb, me if 
se noupyous, must precede the others :£, /a,S, co^e 
before Im, leur; y comes befoi^ e., and .n b a^w^ys' the 

EXAW;PLES. 

""rt^arde^rrirsfvor « '^z^f '"'■■ ' f« '•^■" 

^.refue..,jcsaurai*»'rpr , 1nl:!Zn^ZTZhtr.rt^ 



OF THE PRONOUNS. 



261 



regimen 



ative, be 
Tne. ie. 



gether by 
t the pro- 



o7Uinunllj/ 

Corn- 
re se 

not corU' 

sonie. tjii^ 

at to them 

fed iftMthff* 
ngs. Ac- 

ead upon 

her 



Sf come 

ays the 



ill return 
you refuse 

-— tcr,- ?t'.- 



adrez-vou8 la force do h leur wiU ymo have resolution eiumeh to 

., tlwe ^ tell it thevi 7 

il n a pas voulu vans y mcner he would not take you there 

je vous y en po.terai / wiU bring yau iome there 

Exception. In an imperative sentence, when affirma- 
tive, le, la, lesi are always placed first, as, donnez-le-moi, 
give it me, offrez-la-lui, offer it to him j condmsez-lea-yi 
conduct them thither ; and rnoi is placed after y, as menez- 
y-moi, carry me thither: but nous must precede y, as, 
mene^i'^ncus-y carry us thither. 

EXERCISE. 
You wish to make a present to your sister. (There is) a beati-^ 

votdoir * Y,nld 

tiful ^ fan you should present her with it. f How many) 

eventail m. devoir cond-1 offrir lui * " qvd de 

people are there without merit and without occupation, who (would 
gens * * ne tenvr 

be mere nothings) in society, did not gaming introduce 
a rien cond-1 art. si art. jeu m. introduire ind-S 

^hem (into it). I shall speak to them (about il) and give you a 
y en jerendre ind-7 

faithful account of it. It is certain that old Geronte has re- 
exact 2 compte m. 1 art. 

fused his daughter to Valere ; but because he does not give her to 

him, it does not Ibllov/. That he will give her to you. 
s^en suivre 

229. Remark. The word m&me is sometimes added to 
the pronouns, moi, toi, soi, nous, vous, eux, lui, elle, elles, to 
assist in specifying more particularly the person or thing 
spoken of. 

EXAMPLES, 
ils ae sent perdus eux memcs they have ruined themselves 

le monde estime bien des choses the world prizes many things 

qui, en elles-memps, sont fort which, in themselves, ere worth- 

meprisableb less 

PROPER PERSONAL 



DIRECTIONS ON THE USE OP THE 

PRONOUNS. 

230. The direct regimen me, te, le, la, nous, vous, les, 
m. f. are used when the verb is active, i.e, when it requires 
no preposition before the noun which it governs, such as 
donner un livre, 

EXAMPLES, 
je le donne I give it 

vous le donnerez you will give il 



nc tc uQnn6z uss 



so 7U/5 CtOC li 



262 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



tdlM 




ur une personne. 



EXAMPLES* 



donne we lave him 

aimez-Ia love her 

es aime pas he does not like them 
aimez-mqj 



J« 



il 



love me 
INDIRECT, {dative.) 
231. The indirect me, te, lui, m. f. nous, vous, leur, m. f. 
are used when the preposition a must be placed before the 
noun they represent. 

T'i^yi^f donner une chose a une person?ie, 

EXAMPLES. 



nous lui donnerons un gateau 
lui avez-vous envoye la lettre 1 
nc me donnez pas de \in 



ws will give her a cake 
have yoit sent him the letter ? 
^ ^ *i<f not give me any icine 

X moi, a toi, a lui, d elle, a nous, a vous, d eux, serve also 
to express the dative j bat in four cases only. 

1st. After ^e/i5er, aller^ courir, venir, boire, en avoir. 



' EXAMPLES. 

nous penserons a lui 
ils coururent a, ello 
en avez-vous a moi 1 

2nd. After reflected verbs. 

adresscz-vous a lui 
3rd. After c'esf. 



roe will think of him 
they ran to her 
are you speaking to me 7 



apply to him 



c'est a moi a y aller 

est-ce a vous aparler ainsi ? 



EXiMPLES. 



it is my turn to go 

is it for you to speak to me in this 

A -iirL 1 riianner ? 

*. When (here are two datives 



je Tenvcrrai a vous et a die 
il parlait a mon fthxe et a moi 



EXAMPLES. 



/ wiU scud it to you and her 
he roas speaking to my brother 
and me 



\,r?^l* ^'/"sed in speaking of things in all cases, and is 
Ofbothgenders and numbers.* Thus, of a Z^//re f. we say. 
mettez-y I'adresse 

j'y ajouterai un mot 



puv the direction to it 
I will add a word to it 



* There are one or two exceptions mentioned in the foliowing pages. 



OP THE PRONOUNS. 

Of a project, prcyjet m. 



263 



EXAMPLES. 

vous n'y rgflSchisspz pas assez 
pensez-y un ppu plus 

Of threats, menaces, f. pi. 



you do nolsujidentli/ think upon it 7 
comider it a little more 



EXAMPLE. 

je n'y fais aucune attention / do not mi7»4 thevi 

EXERCISE. 

1. He has been speaking to them with such energy, as has asto- 
nished them, 

2. Women ought to be very circumspect ; for a mere appearance is 
sometimes more prejudicial to them, than a real fault. 

3. He conies up to me with a smiling air, and pressing my hand 
says : My fnend, I expect you to-morrow at my house. ' 

4. He said to vie : Wilt thou ever torment thyself for advantages 
the enjoyment 2 of which 1 could not render tltce more happy i Cast 
thy eyes round thee : see how every thing smiles on thee, and seems to 
invite thee to prefer a retired and tranquil life to the tumultuous plea- 
sures of a vain 2 world 1. ^ 

5. The ambitious man * agitates, torments, and wastes himself to ob- 
tain the places oi the honours to which he aspires : and when ho has 
obtained them, he is still dissatisfied. 

6. I have known him since his childhood, and I always loved him 
on account of the goodness of his temper. 

7. That woman is always engaged m doing good works : you see 
her constantly consoling the unhappy, relieving the poor, reconciling 
enemies, and promoting the happiness of every one around her. 

8. The more you live with men, the more you will be convinced 
that It IS necessary to know them well before you * form a connec- 
tion with them, 

9. Enjoy the pleasures of the world, I consent to it ; but never sivc 
yourself up ^0 jfAew, ° 

n.) Such energy as, %ne force qui. 

(2.) Mere, simple ; to be more prejudicial, faireplmdetort. 

(3.) Comes up with, aborder de ; pressing, smw; my hand, la 
vim.n ,' says, il mc dit ; at my house, cJiez moi. 

(4.) Incessantly, sans cesse; advantages, des Hens i could, savoir 
cond-1 ; cuat, porter ; thy, art; smiles, sourire a. ' 

(5.^ Destroys, consumer ; to, pour. 

(G.) Have known, conriaUre, ind-1; loved, ind-4; on account 
cansj ; the goodness of his, (Am good) ; temper, ccraclere, m. 

(/.) In, a; works, eeiwres, f. pi. ; constantly, sans cesse; consoling, 
etc. inf- 1 relieving, rt!55«fer/ promoting, /aire ; everyone around hef. 
tout ce qui Veiivironne. 

(8.) Live, ind-7 ; be convinced, se convaincre, ind-7; before, avant 
de ; form a connection, vous tier. 

r9.^ Eniov. -Miiir 



- - ; '^~ ' " J" "***« »■ 



'tri 



.- m^:.. 



264» 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



233. The regimen indirect de moi, de tai, de lui,d^elle, de 
nous, ,de vous, d'eux, d'elles, (the genitive and ablative 
cases) are used when the proposition de comes before rhe 
noun they represent. Thus, 

Parler d^une personne, d^un homme, 

EXAMPLES, 
nous ne parlons pas de lui we do iu)t speak of him 

Dapendre de son per e, 

EXAMPLES. 

Je depends de lui / am dependant on him 

lis n'ont pas le droit de me parler they have no right to speak to me 

ainsi, puisque je ne depends pas in this manner, I am not their 

^'gux. dependant, 

234. En is used in speaking of things, and is of both 
genders and numbers ; vla s'abstenir de vin. 

** EXAMPLES. 

le vin m'est contraire, je m'en wme is bad for me I will abstain 

abstiendrai from it 

vous devriez vous en absten?r you shmild abstain from it 

EXERCISE. 

1. He was suddenly taken ill of the cholera and died of it. 

2. He is so absurd that every one laughs at him. 

3. What reason has he to complain of me, what harm have I done 
him 1 

4. His fortune is very large, it is true, but he does not know how ♦ 
to enjoy it. 

5. Those are tilings which make a deep impression on the mind I 
will remember them as long as I live. ' 

G. Your things are exactly as they were when you left, no one has 
used them . 

7. If you meet my brother, have the goodness to tell him that I shall 
want him at 5 o'clock precisely. 

8. She must not be uneasy ; wo will think about her, but she must 
have patience. 

(1.) Avoir une oMaqiie soudaine de, ind-4 ; mourir de, ind-4. 

rS.^ Ridicule, se moquer de. 

(3.) Se plaindre ie ; harm, maX. 

(4 ) It is true, feii conviens ; to enjoy, jonir de. 

(5.) Those are things, ce sont de ces choses ; to remember, se souvenir 
de; to live, vivre, ind-7. 

(6.) Things, affaires; as they were, dans Vetai ou elks itaient; to 
leave, parlir, ind-4 ; to use, se servir de, ind-4, 

(7.) To tell, de dire ; to want, avoir besoin de, 

(8.) To be uneasy, «'i»t(7j«e/er ; to think about. sWcwpcr </<? ; tohav« 
patience, patienter. 



-■«%■ 



OP THE PRONOUNS. 



265 



d^elle, de 

ablative 

jfore *be 



eak to me 
n not their 

of both 



ill abstain 



ve I done 
ow how * 
e mind, I 
one has 
lat I shall 
she must 



e souvenir 
taient; to 

c : to havA 



/ 



PARTICULAR USBJ OP y AND eU, 

235. These two pronouns are very frequently used in 
FreAch, m cases when they have no equivalent in English 
or at least when it is almost ever understood ; they may be 
then considered as relative personal pronouns. 

ENi 

En stands for some of them, some of it, any of t/iem, one. 
any, and refers to a noun antecedently named. 

EXAMPLES^ 

siyousn'avezjpasdemanteaia, if you have no doalc, / wiU lend 

je V0U8 en preterai un you one 

avez-vousuncanifJouiJ'mai have you got a pen-knife? yes I 

un have ' ' 

(ies oranges sont fort bonnes, theie oranges are very good send 

envoyez-m'en deux douzainoB me tioo dozen ' 

apropos do fleurs, j'en ai de " talking of flowers, I have beautifvZ 

bien belles a vous mohtref ones to show you 

Y. 

1^36. Y has generally been called an adverb because it 
may commonly be rendered by these, here, always under- 
stood ; but it is frequently used for in it, into it, when it 
relates to things as well as to places. 

EXAMPLES. 

cette affaire est fort obscure, je this is a very ob smre affair lean 
n'y confois lien make nothing of it 

cela ne m'interesse nuUeraent, this does not at all arncern me J 

je n'y suis pour rien have nothing to do with it ' 

si vous allez au spectacle, je serai if you go to the play^ J shall be 
bien aise d'y aller avec vous glad to go toith you 

Y is used in speaking of persons with the verb se fier, 
and Wii\\ penser in reference to a dead person. 

EXAMPLES. 

c'est un honnete" homme, vous he is honest mail, you may trust 

pouvez vous y fier to him 

il est mort, on n'y pense plus he is dead, no one thinks of him any 

more 

EXERCISE. 

1 . Do you want a pen ^ here is a very good one. 

2. He was in the garden then, bvit I do not think he is now. 

3. Since you like game, I will send you a basket. 

4. As to their father, although he has not been dead six months, 
they think no more of him. 




266 



SYNTAX AND IDIOM! 



5. I never could play chcsa ; I cannot imagine, what pi 



find in it 



e.-xHure you 



}■) To want, faUtrir a ; here is, void. 
2.) Etre, ind-2 ; he is, ttre, sulij-l. 



fS.) Game, gibier 



m. 



,4.1 Although, etc., qi' , ni'il y ait six mm qu'ilcst mart. 
D.) Oould, pouvoir, ina ; I cannot, > we saurais. 

USE OF Ce INSTEAD OP l7, c//e, ils, ellcs, IN DESCRIPTIVK 
AND EXPLANATORY SENTENCES. 

237. When we speak in reference to an object already 
named, tl, elle, Us, elks, are used according to its gend* r 
and number ; but when we define objects, when we express 
what they are, ce must be used, as well of persons as of 
thmgs, thus : 

what is that large building ^ is it a 

church ? 
no, it is the town-hall 
do you know who that gentlemen. 

is? 
yes, he is a German 
'every one admires Cicero and De- 
mosthenes, they are the greatest 
orators of antiquity 



qu'est-ce que c'cst que ce grand 

batiment, est-co une eglise 7 
non, c'est la maison commune 
savez-voua qui est ce monsieur 1 

oui, c'est un Aliemand 

chacun admire Ciceron et De- 
mosthenes ; ce sont les plus 
grands orateurs de Tantiquitfi 



EXERCISE. 
■pecieTS-'me^n^^^"*'^^ degenerated blacks, but they are not a distinct 
dren' ^'" not trouble myself about them, they are ungrateful chil- 

3. What flowers are those 7 they are tulips just come from Holland • 
•theycost me ten guineas each. "oimmi , 

4. I du not know him, but they tell me he is a clever architect. 
JmyS:JZ\^'^'^'^'^'^''''' ''''^ snuff-box which belonged 

6. She is certainly the prettiest girl in the room. 



( I .) Distinct parliculiere. 



V ^ "^o trouble one'a self ahont, s'occupa- de. 

\6.) What, etc., comment nommez-vous ces fi'nm-ld 7 just fraxche- 

^4.^ They tell me, on me dit que. 

* ?c'< ^'^^^^f^' remarque ; to belong, oppartenir, ind-3. 
(b.) Certamly, bien cerlainement. 

CASES WHERE THE PR0N0UN3,M, «t.r, clU^ elltS 
MAY APPLY TO THINGS. 

238. The personal pronouns /m', c//e, eux^ elles, after 
some prepositions, apply to persons only. Thus in speaking 
of a woman, we must say : je m'approckm d'elle, Je m'assis 



0^0^Sllkmtm^-jii>t^,.iiSh -.^ftthb- 



*li 



w^mm^m 



OF THB PUONOUWS. 



J67 



JRIPTIVe 



pres Welle ; bi 



^^«- N EXAMPLE. 

""^S/'ri^'^ f «' " ;^H« quand ikai river is so rapid when it aver- 



elle deborde, qu'elle entraino 
avec elle tout co qu'eUe ren- 
contre; elle ne laisse apres 
file que du «ablc ct des coil- 
loux 

Of ail enemy's army. 



~ . •"if-"' ""•»"> u> vver- 
jwws, l^at %i carries avoay every 
tiling it meets with in its course 
It leaves nothing behind but sand 
and pebblef. 



EXAMPLE. 

nous marchames a elle «,, ^^^cAed up to tJiem 

etc? as?'"^'' '^''"''"'' *'^'^^' '''""^^ ^"^ ^'^'^^ personifiod, 



these things are good in themselves 

I love truth to that degree, thai I 
would sacHfice every thing for it 
those reasons arc solid in themselvc 



1* 

CC8 choses sont bonnes d'elles- 

m ernes 
j'aimele verit6 au point que ie 

sacnfierais tout pour elle 
ces raisons sont solides en elles- 

inemes 

oan!^^„^!^ "'^ ™'> ^*"' *«y »■« applied only to per- 

MwZ,Z7,^ '"'** "'■"'f P™"""" "^' "hich is also 
generally applied to persons only, yet custom allows us to 

ment iPnpanrTJ "^ ^^^' ^% alone are my diver- 

ment, je ne songe qu a eux sivn, I thAk of nothing eUe 

are somiin.? T ^'^ f -""'^"y «PP^^«^ ^o persons, but 
aie sometimes used in speaking of animals, plants, and even 
inanimate objects with donner, rendre, etre redevable, devoir, 
cic, as r ' 

rpq nrin««vc , f ' • . then a htOe vnne 

ear a pas Jonne asscz de have not suffident LunaiiJr 



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26S 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



KXERCI8E. 

.xLTira;;'i„"«!,':° *"' "^ "'-^iPi i- ">..» i« ion. w. .„ ^ 

give„|: j^p.'lr^SS"^^^ M.H., ana U,e, h.d 

health ? ^ "^^ "" 'oJebted tottm for the recovery of their 

4. War bring, in its train nnmberlees evih. 

quUe ♦ new.^'^ "'^ '^^"'^^ ^^P'^'^^^'^' -°<i ^^-e given U an appearance 
JJhose trees are too much loaded : strip tk^n of part of their 

know7e5le.^'' ^ "^ ** S''^^* ^^^^ but I am indebted /. it for my 

. ^^^IcS^S^tL^-^ r^^ t,S* '^^'^ ^ - 

cisLn ''^"" '°""^°"^^ ™«' '^"d ^ *^ I formed my de. 

12. I leave you the care of that bird, do not fergetto give it water. 

iiA^^Y^^^' ^'^' ^''t devoir. 

)i{ Had been built, ««. MfeV, ind-6 : prospect vue 

ae|^ |r^ =r Vl-;- |S£ii-- ^ -^. ^ ■• - in- 

?7 \ S^r^" fc" ' ■^""■'i '"''■^ i appearance, mV. 
>a < ? P' "^ " ; of part, wne ^rffc. 

,o< w^'/*? ■ ''• f?^ '■ -'"'o"l«lge, i>M<n«<i«.. 

dig.^^^.t'^ f'it'Sli^UViotit'";^:,':-';-'''^" "''''''>•■ 

U!^.''"' "* "*"" '• =" ''"»«• ^- <.^ "•"«* *^« « «. cu.) habit, 
de^ieiol.tl^;/"' ^ «>« '^^ f*"*) -• "y, aapes , formed my 

DIFFICULTY BE8PECTING THE SUPPLYING PRONOUN 

le KXPLAINED. 

241. Le is used in Freich to supply the nlar.. nf «„ 
antecedeiit phrase, of a suostami™ TL adfectlve In 
such case, its equivalent in English is .» or ,7, wSis al- 
most ever understood. ■ 

EXAMPLBS. 



Of Till; PRONOUNS. 



269 



V€t are to 

I they had 

reathes on 
ry of their 

\4f ioves- 
ppearance 
t of their 
it for my 
guide ,' to 
yet made 
I my de- 
t water. 

; are in- 

•tm de. 
ippvofim- 

lU, etc.) ; 
c.) habit, 
rmed my 

OUN 

5 of an 
re. In 
h is al- 



'■ dafli,frr 
•) aho 



Us ne sont pas aussi riches que t^y are not so rich as we are (it 

nous le sommes j g „'^^\ ""^ ^"' 

je le ferai, si je k puis / ijoM do U, if I can {do U) 

Le, thus used, is declined in some cases, and not in 
others. 

When le supplies the place of a substantive, it th.en as- 
sumes the gender and number of that substantive, as: 
Madame, etes-vous la mere de cet enfant U- Qui, je la 
sutsj Madam, are you the mother of tnat child I—Yes, I 
am. Mesdamesy etes-vous les parentes dont Monsieur m'a 
parte / — Outj nous les sommes. 

EX£RCIS£. 

1. The Jaws of nature and decencv oblige us equally to defend the 

Tw'fofiT ir ^r''' ^J^«^ ^^^^ dol wShouriijSstLe 

3. Is that your idea ?— Can you doubt that it is ? 

4. Are you Mrs. Such-a-one 1— Yes, 1 am. 

5. Are those your servants ?--Yes, they are. 

7 r^'f >,^« you glad to have seen the new piece l-Yes, wo are. 
„ J;« ' ^ ^""^ ' ^' ^°''" '*^ command ! alas ! it is but too trie that I 

8. She was jealous of her authority, and she must be so. 

ric^culetTanrLT ' ^''^ "^''^ ""^'^P^' '^^ ''''''^ '''''^ "^^ 

to y^ou^?"" ^^''^ ^''''"'' ™'' ^'"'^^'' • '''^y ^"""^ ^ ^''^^^ '" ^^PF^f « 

} V & j^ ^® ®^®'' '^^^'^ ^° q"Jet a"} we are 1 
io JJ^"'^^' ^'■e you married 1— Yes, I am. 
13. Madam, are you the bride ?— Yes, I am. 

(1.) Decency, bienseaiice. 

(2.) We ought, /aZfoir /condemned, le. 

{3) Idea, pcnsee ; that it is, ce etre, subj-l. 

(4. ) Mrs. mr >ame ; such-a-onc, un tel. 

(5.) Those, Id. : they, ce. 

{Q) Ladies, mesdamcs. 

(7.) Slave, esclaoe ; but, ne que. 



(8.) Must, devoir, ind-2. 



With more ridicule, plus ridiciUement. 
242. When le supplies an antecedent, adjective or a verb. 



it is undechned. 



EXAMPLES. 



je le ferai si >e le puis (le faire) IwiUdottifl can. 
Madame, fites-vous enrhum6e ?—Oui, }e le suis 



de ce discours 7— Oui, nous le 



Mesdames, etes-vous contentes 
sommes. 

Fut-il jamais uae femme plus nalheureuse que jc 'c suis ? 



I « 



mmimmm^^ifmmmmmmmimmm 



270 



SYNTAX ANI> IDIOMS 



i 



Remark, theleis also undeclined, when substantive* 
are used adjectively, as : 

Madame, ^tes-vous mere 7 -Oui, je le suis. 
Mesdames, 6tea-vous parentes ?— Oni, nous le sommes. 
Mle est faUe, et le sera toute la vie. 

But it is declined if the adjectives be used substantively, 
as * 

Madame, ctos-vous la malade?— Oui.^o la suis. 

Therefore this quest.^n : Hes-vous file de M, le due ! is 
to be answered, oui,je le suis ; but this, etes-vovs la Jille de 
M, le due 1 it is to be by Oui^je la suis, 

REPETITION OP TFE FEB80NAL PRONOUNS. 

24.3. Pronouns in the first and second persons, when the 
subject, must be repeated before every verb, if each of them 
is in different tenses. It is always even preferable to repeat 
them, when the verbs are in the same tense. 

EXAMPLE.S 
je Koutiens fct je soutiendrai tou- / maintain^ aiul (I) will always 

iHaintmn 
you say, and (ycii) have alwats 

said '' 

overwhelmed toilh sorroj/:, I ex- 
claimed and (/) said 
nous nous promenions sur lo haut we weie walMnf upon the mmviU 
du rocher, et nous voyions sous of the rock, and we saw under 
nos pieds, etc. our feet, etc. 

In all cases, these pronouns must be repeated, though the 
tenses of the verbs be the same, if the first is followed by a 
regimen, or accusative. 

EXAMPLE, 
vous aimercz le seigneuf votre you shall love tJie Lord your God 
Dieu, et vous observerez sa and {you shall) cbseivc'his law. ' 
loi 

244. The pronouns of the third person, when the subject, 
are hardly ever repeated before verbs, except those verbs be 
in different tenses. 



\1 



jours 
▼ou3 dites, et vous avez tou fours 

dit ^ 

aecaUe de douleur, je m'ecriai, 

et je dis 



la bonne grace nc gate rien ; 
elle ajoute a la beaute, releve 
la modestie, et y donne du 
lustre 

n'a jamais rien valu, et 
vaudra jamais rien 
est arrive ce matin, et il 
pariira ce soir 



EXAMPLES. 



ne 



re- 



'b ' 



a graceful manner spoils nothin^^ 
it adds to beauty, heightens 
modesty, and gives it lustre 

he never was good for any thing, 
and never will be 

he is arrived this morning, and 
(he) will set off again this 
evening 



OF THE I'KOIWUNS, 



271 



KXERCISK. 

u f'.,^y/^®" '^^H^' ^ 1°^'^ >«". »•'<' ^ »*hall Dover cease lo love you : 
but It 18 that very love that 1 liave lor you which obh<rrs ,ne to correct 
you for your faults, nnd to punish you when you dpsji ve it. 

2. / heard and adui.red these words, which conxforted me a little 
but my mmd was not Bulficiently Iree to maJic him a reply. 

6. Thou art young, and tlwu aunest, no doubt, at tae elory of sur- 
passmg thy comradrs. 

4. (iod has said : ymi shall love your enemies, bless those that curse 
you, do good to those that persecute you, and pray for those who slan- 
der you. What a difference between these morals and those of philo- 
sophers ! » 

(1.) Correct for, reprendre de. 
rSi'l^J^'i et<«</6r ind-2; words, discmirs, sing.; my mind., etc. 
(i had not th£ nand, ek.) ; sufficiently free, assez iii^re ; to make a 
reply, repondre a. 

(3.) Aimestat, aspirer d; surpassing, Vempmier, etc. 

(4.) Sl&adet, culomnier ; between, ae ; monxls, viorale,r.: and that 
aceUe, ' ' * 

However, perspicuity requires the repetition of the pro- 
noun, when the second verb is preceded by a long inciden- 
tal phrase, as : il fond sur son ennemi, et, apres Vavair 
saisi d^une main vidorieuse^ il le renverse, ccmme le cruel 
aquilon abat les tendres moissons qui dorent la campafrne^ 

EXERCISE. 

1. He took the strongest cities, conquered the most considerable 
provinces, and overturned the most powerful empires. 

2. Retakes a hatchet, completely cuts down the mast which waa 
already broken, throws it into the sea, jumps upon it amidst the furious 
billow&, calls me by my name, and encourages me to follow him 

4. He marshals the soldiers, marches at their head, advances in good 
order towards the enemy, attacks and routs them, and after havinff 
entirely routed them, (he) cuts them to pieces, 

(1.) Overturned, renverser. 

(2.) Completely cuts down, achever dx: couper ; jumps upon it s'clan- 
cer dessus s billows, 07uie. j r r * 

(3.) M^rsh&ls, ranger en l^titaille ; routs, renvaser ; entirely routed 
achever de mettre en desordre ; cuts, taillcr 

24-5. A personal pronoun, when the subject, must be re- 
peated before verbs, when passing from an affirmation to a 
negation, and vice versa, or when tlie verbs are joined by a 
conjunction, except et and ni, ' 

EXAMPLES. 



il veut, ct il ne veut pas 

il donne d'excellents principes, 
parce qu'il sait que les progrus 
ultcrieurs en dependent 



he unll and he will not 

he lays down excellent principle, 
because he hnmcs that upon them 
depends all further progress 



I 






SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



is 

11 



il donnc ct revolt 

il ne donne ni ne revolt 



kc gives and rcadvcs 

he neither gives nor receives. 



Pronouns, when the regimen, or the object are repeated 
before any verb. 



I'ideo (Ic ses malhcurs Ic pour 
suit, le tourmcnte et I'acuable 



il nous cnnuio ct nous ob^cde 
sans cessc. 



Ow. idea of kls misfortunes pursues 
{him) , torments (him), and over- 
v:lu:tins him 

ha toearics (tis) and besets us J*?i- 

ccasingly. 

Exception. They are not repeated before such ccxtn- 
pound verbs as express the repetition of the same action, 
,and when the verbs are in the same tense, as : 

Je vous le dis it redis, il le fait ct refait sans ccssc. 

EXERCISE, 

1. It is inconceivable uow whimsical she is; from one moment to 
another she will and she will not. 

2. The Jews are forbidden to work on tlio sabbath ; they are as it * 
were * locked in slumber ; they light no fire, and carry no water. 

3 For nearly a week she has neither eaten nor drunk. 
4. The soldier was not repressed by authority, but stopped from sa- 
tiety and sliame. 

(1.) (^She is of a tohimsical cast inconceivable) whimsical cast bi- 
zarrerie f. 

(•2.) {It is forbidden to), forbidden, defendre ; sabbath, jot^rrfw sabbai; 
locked, enchaine ; slumber, r^^os; Vigiit, allumer. 

(3.) For, depuis ; nearly, pres de, a week, Mat jours ; has eaten 

drunk, ind-1. 

(4.) Repressed, r€;?riww/' ; stopped, 5'an-e^cr, ind-3 ; from,^ar. 

RELATION OF THE PRONOUN OF THE THIRD PERSON TO 
A NOUN EXPRESSED BEFORE, 

246. The pronouns of the third person, il ils, elk, elles, 
le, la, lesj must always relate to a noun, whether subject or 
regimen, taken only in a definite sense, antecedently expres- 
sed ; but they must not be applied to a subject and regimen, 
at the same time, 

EXAMPLES. 

la rose est la rcine des fleurs, the rose is the queen of flowers ; 

aussi est-elk remblcrne de la therefore it is the emblem of beauty 

beaute 

j'aime V ananas; il est exquis I like the pine-apple; it is ddicunts 

EXERCISE. 

1 . It is taste Jhat selects the expressions, that combines, arranges 
and varies thc/n, so aa to produce the greatest effect. ' 



OF THE PRONOUNS. 



273 



2. H<»acc answered his stupid critics not so much to instruct <A^w, 
as to shew their ignorance, and let them see that they did not even 
know what poetry was. 

3. M. 1 emboUishes nature itsell: he cultivates, extends, and pol- 
ishes it. ' ' r 

4. The Messiah is expected by the Hebrews ; he comes and calk the 
Gentiles, as had been announced by the prophecies ; the people that 
acknowledges him as come, is incorporated with the people that expect- 
ed him, without a single moment of interruption. 

(1 .^ So as toj ife vianiere a ce qu^elles, subj- 1. 

(2.) Stupid, sot; not so much, mains; as to, pour; show, (to tliem); 
their, etc. ; let see, /aire entc7uirc ; w&a c'etait que. 

(4.) Gentiles, Gm^iY;. (the prophecies had announced it) ; acknow-r 
ledges, reconiiaitre ; with, a ; without, sans qu'il y ait ; single, seul. 

But the two following sentences would be equivocal : 



Racine a imite Eutipide, en tout 
ce qu't^ a de plus beau dans 
sa Phedre 

le legat publia une sentence 
d'interdit; il dura trois mois 



RUcine has imitated Ektripuks in 

all that he has most beautiful 

in his Phedra 
the legate published a sentence of 

interdiction ; it lasted three 

months 



because, in the first of these two sentences, il may relate, 
either to Racine, or to Euripides ; and, from the construc- 
tion of the second sentence, il, relating to interdit, appears 
also to relate to legat. Again, it is not altogether correct 
to say : 

nuUe paix pour I'impie \ i\ la no peace fm- t/te xoiclied : he seeks, 
cherche, elle fuit if, it flies 

Because, from the construction, the pronouns Id and elh 
seem to relate to nullepaix, whereas their royal antecedent, 
is the substaiitiye paix, but withojiit tlje negative nulle. 

EXERCJSUk 

1. Poetry embraces all sorts of subjects ; it takes in every thing that 
is most brilliant in history ; it enters the fields of philosopny ; it soars 
to the skies ; it plunges into the abyss ; it penetrates to the dead ; it 
makes the universe its domain ; and if this world be not sufficient, it 
creates new ones, which it embellishes with enchanting abodes, which 
it peoples with a thousand various inhabitants. 

3. Egypt aimed at greatness ; and wished to * strike the eye at a 
distance, always pleasing it by the justness of proportion. 

3. Egypt, satisfied with its own territory, where every thing was in 
abundance, thought not of conquests; it extended itself in another 
manner, by sentHng colonies to, every part of the globe, and with them, 
oliteness and laws. 

(1.) Subjects, matiere ; takes in se cJiarger de; that is, i/ avoir de } 
(iu) the fields, soars to, s^elancer dans ; plunges, s^enfoncer ; to chez ; 



-"mmmmiwm 



'^•""mimmimm 



m 



mnp 



^m 



274 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



(i^ domunof the universe): bo sufficient, snffire ; ones, nonde: en- 
chanttne, encAanle ; abodes, d^neiire ; various, divers. 
„,;*•) prcatncss.^mW; wished, ww/^^/r ; eye, pi.; at a distance. rfan5 
I cloiirticment ,- (tn) pleasing, rontenter. 

(3.) Was in abundance, abonder-, thought ol&cneerii; in, dc; by, 
«»; to, par J part of the globe, <me. ' '^ » i ' J/ 

ON THE PRONOUN Sm. 

247. Soi is generally accompanied by a preposition, and 
is used in phrases, where there is an indeterminate pronoun 
either expressed, or understood: ondmt rarement parler de 
sot ; il est essentiel de prendre garde a soi. In this case, it 
is the regimen indirect ; but it may be employed without a 
preposition. 

1 . With the verb etre. as : en cher chant a tromper les 
auires, c'cst souvent soi qu'on trompe or on est sonvent from- 
pe soi-mtme^ m attempting to deceive others, we frequently 
dec^ve ourselves. In this situation it is the subject 

2. After ne que, or by apposition, as : 

n'aimcr que soi, c'cst n'ctre bon to lave only ourselves^ is being 
^ "en [rood for very little. 

penser ainsi, c'est s'avcuglcr to thinlcin this manner, is to blind 
eoi-memc one's-self 

It is, in these examples, the regimen ; but when de 
sai and en soi are used in a definite sense, in speaking 
of things, they mean de sa nature and dans sa nature. 

hXE^ClSE. 

1. To excuse in one's-self the follies which one cannot excuse in 
others, is to prefer being a fool one's-self to seeing others so. 

2. To be too much dissatisfied with ourselves is a weakness ; but to 
be too much satisfied (vnlk ourselves) is (a) fnMy. 

3. We ouglit to despise no one : how often have we needed the 
assistance of one more insignificant than ourselves ? 

4. If we did not attend so raucli to ourselves, there would be lesf 
selfishness in the world. 

5. Vice is odious in itself. 

6. The loadstone attracts iron (to if self) 

(I.) Follies, sottises ; others, autrni ; prefer, aime: mieux ; fool, sot ; 
to seeing, c/?te de voir ; so, tel. 

(3) We ought, falloir, ind-1 ; how often, combien de fois ; we, on ; 
needed the assistance, n' avoir pas besoin ; insignificant, 'jjeUt, 

f 4.) We, 071 ; attend to, s'occui.er di ; selfishness, egoismc. 

(6.) Loadstone, aimant. 



.»*'* 






mmmmmm 



or THE PnONOUNS. 



275 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 

a. the ease ^<v^^r^^i::^::^ ^j::^^::'^;^ 

to le'bio? "'""°" '""^ •""' ^- «»?V««p«.„. only to io 
Cle ..nvoie ,es flot,c, d.„, .„„,es v,f Tel, ,„^., ,. ,„ «, ^^„ 

249. But, sometimes by the conatrii^tlnn „!• .1, u 
ITS may be turned hv nfit \ """^'^'-'lon of the phrase, 

possessive pronoun but bv b^ t™' " !' "'" '^""^^'^'^ ^^ » 

-it has beLrp'l^i'nrj.tJ.Ic'TJTteeTerir' ^' 
speaking again of England, we say ^ ''"''' 



— ""V ". iu c/t luiro 

aimer Zc sejour ; jW, ai///iiVe 
Burtout Z'exacte police, en 
meme temps quo les lois m'nt 
paraissent oxtrcraement sages 

regardez cet arbre, n'en adrai- 
rez-vous pas la fraicheur 1 



„v. 7 ---y ..v^„^ 'M my Lies 10 

make me love I's sojourn ; I par- 
tuularly admire the strictness of 
Aer police, at the same time thai 
tier laws appear to me eztremelv 

ICISC ' 

look at that tree, do you not admire 
Its frerhness ? 

EXERCISE. 

..nd even "I 7eTemoS '^""'"""^ "^ '""« * ™"<'™. i^ 'awi . 

md^ff^ent.''''' "^'^'* °'*'^^^ ^'^^'^ ^"" ^"°"hJ^> y^t //^ fruits are but 
defdiica ^''"' ^'' ''^^ ''''''' •" Burgundy, ,fc mouth is at Havre, 



._,..S#Wto!Bj»r^^, «**?*._._ 



rgpuMwitiillp 



mmmmmmmmmmm 



276 



SYNTAX AND lOlOM* 



I 



W 



rl i 



9. The pyramidB of Egypt aslonUh, both by the enormity of their 
bulk, and the justness of <Aa/-proiK>rtionH. ,*. „K«iJ-ir. 

10 Etfvnt alone cottld erect monuments for posterity . i«i obelwks 
are to this clay, as well for Ikeir beauty as for t/uir height, tliC principal 

ornaments of Rome. 1.4V. 

11 History and geographv throw mutual light on each other: a 
• perfect knowledge of Um' ought to enter into the plan of good 
education. 

(I.) Vhcnomenon, prodige; for Which reason, ausii; a de preserved, 

""(iV Understanding, esirrit ; declines, baisser ; weakens, s'affaUlir. 
h.) Sumrait, haut ; hill, colliyie ; Parian, de Faros. 
f 4 ^ In, qu'il y ait m ; the whole, Vensevi/jle ; oven, mqu d. 
(b.) Ma|nificent, superbe ; channel, lit / below, au-dccsous de ; ho at, 

*^^ f 6*1 ' Jx\a\\y!^avec raism '; soil, s<?Z ; tke terb 6trc 7/n«f be repeated. 
(7 ) Have sun enough, Hrc hien expose ,;but indifferent, as&ezma%wati. 
(8.) Mouth, ertihoudiure ; Havre, k Hdine. 




; erect, 
height, 

^(tlO^Throw mutual light, etc. s'iclfdrer Vwie par Vautfe; of them 
(their.) 

250. Mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs, which, in 
EnMish, are used witu to be, in the sense of to belong, are 
expressed, in French, by a moi, a toi, a lui, a elle, a nous, 
a vous, a eux, a elles^ 

EXAMPLES. 



is this horse yours 7 

1i£ talks as if t/ie world were his 






ce cheval est-ii a vous 1 
on dirait a I'cntendre que le 
monde est a lui. 

251. The forfhs my father"^ s, your uncle's, etc., etc. are 
also rendered a mon pere, d voire oncle. 

EXAMPLE, 
la maison que nous habitons est th£ house we inkdnt is Mr. B's. 
(ou appartient) a Monsieur B. 

EX. vjiSE. 
The carriage is not theirs, it is their uncle's. If this house was mine 
I would sell U, for I do not like its situation. You have no nght to 
give what is not yours. This pretty dog is my sister's, I have promised 
to take care of it i7i her absence. 

No right, le droit de. In, pendant. 

252. Les miens, les tiens, les siens, les nitres, les v6tre$, 
are used to express one's family, relations, clients, etc. 



I 



'■M^ UMi 



■mm 



tit TUB PRONOUNS. 



577 



KXAMPLES. 

il est all6 en Am^rique avec touR A^ AaJ ^<m« /t> America wiLi all 

IcB sienii Ai« family 

toi ct los ticns voua avez tou- you and your loAole race have alwaui 

jours mal i^arle de inoi spoken ill of me 

253. Ji friend of yonrs^ a horse of mine, and such 
phrases, are turned in this manner in French, un de vos 
<imiSy un de mes chevausc^* 

EXAMPLE. 

c'cBt un de sea toUtH this f % trick of his 

25i*. in speaking to a person of liis own relations, polite- 
ness requires that we ptit : monsieur, madamt^ mademoiselle, 
messieurs, mesdames, mesdempiselles, before the possessive 
pronoun. 

EXATIPI.KS. 

j'ai rencontrfi Monsieur votro / met yourfalhar 

p5re 
Messieurs vos frdres sont-Ui are yow brothers come 7 

arrives 1 

255. Custom requires the use of the possessive pronoun 
before the names of relatlohs. in addressing them. 

ma soettr, vener. ici quo je v 

parle 
mon ontjle, quand parl.cz-vou> 

ExcEP. Papa, maman 

256. Possessive pronouns] u 
of the same sentence. 



come here, I want to speak 
v'4e7i do you go? 



Ated before every noun 



EXAMPLE. 

mon pcre et ma m6ret sent my faUte^- and mother have cojne, 

venus. 
donnez-moi mon habit et mon glvz me my coat and hat. 

chapeau. 

257. When two adjectives qualify the same noun, the 
pronoun possessive is repeated, if they express opposite or 



* T/usis no buslusss of yours, must be rendered by ce n'est pas lei 
voire affaire, or cette^ affaire Id ne vous legarde pas. This is apoiicabks 
to any sentence which may not be turned, like the above, by this is one 
of his tricks; thai brother of yours must, therefore, be turned by vowr 
M'othe^: 

t Custom admits mes pere et mere, My father and mother, instead of 
mon pere et ma mire ,- it admits also, sts pire et m^re, vos p$re et mire. 




wmmm 



mm 



mi 



If 



Ih 




U78 



BVNTAX AND thioMi. 



incompatible qualities; it i» not repoate(Mii the contrail 

EXAMPLE. 
maijmfKjueta habit*. mngnijicentdrems. ^ 

EXKRCISE. 

1. I fear neither you nor youra. 

^" ?«'.*'" f^co with allhis family af the tim« of tho revolution 

4. That Bon of yours will rivo you a great drai of trouble. 
o. IS your mother returnetl from the country 1 

6. Allow nie to congratulate you on your lirothcr's apnointment, 

7. Cousin, I am rlad to ace you, when did you return '\ ^P*''"'"''^"'' 
». 1 bcheve that his father and mother are ' 'cad. 

[l.^ Nc nindre ni. 

C2.) To leave, abandonmr. 

y*\ 2^^','P'''^ ' /* *° ^^"' *^^^-> ^'^« ^'^"» "« dissnur/re (e. 
(1.) Trouble, emharras. 

Y>.) Appointment, jwminatim. 

(7.) W hen did you, etc , dcpuis quand etcs vous dc rdmr 7 

PARTS OP TWE nODY, PflVSICAL AND INTELLECTUAL 

PACULTirs. 

258. There is peculiarity of coastniction with re^rard to 
these, vvhicli require particular attention and notice! The 
French in speaking of them do net, generally, make use of: 
the possessive pronoun, hut of the definite article. 

EXAMPLES. 

j^ai mal a la tSte*, / kav., a pain in my head. 

"^TrX"" '''°""^ ^" ^^'^ I received a shot i,i my right arm. 

il a perdu I'esprit. he has lost his senses. 

micux vaut perdre la vie que better lose ooie's life thm one's 

rhonneur, honour. 

la tete me fait mal, rny head aches 

259. When speaking of any thing done to any part of the 
body, or of the understanding, such as to wash one's hands, 



* The reason of tliis custom is that th-re cannot be any ambiffuitv 
i% to who.fi head IS arhinff, and. consequently, that thcdefmite article 



is sufficient 



contra j^ 

? and ugly 
tiful and 



evolution, 
is to be 



aintmont. 



0» THE PROWOUIfS, 



279 



AL 



jard to 
. The 
use oi 



ht arm. 
'I one's 



of the 
hands, 



^biguity 
? article 



to tmprove ons's mind, a pronoun, in the dative c,ii«, in 
placed in conjunction with the verb, in order to show U'hose 
hands, whose understanding are thus affected ; me lav^r ha 
mains, ht former Pesprit, to wash my hands, to fomi his 
mind, i ' 

If the thing is done io ourselves, and by oursehet,, the 
verb is reflected. 

LXAMPLHS, 



je mo iave lea luuins, 

tu te coupes le doigt, 

il se .,it la barbo, 

nous iious rin^ons la bouche. 

nous nous sommcs lav 6 les mainn, 

yous vouf. formpi. "osprit, 

lis s'enrichissent la memoiro, 



IwasA my ha/ufj, or / toasA tU 

hands to myself, 
you cut yujir finger, 
tic shaves hif beard, 
we wash our 'iiumths. 
we have washed our hands, 
ymt im%vovc your miuui. 
they enrich their tnemory. 



260. If ...e thmgis done io another, the indirect regimen, 
me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur, are used with *K: verb, accord- 
ing to the rules 224, 225, and 225\ 



EXAMPLES. 



vous me bleasez la nmin, 

tenez-moi la tfite, 
vous lui avez casse io braSj 
ils nous ont fendu la tcte, 
vous ai-je marche sur le piedl 
on leur a arrachS los yeux, 



you hurt my hand, or you hurt the 

hand Io me. 
hold my head, 
you have broken his arm 
they split our head, 
did I tread on your foot ? 
they tore their eyes out. 



EXERCISE. 

o ^"' ^'^^^"^gf passed over his body, and broke two ribs. 
^ Writing so long makes* my hand ache. 

lost her mhTd ^°*^'^^*'*^ ^^ ^^''' ''"*^^^" •^''"^'^ o^^«r husband, that jbe 

4. Come give me your hand, let us be fricnus. 

fi Wh«r* ? J l*"",' """u? V'^^ "^y penknife, you will spoil it. 
o, /Vhere did he lose hid leg ? 

7. Yiio have not washed your face. 

8. Who has cut your hair '? 

9. Have you not cut your finger 1 

10. Last year, I e >rained my foot, by leaping over a ditch. 

amputal^hisTgr " " ''^ '^'' '^'^ ''^ '^''^ ^''' ^^ '^^^'^ *« 
12. She took my hand, and put o. pretty ring on my little finger. 

(1) To pass over, ;?a55e/-. 
(f-) Morce d'ecrire; to ache,/a^Vc 7naL 
ixl ^oeked, aferU; to lose en vcrdre, ind'-S. 
(5.) Nails, ofigTes, 



280 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



^1^ 






k 

In 



r 



.' 



re.^ To lose, perdre ind-4. 

(8.) Hair, les cheveuz, 

( 10.)' To sprain, se domier wte enlorse a, 

^11.) They will be obliged, ilfaudra. 

(12.) Put mettre, ind-3; on, d. 

261. If however, the part of the body spoken of is the 
subject of the verb, it is then necessaiy to use the possessive 
pronoun, otherwise there would be imbiguity. 

RXAMPLES. 



j'e vois que ma jambe enflc, 
son esprit succomba, 



/ see my leg is swelling, 
his mind failed. 



In some other cases, it is also necessary to use the pos- 
sessive pronoun for the sake of clearness.. 



EXAMPLES. 



il lui donna sa main a baiser, 
elle a donne hardiment so% bras aa 
chirurgien, 



he gave him his hand to kiss, 
she courageously presented kw 
arm to the surgeon. 



EXERCISE. 

1. In this interview, they made each oiher presents ; she gave hiin her 
portrait, and he gave her his finest diamond. 

2. A young surgeon preparing to bleed the great Conde, this prince 
said to him smiling, do not you tremble to bleed me 1 I, my lord, no, 
certainly; it is not i, it is you who ought to tremble. The prince, 
charmed with the reply, immediately gave him his arm. 

(1.^ Interview, entrevue;. made each other, sefaire mutueUement. 

(2.) Preparing, 55 disposer; bleed, saigner ; srmlmg, d' mi air riant ;, 
it is not I, (it is not to mc) ; it is you, (it is to you) ; who ought to, de ; 
reply, repartie. £ 

262, Although verbs which are conjugated with tw^o 
pronouns of the same person generally remove every kind of 
amphibology, yet custom authorizes some familiar expressi- 
ons, atthouTjh the possessive pronoun seems to be redundant, 
as: 

il se tient ferme sur ses pieds, he stands fi,i m upon his feet, 

je I'ai vu, de mes proprcs yeux, I have seen it with my. oton eyes. 

When speaking of an habitual complaint, the possessive 
pronoun is also properly used, as : 

Sa migraine Va rep7is, his head-ache is returned. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Whatever he may do, he always finds himself safe. 

2. Can you still doubt the truth of What I tell you 1 Would yon 
nsk a stronger proof than tha* I give yqu, it is that I hqarti it, ye«, 
heard it with viy own ears. 






OP THE TROWOUNS. 



281 



3. My gout docs not allow inc a moment's repose 

4. It 13 in vam that I exhort you to work and study : your ioienesa 

(1.) Finds himself, ae reirouver ; safe, sur ses jambcs. 

)A S;^P' ''°'?'^.'^ ' '^'^"^^' '^^'^^'''^'' '^^ 5 ask, e:ci<yer. 
{o.) Allow, laisser. 

(4.) It is in vain that I, je avoir bmu ; you labour, quivaus travailk. 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

For their concord with the noun, see Nos. 70, 71, 72. 

263. Etre, used in conjunction with ce, irust be in the 
smgu ar, although relating to the first and second person 
plural. ^ 

EXAMPLES : 
c'cst nioi qui I'ai dit, 
ce sera vous qui en jouirez, 



cst-ce nous qui vous avons trompe 1 
CO n'esfc pas lui que j'ai envoye 
chercher, 



U is I v:ko soid so 
yoio will be the -person to enjoy it. 
is it we vjho deceived you 7 
he is not the j^crsoii I sent for. 



264. With regard to the third person plural, the verb 
etre is sometimes plural, sometimes singular ; this difference 
does not arise from any rule or - principle, but merely from 
custom, and, as it cannot be explained, an example of each 
case IS given for reference. 

C'est with ewtr, elks. 

EXAMPLES. 



Ce sont eux, 
ce sont elleS) 
ce furcnt eux, 
ce seront eux, 
que ce soient eux, 
que ce fussont eux, 

265. C'est vvith nouns substantives. 



est-ce eux ? 

C'st-co ellcs 1 

rst-cc que ce furent-eux 1 

sera-ce eux ou cllcs '\ 

seraicnt-cc eux ou elles 1 



examples. 



>sgessive 



ce sont les franyais qui, 

c'etaient les gardes qui, 

CO seront les anglais qui, 

ce furent les alleraands qui, 

cc sont ses eleves, qui lui ont 
fait re present, 

on dit que ce seront les grena- 
diers, qui feront le service du 
chitteau, 

so.iit-co les honneurs que, vous 
chcrchcz 1 



z 



sont-ce les fran9ais qui, 
etaient-oe les gardes ? 
est-ce que ce seront les anglais 1 
est-ce quo ce furent les allemands ? 

his pupils have made hivi this p-e- 

sent, 
they say the grenadiers ore to be 

on duty at the caustic. 

is it honours that you seek 7 
2 



usu 



SYNTAX AND IDIOM^ 




Ifl 



ill!: 



266. Ce is used before etre, instead of the pronouns 
il, elle, ils, elks, in reference to a noun, singular or plural, 
antecedently named, at the beginning of the sentence which 
declares the nature or the action^ of such a noun. Thus 
having mentioned the Phenicians, we say : 



CO furent rux qui invcnterent 
I'ecriturc. 

lisez Homere et Virgilo : ce so/it 
ks plus grands poetes dc I'an- 
tiquite. 

la douceur I'affabilite ct une 
certaine urbanite, distinjoruent 
I'homme qui vit dans le grand 
monde ; ce sont Id ks viarqvxs 
auxquelles on le reconnait, 

avez-vous lu Plaion 1 c'cst un dcs 
plus beaux genies de I'anti- 
quite. 



they tccre. the inveniors of writing. 

read Homer aiid Virgil : they are 
the best poets of antiquity, 

gentleness, affability^ and a certain 
nrtjanity, distinguish the man 
that frequents polite company ; 
these are marls by which he 
may be {noicn. 

have 'you read Plato 7 he is one off 
the greatest geniuses of anti- 
quity. 



But Hvhen the verb eire is followed by an adjective, or 
by a substantive taken adjectively, il or Me, must be used. 

lisez Demosthenes et Ciceron ; ih read. Demosthenes and Cicero ; 

^ sont tres'iloqtients, they are veiy eloquent. 

J ai vu I'hopital de Greenwich ; il I have seen Greenwich Hospital • 

est viagnifique et digne d'vne it is supnrb and worthy of a 

grande nation, great 7iation. 

compteriez-vous sur Valdre 1 igno- ivould you rely upon Valere ? do 

rez-vous qn'il est homme a ne you 7iot know that he is a man 

jamais revenir dc ses pi-emieres who will never abandon his first 

luees 1 opinions 7 

267. A distinction is made in English, as to the singular 
or the plural, in sentences like these, this is my horse, these 
are my children ; ce is again used in French before both 
numbers. 

EXAMPLES, 
c'est-la mon cheval, cc sont mes enfans 

voici or voila mon cheval, voici mes enfans, 

EXERCISE. 

i. It is M?e who have drawn tliat misfortune upon ♦ us, through our 
thoughtlessness and imprudence. 

2. It was the Egyptians that first observed the course of the stars 

3. Peruse attentively Plato and Cicero: they are the two philoso- 
phers of antiquity wlio have given us the most sound and luminous 
ideas upon moralify. 



Oi' THE PRONOUNS. 



283 



pronouns 
3r plural, 
ce which 

1. Thus, 

f loriUng. 

: they are 
ity. 

I a cerlain 

the man 

company ; 

which he 

he is one off 
' of anti' 



active, or 
be used, 

■d Cicero / 
d. 

Hospital ; 
orlky of a 

Valere? do 
? is a man 
don his first 



3 singular 
^•^e, these 
fore both 



rough our 

' the starsj 

vo philoso' 
i luminous 



o. Are not these the gloves you bouakt vcstenhv -i TW.Ii 
house. Ti^ese are nottny I Jks ; a>if e ajein Sor l^^" "^^ "^^ 

\y\ Hav« drawn, 5'«/<»c/- ; thoughtIeb«ncss, /c^-er^^e. 
}i\ l^ ' '^^ premiers ; stars, astres, 

iA Y^^^^' ''? \ ^°""^' ^'^^'^ ' morality, ^noraU. 
(4.) Are intended tor, se desiincr d ; puloit cliaire • r^^A .>»-. i 
oyBif^g^xn,UrectrelircUnsc^ss>^; ^un bfu ' ""^^^ ^"""^ 

(5.) To buy, ac/icicr, ind-4. 

268. Ce is much used in conjunction with gut, donL a 
quoi que m the sense of what, that which, that thk^ 
iTvP \- I '' ,"f ^ ^" 'P'^^^^'S of things only, and the adject 
tive which relates to it, is of the masculine gender singular. 

EXAMPLE. 

Ce, joined to the relative pronouns, qui, que, dont and 
quoi, has ,n some instances, a construction peculiar to it- 

li Both ce and the relative pronoun that follows it, form 
with the verb which they precede, the subject of another 
phrase, of which the verb is always etre. Now, efrrmay 
be followed by another verb, an adjective, or a noun. ^ 

When efre is followed by another verb, the demonstrative 
ce must be repeated, as : > uc xiuuteuauve 



what I like most in to be alone. 



cc gtte j'aime le plus, c'est d'dtrc 
seul 

When followed by an adjective, the demonstrative ce is 
not repeated, as : 

tiv^m!!; i!h' ''/''"'''''^^ V ^ "^"bstantive, the demonstra- 
thp .^^ r ""'i ^^^'^P^^ted, or not, at pleasure, except in 
the case of a plural, or of a personal pronoun, Thus : 

"iustices"'"nn'ni; "^./''^ ^^^^ »"" ■^^l^dprovokes mt, are the injuries 
justices, quon no cesse de which arc conivmaliy cdimiU 



284 



SVNTAX AND fDlOMS. 



II 



EXERCISE. 

^o'^' J^'^^^H* ^"^'^.^'^^^^^ '^o"^ f«rthe happiness of his neonl^ 
deserves to be handed down to the remotest poste^ty ^^^' 



Ml . 









ll 



PlSf 



If t 

iff! 



... « W.C ^.ituiuMUB.Ti, nre, iinpetuofcity, force, a 
and thoughts which nature alone can impart. 

(d.) As 9., pour. 

(5.) Con3litutes,/a{r«? • exact,/.r«,- Hvcly, vif; imagery m«^. nl • 

soi^L ' ' '■ •'"'''^' «^^^/'«^^^ ; natural, dans L nature ; sustained,. 
(7.) Keeps attached, altaclur; care advice, pL. 

269. Celui.ceUe, ccux, cclles are frequently used in con- 
junction with the relatives gui, dont, auqucl, dlaquelle, and 
que miXie^enmoi he loho, she who, they Uo, or wh^ 
whichever, whoever, and that which, etc. ' 



EXAMPLES. 

1 Ti ^^.^ of him. 

1 oil liMJi, ttian tliat whuh was cimdated 

.... . yesterday 

celm^qui arnvera le premier whichever- comes first shall have U. 

''pai^olr ^^ ''^'" '^'"' "°"' ^^^" " T^ ^^ ^^ '^'^ ^'^^ ^Vcak. 
P''"°"^' ^^^y/; /i5 w«s not this ivcwae 

speaking of. 

xH t:iess two cases it is applied both to persons and things* 

are also followed by a genitive 



270. Celui, celle, etc, 



case. 



!fi 



or THE PRONOUNS. 



285 



ce that- they 
J her with 

his people, 

regular ca- 

ivery thing-, 

3 i.nagery : 

the v/ords 

ters alvvaya 

tender ago 



tsnus,- re* 

fiage, pi J 

r. 

sustained,. 



I in con- 
dle, and 
' whom. 



hut him- 
m tkink- 

%ulhentic 
ircidated 

\have U. 

^e speak- 
«'e were 



hings* 
;enitive 



EXAMPLE. 

271. Which, sianding for Ma<K,A»cA,oMi«o-„,va and 

EXAMPLES, 
a empeches de sortir ce matin vented o^cr g<n,fg%t^\Z: 

fnnJtt ™'' "^^^ Tl^' ^^'' ^""y ^^'^» ^^i*^ day twelve 
foMs^re rendered thus : d^aujcurd^kmen huit, dans S 
jours, dans un mots, au bout d'un an. 

273. Celui is sometimes omitted, and this turn eiv^a 
strength and elegance to the expression, as : ^ 

lait rareraent aimer „„,^ y,^,,^^ ^^^^^^ makei k^^ 

^clf beloved. 

havJL W ^"'^ '1'' ^P?^^ ^"'^^ *^ ^^^"g«' ^"^ when they 
natrmanner """ ' ''" ""'"'^'"'"^ ^" ""^ ^"^'*'''"^" 

netouchezpasacela do mt touch that 

.. However, in the familiar style, custom authorizes us to 

say m speakmg of one person individually, or of maL col! 

Jective y ; cela est heureux, ! cela ci'oupii dans u2nae^ 

cela est gueux etjier, etc. ^ *^^^^ * 

1 nn- ,. J- EXERCISE. 

much mferior to those of the ancients 1 ^ ^*^^" c^xn^'^, so 

spirit of life which animat ttm;troi1ff etwl^^^^^^^^^ 

and ravish us, will be a man of real genius ^ ^^'""^ ^^''^^^ 

5. ^. </U« judges of others by himself, is liable to many mistakes 

6. He that 18 easi]y olfended, discovers his weak s^Sp ^«,. ff 1 
hi. enemies an opportunity of taking advantage^f'U ' '* *^°'*^' 

R fL^l^I^rj'lT.^^i'"'-^^^ ac..ryes!,ot to be loved bv other, 
ter'syet. """ "v ""•.--la 10 you, but you have not seen my sis^ 

the^'s!h^:i"^i;^glf;;«^^ ^or^^^o-a^, but you may ride my brc 
10. Come this day week, and I will pay you. 



286 



1 ! 



III 



:1! 



I,' 



m 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



(1.) Bo found to excel the other 



on 



poii^'lrcpcsLted'.) """*' '^""' '"' :f''f>'""^^inqueur ;hothin, et 

Jnl^gZe"""' ''^- '^'- P''^^"'^' ''^^-^'- -^- -ft«r, Hre dans ; 

delight, ;eS;;;reil W " '"^^'^''^^''^ ^'^'•' '^"'^cting, U>u.hant; 



^6:]f/i,^S^S£«-'^l-;.™/?'»|'A.'!''r"?, 



ktr..^' I • ^ ' '^•'V'"'-'"^' uiisuiKe, viepnsc. 
tak^nJa-dvS^i,;,^";^-'- --^^ -<lo, /.e./. ; ai^brds, >«..:. a ; of 

r«/«!'^* ^"^ '^^'''^^'"^ ''^^'' '^"^ ''^^■'^5-, is also expressed by 



vous rentrez tard, et cela lui de- 
plait, 



you keep late hmrr, and it dis- 
pleases him. 






RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

276. Qui, when it is the subject, relates equally to ner- 
«ons and^things, of both numbers and genders. ^ ^ 

EXAMPLES. 

^■IT^^T ^""V^ '*'^ ';''^'"™' ""»« '«' the object or accu- 

EXAMPLES. 

^TsVo"utfon?e''a1tS'^'"' A. ..A. « ,./.. ««^ discnmnatc in 

treHir^"'' , ofn-hoid^'yoZiPeak? 

L^vin L V "^'"'^°"' ]. ^ ^-^^'^ nd von send some '> 

Tv^^^S :oXe"zV'" i^SV'^^ ^^^^ "^^ ^^'^- ^- -- 

qui mviterons-nous 7 ,^;i^^, ,^„„ ^., .,^^ .^^ j, 

senten;^?'''Tn''' ""^Z '' P''"!'^"l^^^y "^^^ in interrogative 
seniences. in anr nfhflr no ;« iUfi j /' .i _ ° 

pies, awyjg/ may properly be substituted to it. 

^'^«. Whaty as the object or direct regimen -^ — =-^-" 
verb, 18 rendered ' 



gati 



q\ie. 



«>*' THE PRONOUNS. 



M 



que faitea-vous 7 
qqe dit-il "? 



fiXAMPLES. 

tohat arc ym doing ? 
07Q -wru "''^^ " ^ saying ? 

EXAMPLE* 

.0 ,ua,ify the subVaS aZt ^e™ "oTed":!!?. Tat 
to giv-e the idea of one thing only, as """"^'^^^^ ^^'^'* »«» as 

the mind nece Jri) y Sck o tS'" k*"? »!!"' <"■ r^op'^. 

EXERCISE. 

4|rt„';"hi,x[r[r^re^i„r^^^^^^^ "-■■=•> "«"•« <■-««», i„ 

in the moment ofneedl"^"""' "»"'<' thus abandon ms 

t.ll you reTtSX" "''°'" ' '■'" *''^'''"" '■"""■'••"I '»■' 
o. Whom is this letter for '? 

-■' ^appy who can be content with 




va\!^i ,^>:';.;"*"'' '"''-* ■ ""'f «">'"■'. «=, h mMU 



;h his lot. 
e ^Z" ^«; to be better, 



$188 



SYNTAX Aim IDtoMi 



4'|| 

I 

HI 

■ V\i 

! 

iM 
IS 



(•3.) Any furniture, desvicubles. m. ; in, de ; only, ne-que. 

(3.) Pouvoir, in(l-2 ; to expect, s' attendre (pie ; to make,/atV«, ind-4 ; 
8ucb, ton^i *^e ; to devote, consacicr, ind-4; so mucli of, unc si grande 
parlie de; would abandon, abandomicr, 8ubj-3; in the, au. 

(4.) Cannot, savoir , cond-l ; man, personite, f. ; trust-Worthy, digne, 
de confiance. 

(6.) Pray, dites-dmic ; with, de; to be, tlrc^ ind*2 ; any where, nuUe 
part. 

[7.] To be content with, se conlentcr de. 

280. Qui, may likewise be separated from its antecedent, 
by the verb, when the antecedent is a pronoun used as the 
regimen direct, or object of the verb. 

EXAMPLE. 

11 la trouva qui plcurait a chauden he found her crying billerly. 

laitnes, 
jo le vois qui jouc, / see hhnpUiying* 

281. A whole senterjce may also be the antecedent of 
the relative pronoun qui. 

^ EXAMPLE. 

ceitrc-Zd ne sont pas Ics plus mal- tlvose are npt tic most unhappy ^ 
heureux, qui se plaignent le %oho complain the most. 
plus, 

But it is more according to grammar to say, ceux qui se 
plaignent le plus ne sont pas lesplus mal/ieureux. Observe 
also that the first manner of construing would be incorrect 
without the addition of the particle Id. 

EXERCISE. 

1. A young man wlio loves vanity of dress, like a woman, is un- 
worthy of wisdom and glory ; glory is only due to a heart that knows 
how * to * suffer pain and trample upon pleasure. 

3. Thyself, O my son, my dear son, thou * ihyscK thai now enjoyest 
a youth so cheerful and so full of pleasure, remember that this delight- 
ful age is but a flower which will be I withered 3 almost as soon 2 as 
blown. 

3. Men pass away like flowers, tvhich open in * the morning, and 
at night are withered and trampled under foot. 

4. You must have a man that loves nothing but truth and you, 
that will speak the truth in spite of you, that will force all your en- 
trenchments ; and that indispensable being is the very man whom 
you have sent into exile. 

5. We perceived him waiting for us, quietly sitting under the shade 
of a tree. 



* See manner of rendering tho English participle present. No. 398, 
399. 



OP THE PRONOUNS^ 



289 



, faire, ind-4 ; 

incsi graiulc 

I. 

worthy, dignc, 

where, nttUe 



antecedent, 
ised as the 



llerly. 
tecedcnt of 



oU unhappy ^ 
ost. 



'.eux qui se 
r. Observe 
36 incorrect 



rt that knows 

: now enjoyest 
it this delight- 
it as soon 2 as 

morning, and 

uth and you, 
e all your en- 
y man whom 

ider the shade 



ent, No. 398, 



Jx^ii^ "^ ^"*"' ^ * ^^""- -«»««««»^/ tnmplc n^n, fouler 

jpeak, will force, 8ubj-l ; entrenchmenin relrancLZ -^^'L^^i 

being «/r. « t.^ue ; very man, Aomvte neme ; seTb?o e^le S**** 

(5.) W.amg fo7, (who waited), aUendre, ind-2. under, T f fl' 

282. The relative jma must always have reference to a 
noun taken in a determinate sense. 

EXAMPLES. 

/.•J^w»i« est un animni roisonoble, qui etc. H me reciU avec un- 
politesse, qui, etc. '^tpw* avec une 

Kut we canndt^ay, TAo^iOTg eat animal raisonnabte, qui 
ooo^'^t'"^ ""^^ ''''^'' politesse, qui, etc. ' ^ ' 

283. When the antecedent of qui is the subject of a 
verb ,n the negative or the interrogative form, the following 
verb must be m the subjunctive mood. ""wing 

EXAMPLES. 

284.. Qtw relates both to person and things. It is alvvava 
the regimen direct, and always follows its antecedent. 

EXAMPLES. 

j'homme que je voL*, the man ahmi I see. 

Ic8 pdches que je mange, the peaches Khkh I eat. 

The antecedent of que may also be a noun, qualified or 
relative" ^""^'^^ '^''''^^' '^^'''^ ^V^rsiie it from the 

au'est-ce qu'unearm^e ?— c'estun corp^animed'nneintJnitede na*- 
deiat^'trS""^'^'"" ^""^^ ^^'^'"^ ^"^* mouvoir jiurTd" fe^ 

EXERCISE. 

1. He received us with such goodmss, civiUty and Erace. as charmivl 
us, and made us forget all we had suffei^. ^ ^ ' *'**'™«** 

^.?:Z^!:!^,,u,"°. "^^ ^" *^® ^^'^^^ ^^<^« tJ»«re are more riches and a 

3. Is there a man can say, I shall live till to-morrow 1 
Brifir "^* a/nmrf but would make for him every kind of sa- 

A A 



290 



srifTAx AND roioMt 



6. Hu w Mirfoumlsd by tntmits, who are cot anuaiiy watching him, 
and would bo very jrlad to detect him in a ♦ fault. 

(a. In hU retreat, he lives tike a phUc^op/ur who knowa mankind and 
mistruRts them. 

7. The pine-api^e is a sort of fruit which, in Earnpe, ripens only in 
hot-houses. 

8. That man w a tart of pedant, who takes words for ideas, and 
,fa«t8 confusedly heaped up tor knowledge. 

'1.) Civility, peiiksse ; «oeh, untf as, qtti. 
[3.) There are, v avoir, subi-l. 

Man, (who) ; can, subi 1. to live, viwe. 

But, qui ne ; would make, subjS. 

Like a, en; philosopher, sage ; mistrusts, se di/ier de. 

Pine apple, ananas ; hot-houses, serre chaude. 

Reaped up, eiUasscr • knowledge, savoir. 

285. Observe that the relative whom, which, that, being 
the object or accusative, are almost ever understood in 
English, bat que is always expressed in French. 

EXAMPLES. 

lea hommes que no^p avona vus, the men we saw, 
le vin que nous avons bu, the wine we drank. 

286. There are some cases in which it is customary to 
use que for a qui, or dont, as : C^esi a V(ms que je park ; de 
la f agon que fai dit la chose. That is used in the same 
way, in English it is to you that I speak ; in the way that 
1 did the thing. See 295. 

287. Lequel and dont relate both to persons and things. 
But lequel, duquel, ought never to be used either as a sub- 
ject or object, except in cases when a distinction is to bo 
unlade betweea objects of the same nature, and to avoid am- 
biguity ; for whenever the sense is clear, qui or que must be 
used, thus : 

.la Tainise dnnt le lit, and not, de laqueUe. 
le prince dont la protection, and not, duquel. 

288. $oinetimes, duquel, de laquelle,* (common to per- 
sons and things,) and de qui, are separated from their ante- 
cedent by ar other noun substantive governed by a preposition. 






31 > 



tl 



• _ * H^ ^f^V^h, *^o^®^i i» ?."§li^?» *o place the preposition govern- | 
iii-g ^azcn iosi ; i fie TmHTig yoii, iniVuC Off iOi iiic uung uj wiucft 'ytm ihiuk ; B 
tiiat muct not be the casein French, the prepoBttion must be first, 

fn chose d. laqueJ'ivmm pensez. 



Of THIB PRONOUNS, 



291 



tehing him, 

aokind and 

lens only in 

idoas, and 



hatf being 
irstood in 



Btomary to 

e parte ; de 

the same 

I way that 

tid things, 
as a sub- 
1 is to bo 
avoid a-m- 
le must be 



in to per- 
their ante- 
reposition. 



tion govern* 
» 'ifvu iiiLuk } 
1st bo first, 









la Tamise dans le lit de laquelle 
mil In poimons ne jouent, 

le priiic) a la |»t>tciclk>n duqud 
je dots ma place, 



SXAldFLKS* 

Ut£ Thames in the bad 0f fekich 
myriads of fisA are playing. 

the prince to tehoat protection I 
owe my jdace. 



EXERCISE. 

I. The God whom the Hehrewa and Chrwtiana have alTvaya served, 
has nothing in common with the duties ftUl of ixnperfeotion and ever, of 
vice worahij^pNed by the rest of the wcwld. 

3. The Epic Poem is not the panegyric of a hero who is propoted as 
a • pattern, but the recital of great and illustrious actions, which axe ex- 
hibited for imitation. 

3. The good which we hope for * presents itself to us, and disappears 
like an empty dream, xckich vanishes when we awake : to teach us, that 
the very things which we think we hold fast in our hands, may slip 
away in an instant. 

m 4. Plato says, that, in writing, we ought to hide ourselves, to dls- 
M^pear, to make the worid forget us, that we may nresent nothing but 
the truths we wish to impress, 

She ia a woman on whos-^ character nothing can bo said. 

6. The sheep to the spoils of which men are indebted for their 
garments. . 

7. Religion, whose maxims we despise, is, however, our greatest 
Comfort in auTcrcrtj. 

8* The gravid principle &n which the whole turns is, that all ♦ the 
world IS but one republic, of which God is the comrjon father, and in 
which every nation forms, as it were, one great family. 

9. Homer, whose ceniuu is grand and sublime like nature, iia the grealMt 
poet, and perhaps the most profound moralist of antiquity. 

.10- Thp celebrated Zenobia, whose noble firmnt as 2 you have ad- 
mired 1, preferred dying with the title of queen, rather* than accept 
the adj^ta^eous 2 offers 1 which Aureliar made her. 

II. The AliM on the summit of which the astonished eye discovers 
perpetual snow and ice, present, at sun-set, the most strikiiig and most 
magnihccnt spectacle. 

12. A king, to whose care we owe a good law, has done more for hi* 
own glory, than if he had conquered the universe. 



(i.^ ^Thatthe rest of the world worshipped.) 



, , is proposed, 07i ;?r<?/w5e ; as, jpottr, ; pattern, morf^te ; is exhibited. 
on donner- imitation, exemple. 

(3.) Good, bien ; disappears, s'envoler ; empty, vain; vanishes, etc. le 
reyeilfait evanmtir ; we * hold fast, tenir fe miettx ; m our hands ♦ ; 
slip away, nous echapper. 

(3.) Wfe, an } to make the worM forget, se /aire mblier ; that wt may 
present but, pour ne produirc que ; wish, votdoir ; impress, persuader. 

(5.) She is, c'est; character, corj^pte ; nothing can be said, on ne 
saurait rien dire. 

annCiot ^£.^,...;n^ /• . *_ 1 :_j_i.4_j J .•_ 

^^ However, ;wt*rte»<. 
, (.} Turns, r&uUr ; every, chaque; as it were, conime. 
(9.) Preferre<l, aimer mieucc; than, que de. 



mil 



H\ 



I : 



% 



m 



'j 



;; 



« 
k 



/•/ 



9m 



/ *•<•»! 



WrNTAJC AJ40 lOlOMi 



</«• 



I! 



Ft tit' 



iUS! 



, -^ .».,.!{, m^,vm<. '*•' »««'»l»«-. S'm-Ml, Ji>^ amount/ 

i>o«1?o;.^?r*^' /«yw5l/*, oro u«ea in conjunction with pre^ 

EX A MPLS. 

Icroi-i ^u, on d«it oMir, the kings fo m,\^ ^n.,nusl oh^ 

EXSROISK. 

^^^^^^:^:.^^^ arc, upon can,, 

valT'oi-^tlV' f '"^ ''^ ^^'"S"' ^^^ ^^^^^'^ 'P^^king in . 
3i^^Ii ""^^' '"?"^'' 5 *^'^*''' ^^^«" the object is not 
rn^f!^^i"?'"^?V J«l"R^^nerany preceded byi prepost. 
tion, aiid rendered by what in Engliah. * * 

BXAMPLR, 
cW^o quoi ja m'oocuix, ttn. this u wh^ I amomays thinking 

whichthB '"""f 'r» J"*^' ■•elWively to a ti.ing named and of 

BXAMPLE. 

t^« iTTftire. the thing arnnot de done, 

WHOSE. 

M^^a^Ji/a^fnf '^' '^'^'''' "''*"' ''^ g«"erally rendered by d gut 

EXAMPLES, 
whoseh<>^ise uthis? / cannot. tnU *«.,{„.. _♦.» „..._. .^ „ 

[ftw vou» diro a qui cite a(>pav. 






H ^ticAmUf 



wKh pre^ 
Brablcy in 



pOMOMioil 

iiuitetU of 
ipon earth, 

ing in a 

)ct is not 

preposi- 



thinking 



k1 and of 
rould he 



thinking . 
tut which 



)y d gut 
knnenf^ 



I tkv Mau- 



Ot TMK 7A0N0UNI. 



29S 



whm gloves mm that t 

(iod, whose we are, 

(M, whm crfiat%ru w ttrt^ 



thai man, tm whom account 
came, (iiuij>^tnU!(t rm, 



k Mii atipartiennpDt ««# gi^ 1 

DUiu & qui nouM ■omniei. 

Dl«u Uoitt noui MuiiMutMi Ion erH- 

turt^i. 
/ CM hotiiiiin jwur la rouipUi du- 

^iwl, a rauHo «lfl qitl, oour Tal'- 

Iftlfo lu(|up| jo MuiN visiiu, ma 

tromp^, 

592. T/hich \n um^d anUicf^aeritly, ni a iort of demonitm- 
tive pronoun, in wMcA cch it i^ rendered ni followi : 

Ihadsanu fh,Htms,on wkich ac- J'avHi-. quclquc* aflttir*.. iM,ur Im- 
amt {on ucamiU of whUh) / qu. H.n, a lauwi dtnqMbtloN, ou 
earn* to lovm, J^ uuoi.Ji. luii vepu & LondrM. 

A« mi/rA< row»« /^«/^A/, in which il |K.urraii -« (hire qu'll^hS w 

mr, (lani c« cmt-lk muu f*. 



for 

the money 



torn bien de no pai oortlr. 



MU we hud better not go out, 

iktertHimd to goto ^n,, javala r^Molu d'atlor k ParUs A 
wA/f4 mrposH 7 /ami . / ro .l(.««c,in, jc laiiiaiH toutM |m 
money 1 cmM, r^pargnoa p^ibioa. ' 

KXGUCII£. 

« Jliy^Y ^""^ ^^"•"' bwutifbl carriagi. thia In 1 
wifoao it £. * """ * ^''" "'"'"*"* ^" ^"" •^''''*' •""' "° «"« ''«'>>*■ 

3. That man, who«o ulavB you have Iwrn, de»iiii.rf you. and will 
ca«t you off when you are no longer u..dul to lUa Zi ' 
. 4. Hii pr daughtor, on whono account h^^ hau unclertal«*n a jouf. 
nev to Italy, dRjd at Qon.,a, almoi.t inuniuliutdy on landing 

' r? ^'I. u'.' **" «"* ".I' *"^'''>' '" w'»»«h int«ntion ho hacTdfalrod hb 
•iBrvant to call hun up at four o'clock, "miroa nu 



ylns. 




trouvf^r ; paH*. voho, !nd.2, ; no onjj, p«r$onne. 

off, oAandonMTs you aro, ^/rc, ind-7; no longe^, n$ 

(4.) A Journey to. Is voyage det to die,' WM/fir, lnd-3| on 'tndlnir 
apris avoir diOargue » "*, ♦ "' ■^nuing, 

(5.) To wwh ^wiV U dhir de, ind-2 ; to decire, dire d, Ind^ ; tv 
call up, ^/c revetUer. ' ' •""^' i '^ 

293. Oil, (I'm, par ou, relate only fo thinga. They ar" 
never used, but when the nounH, to which they refer ex" 
press so^ie kind of motion, or rest, at least malaphor-callv 
they stund for auqud, duguel, thus : ' ' 

voili le but, ou (auquci) i| tend, llmt is the. end he aims at 

c'cst uno cliose d'oH (du laquclle) U is a thing np<m. iA the public 

depend In bonhflnr nublic. ibj««i'/js^si .-/^^-U: J= 

lea lieux par ou (Icwiuolsj il a the" placer Jiirmgh which he hat 

?*•**» pattid. 

par ou commenccronu-noua (...'.r- what shaU m begin with f 

quelle choae 1) '^ 

A a2 



H 



Ml 



nij 



i 



i%ii 






1 ■ ^ ' ■ 



294. 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



EXERCISE. 
g«n nu^erou. frieirbl'the '|'aE'„7lu°s i™"— <«>•«. but to 

5. No one could tell which way he had come into the room 
b. This IS what we are to begin with. 

(1.) Towhaljadfuot, begins, entreriiansi to attend r'„ji^,i.^ 
'Ll:S^:^t' onde.standing, .^V; to u^nTWf^^S^ 

i^i^!^rTT!rr,:T'"^'^ '"*^'- p'"-"-. -'*«.• 

(5:1 Hrcotnt/^i*'""' <"'«-''»^». -"-*■• 'Fnd.^n 
(6.) We are, il/aut. 

IV. 
ABSOLUTE PRONOUNS, 

294. Qui is used in interrogations, 'vith reference to per- 
sons, in .1 vagu< and indeterminate wav. 

EXAMPLES. 
Qui sera assez hardi pour I'atta- who wiU be bold enough to attack 

It is likewise used in the feminine, and in the plural, as. 



Q/ii eat cette •perwni\,e-\h. 1 
Qwi sont ces femmes-la % 



a 



who is that persmi ? 
who are those women ? 



-^ yttxrc iciaic vj iiiuigo oniy, as, 



Qw6 pouvait la valeur en ce com- 
bat funeste 1 
A (liwi penset-vous ? 



what cotdd valoiir itt that fatal 

combat? 
w/uit are you thinking of? 



Fr 



nu 



0* TrfB FRONOUrfSfv 



SSi5 



tehat place 



icipally to 
ng, but to 

'j lays up 
jwevcr, is 

e loss of 
it cannot 

a retired 
B extends 
Meet mo- 



attacher ; 
: nume- 

volnptc ; 

cannot, 

I, passer. 



o per- 

altack 
, as, 






fatal 



I 295. Que i&Bomeiimes used for a guoi,degu(n,Sie, 

sore 1 (de quoi sert) s«si/ctt5wm? ^ 

Quoi, de quoi, a guoi, may be used in reference to a sen- 
tence antecedent, as a sort of pronoun neuter, the thing (o 
which It refers being neither masculine nor feminine. 

'^gilrSr '''""'"^ "" '''"^*'- ""'"'^ cependant d ^oi on ne pcnse 

296. Que and ywoz require the preposition de before the 
adjective or substantive that follows them, having then the 
lorce ot an adverb of quantity, as : 

aue dit-on de nouveau ? quoi de plus agreable ! 
Uue d inconsequences dans sa conduitc ! 

Quel relates both to persons and things, as : 

auel homme peut sc promettre un bonheur constant 1 
Uuelle grace ! quelle beaute ! niais quelle modestie I 

EXERCISE. 

_ 1. frAc could ever persuade Mmself, did not daily exiierience con- 
vince us of it that, out of a hundred persons, there are ninety who 
orthefu'ture^^^"'''^^'"^"*"^'^^^ present, all the best founded Iiopes 

2. W/io would not love virtue for its own sake, could he see it in all 
its beauty 1 

3. He who does not know bow * to apply himself in his youth, docs 
not know what to do when arilved at maturity. 

4. He was a wise legislator, who, having given to his countrymen 
aws caJculated to make them good and happy, made them swew not 

to violate any of those laws during his absence : atler which, he went 
*^*^'T,®rf . himself from his country, and died poor in a foreign land. 
«?■ rT^ P^P!^ °^ antiquity ever had better laws than the Egyptians 1 
What othci iiauon ever undertook to erect monuments calculated to 
tnumph over both time and barbarism 1 

6. What mare instructing and entertaining than to read celebrated 
authore m their ovvn language 1 HTuit beauty, what delicacy and grace 
^^^^^i^ru^'^^^'i®- ^^'"°'^"" "'*° ^ translation, are discovered in them i 

7. When Menage had published his book on the Origin of the 
French Language, Christina, queen of Sweden, said: "Menace is 
the most troublesome 3 man 1 in the world 2 : he cannot let one word 
jigo 1 withaut Its passport : he must know whence it comes, where it 
has passed through, and whither it is going." ' "'*"'" 

00 Did, sis out of, sur; future, avenir. 
,'i\ ;j^ '?^"-f'^<'» elk-mime ; could he, sionpovvoir, ind-2 
miire ^ ' ^° ^°' ^'occu^per : when arrived, etc., dans Vage 



im 



SYNTAX AND IDIOM S 



Jly, larth^. ' *^^'^*'^» P^'P"' ' ^<^ *<>, O^at they would not) ; we„i 
M*^y'^C^?^^^' /«/ii'w«5 delicacy, /;i€sse 5 Which cknnot mt'tm m^ 

«^'^ ^^J* '^'^ ^» Chrfaitina, CAW^/tn^; troublesome incom 
f^H^i the,cfe»art.j cannot, «.sa«ma« J go,p^^- mv^'Z^U^ 

PRONOaNS INDIFINITE. 

, 297. These pronouns have been divided into four class*»fl 
m the grammar, (No. 85). The Mowing remark" am ar- 
ranged m the same order. * , " 

FIRST CLASS. 

Of these vvhich^are never joined to a noun substantive. 

ON 

298. Examples have already been given, CNo. 86^ of th«> 
use of ON, in French, with anWplanftion ^f^hs ^^a^lnably 
supposed etymology. As it is a word which Z^^eZl 
occma, and m a manner totally different from the English 
Idiom, It has been thought necessary to devote another 
chapter to it, u which its use will before fully explained 

1 he general meaning of o» is : one, people, men, we. 

EXAMPLES, 
on Becourt plua voIonUers las we succour the imfarUi'mt^ vuyre 

ot^rr^' '^"'"'^ '" ^" ''' '''"'''y ^'^ ^ezrte^r:o 

boi ineme, ourselves. 

onne doit pas attribuer a la re- man ought not to cluirsc relisioii 
Iifiion les defauts de sea mi. <„,in, tL f^..n. .n.^.^ ■ :?*«*<'» 



li^ion les defauts de ses mi 

nistres, 
on relit tout Racine, on choisit 

dans Voltaire, 
on fait du bruit dans la rue, 

on n'est pas toujours heureux, 
on dit qu il va se marier, 



'Wlt^ tliefauUs of he" miniUers. 

p3oph read tJie w/iolc of Racine 
again, they choose in Voltaire. 

people are making a noise in the 
street. 

people are not always fortunate. 

people say, they say, he is going to 
be viarricd. 



Observe. That the adjective referring to on is in the 
masculine gender, when that pronoun is takpn ;» n vs.-^,^ 
and indeterminate sense ; but when it applies to aiiy" person 
in particular, as in the case slated No. 298, then the 
ftdjective agrees with the person understood. Thus, a 



I 



OF THE rROJNOUWS. 



297 



not) ; weiii 



le, etc. w'y 

Jme, incom" 
v&tiioir. 



«r classes 
ts are ar- 



antive. 

36) of the 
Jasonably 
"requently 
i English 
> another 
xplained. 
. we^ 



'uite more 
been so 

c religion, 
inislers. 

>/ Racine 

'Uaire. 
■se in the 

ttnate. 
going to 

3 in the 

person 
len the 
Hiui^, a 



woman would say . or -x^e&t pas ioujours Jeune eijolu, we 
cannot be young and pretty for ever. -^^ 

Obsen'8 also that we must not say qu^on, et m, aussi on, 
hMi que Von, et Von, aussi Von, EiLije crmsque Von f rap 
pe. The /' thus prefixed ds for euphony's sake. But if the 
word following begins with an /, then we say : je crms qu'on 
Vappdle, because j»e crois que Von Vappelle would equally 
be disagreeable. ' 

298.. On, according to the above examples, has a vague 
and indifinite meaning j it is indeed the subject of the verb, 
but not specified, not apfdied to any one person in particu- 
iar. 

There are, however, two cases in which on is very signi- 
ficantly used in French, in a definite senee, and as applicable 
to one individual alone. 

1. A master speaking to hrs servants, a father to his 
child, a tutor to his pupil, says on, instead of vous or iu, 
either to put greater distance between the persons, or to * 
assume a more serious tone, or also a sort of mock gravity. 



chez Ic 



a-t-on passe 

Saiavilie ? 
eh. bien, a-t-on ete bien sage en 

mon absence 1 
fiaira-t-on ce bruit-Id bien^'^f? 



EXAMPLES; 
Colonel 



did you call at the liouse of Colonel 

Sainville 7 
well, have you been good in my 

absence 7 
will you piU an end to that noise? 



2- A person, speaking of himself, says on, as the English 
sometimes say we ; or applies it to another, also in the same 
manner as the English use we for you, 

EXAMPLES. 

on n'est pas des esclaves jwur toe are not slaves (I am not a slave) 
essuyer de si mauvais traitc- to bear such ill usajies 
ments, * 

on vous I'a dit mille fois, / have lold you so a thousand times. 

depuis quand est-on de retour 7 hoic long have wc (you) been back 7 

299. On is also much used in French as the subject of 
an active verb, when the passive voice is used in Englisli. 



on me 



trompc 



EXAMPLES. 

deceivct 



onm'a dit ce matin quo »e roi I have been 



'L 



ya s?n Irlande 



told this morning thft 



the king is going to Irvtand, 



%dB 



I ■ 



siir 

M 

Mir 



SYNTAX AJiD IDIOMS 



..y^'"^''^'^''^^^opied\n almost every case, except when 
the verb expresses love, esteem, hatred, feeling, 

EXAMPLE, 
they are much loved, u sotU tres-ainies. 



£X£RGISE. 



3- I wiM not have him be teased. 
i: w^ ^""P^® ** "^ "^^^ ^ ^^ ^orid musicians. 

o Jr ®^ *f ^ ^^'^ '"wn has been taken. 
o. My father has been robbed. 

f\ lJ2':^nJj^ "-»• «^^^: doubles, «.«.. 

>?•> I<* ^"> ^'''*^»> ?"•?; to teaze, tourmenier. 

}t'\ rr° '^°'"® ^''^ world, 7kii<?e. 

r 6 \ Wh?flt ""Tk' '?' ^'^'•^^ ; difficulties, travaux. 

(60 Whatever they do, ^ot^ Von fosse ; cannot, sawir, cond-I 

♦K« n ^''^^^^'r '^ i:®^^*^^^' «"^ agrees in gender, with 
the noun to which it refers. B^"ucr, wim 

EXAMPLES. 

"T,.?*!'."i''_"l.^«? hommes, il «,. .a:;,.c« ^,^^ ^^, ^j ^^ ^^ 

come, 
several ladies have promised me to 
came, some one of Viem will come. 



en viendra quelqu'un, 
pliwieurs femmes m'ont promis 

de vemr, il en viendra oael- 

qu'une. 
quelques-uns assurent, 
entre les noavelles qu'il a d6bi- 

t^es, il y en a quelquesunes 

de vraies, 



some people affirm, 
among ike reports he has circulated, 
th&-e are some which are true. 



ra^ZtlZnt^" """""' ''"' -b«.a„tively, is of the 



j'attends ici quelqu'un, 
quelqu'un en doule-t-il 1 



EXAMPLES. 



limit here for som^ody. 
does any one doubt it 7 



Quiconque, whoever, signifies guelgue personne que ce 

it jrowrnw 5a \^ Iv,'^' '''\ i'^'~"" Vv'"-ai6Voi j me verb which 



Of TH« PIlOKOUNi. 



29d 



EXAMPLS. 

ce dwcours s'adr^se a quicon- thLt speech is addressed to whoever 
que ett coupable, « guilty. 

Quicongue is also used for celui gui, celle gviy ctlui dt 
nousy de vous, celU de noits, de vous. 



EXAMPLE. 

quicanque(de vous) ftjradu bruit, lohoever makes a noise, J shall 
je 1 en punirai, punish him. 

301. CAacwn, eacli, every one, is used either distributively, 
or collectively. 

Distributively, it means chaque persmm, chaque chose^ 
each person or thing. It is then of both genders. 

EXAMPLES. 

chocun de nous vit a sa mode, each of us lives as he pleases. 
donnez a chacune sa part,* give to each his share. 

Collectively, it signifies toufe personne, every person. 

EXAMPLE, 
chacun a ses d^fauts, every body has his faults. 

EXERCldE. 

Can any one (be still ignorant) that it is from tho 

pourrait-il2 1 ignorer encore ce d6s 

earliest in/ancy we aught to form the mind, the heart and 

tendre en/ance f, que Von dott * fvrmer 

the taste 1 Will not som^ one of these ladies be of the party % 

f. partie f. 

Some people like to read (every Ihing new). (These are) beautiAii 

aimer oL toutes les uouveautes voila de superbe 

pictures; I would wish to buy some. W/toever has studied 



tailemi ra. 



vovMr en * acheter 



* There is apparently some difficulty in determining whether tho 
possessive pronoun after chacun is to be plural or singular ; some exam- 
ples will illustrate and explain the case. 

il a donne a chacun sa part, each man can have but one share. 

touie la campagnie se retira chacun 

ch^c sol, each to his own house. 

Us ojpportaimt des offraiides chacun 

suivant sa devotion, according to the devotion of each. 

Us out apporte chacun feiw offrande. Chacun, is here taken collec* 
tively, and may be considered as an adverb having the sense of ail, 

genfiiraVy. 




SYNTAX AND tDlOMI 



own. 

• ♦ proprc 4 

and each 



the principles of an art, knows that it (is only) (by length of time) 

pes — ra. savoir ce n'est que a la longue 

and by deep reflections, that he can succeed in makinj^ it 

deprofoiul rcjkxmi f. reimir a se I rendre 3 fe 2 

his own. All the ladies of the ball were very finely d/essed, 

ial m.ind-2 * superbement pare 
differently. Everyone should for 

avail u?ie pamre differente. devrail, pour 

(the sake of) his own happiness, list-i* only to ihe voice of 

♦ propre m, n^ecouter que * voix f. art, 

roaaon and of truth. What is the price of each of these medals 7 
raison f. art, verite f prix m. f medaiUe 

Jlutrui, others, only applies to personw, is never joined to 
aa adjective, has no [aural, and is always preceded by a 
preposition. 

EXAMPLE. 

la chants se rSjouit du bonheur charity rejoices in the happiness of 
dautrui, others. 

302. Persoiine as an indeterminate pronoun, and signify, 
ing no one, nobody, is always masculine. It requires ne 
before the verb. 



EXAMPLES. 



jiersonne n'est venu 1 
n'est-il venu personne ? 
nous no voyons personne, 



no one hns come ? 
has nobody come ? 
we see nobody 7 



When it is used substantively it is feminine. 



c'est une personne active, 

ces personnes sont-elles riches 1 



he is an active person, 
are those people rich ? 



In interrogative phrases not a negative, or in those expres- 
sing doubt, personne signifies quelqu^un any body. 

EXAMPLES, 
personne oserait-il nier 7 wo\M any body dare deny ? 

jc doute qu(j personne soil assez / doubt tv/iether any body be bold 
"*™*> enough. 

^yhen personne is placed in the second member of a com- 
parison, it also means any body. 



i' 



ilK^m.AXUX-XlJ^. 



cetto plax5e lui conviont mieux 
(jn'a j)erBonne, 



that place sniis him better than any 
body 



OF THE PROh'0'»Kg, 



101 



a 



303. Rten, nothing ; which is masculine and singular, 
generally requires the negation, before the verb j in which 
case it signifies nulle chose, nothing. 

EXAMPLE, 
it ne B'attach© k rien de solide, he applies himself to wtking solid. 

When used without a negation, it means gueloue chose, 
something, 

EXAMPLE. 

je doutc quo rien soit plus pro- Idmbt whether any thine be more 
pre a faire impression que, suited to mafie cm impression 

*•*• than etc. ' 

Rim is sometimes used absolutely, in answer to a ques- 
tion ; que vous a couie cela ? rien, how much did vou oar 
for it ? nothing. ^ ^ ^ 

It always requires the preposition tie before the adjectiv*», 
or participle that follows it, and then the yerb is understood! 
as is likewise the negation, as : rien de beau que le vrai, 
nothing is noble but truth ; as if it were, il n'v a rien de 
beau que le vrai, 

304i. Ni l'un ni l'autre, require ne before the verb. 

EXAMPLES, 
ni l'un ni l'autre n'ont fait leur de- thep have not either of them done 

•TP"* .„ . „ their duty. 

m 1 un ml autre ne I'aura, neither of them shall have U. 

lis no sont morta m l'un ni l'autre, they are not dead eith^oftkm 
m 1 un m I autre n'est mort, neither of them is deai, ' 

305. Tout means every thing, alL 

EXAMPLES. 

ijritdetout h£ laughs el every thing. 

Il ne lui a pas tout dit, parce que h^ did not teU him aU, because everv 
tout n'est pas bon a dire, thing is not to be UM. -n-,*^ 

Tott/ is adverb and adjective, see No. 44. 

EXERCISE. 

To most men, the misfortunes of others are but 

PourlaplupartdeKxi. malm. ne que 

a dream. Do not to others what you would not wish to bo 

, ^^^^i»- 7ie vouloir pas que cond-l on 

S-„Kq '"* ^°"' ^^'^ '^ ^'''''^^ whether he deserves love or 
jaire HUb-6 savoir si e^e digne 

hatred. An egotist loves nobody, not even his own children- 

^Sotste pas mime propre * 

B B 



I 



302 



SYNTAX AND miOMS 



in the whole universe he sees no one but himself. He is mora 
aans • univers ne voU * (puhiisenl 

th«n (anybody) worthy of the confidence with which the kinir 

digJu: con/iance f. 

honours him. I tloubt whether any one ever painted 
«onorerde q^e ait jamais peint 

nature, in its amiaWe simplicity, better than tha feeling Qessner. 

*• = f sensible 

Has any body called on me this morning 1 Nobody, There 
t)mtrmd-l 2 1 chez maltnia. yavoir 

yraa nothing (but what was great) in the designs and 

>n"-2 g^f^ de grand dans dessan, ra. pi, art. 

works of the Egyptians. I doubt whether there is 

ouvrage m.iA. ti^u que * .ubj-l 2 

any thing better calculated to exalt the soul than the contemplation 

• r i 1 pbu fropre -- f 

of the wonders of nature. 
merveUlc f. art. -— f 

SECOND CLASS. 

OF THOSE WHICH ARE ALWAYS JOINED TO A SUBSTANTIVE. 

306. Quelque, some ; sigRifies, wn, une entre plusieurSy 
one out of several ; it is of both genders, and takes the num- 
ber of the substantive, before which it is placed. 

EXAMPLE, 

adressez-vous a quelque autre per- nppfif h somebody else. 
Sonne, a 

Quelque, quel que, may be considered as adjectives on 
account of their being declinable, see, No. 44. 

307. Chaque, each, every ; which is of both genders, has 
no plural. 

EXAMPLE, 
chaque pays a ses coutumes, each coimtry has its customs. 

308. ,/lucun, followed oiquelconque or que ce soit, agrees 
in gender with the noun to which it is joined ; it is always 
used with a negative phrase. 

EXERCISL. 

il ne veut se soumcttre a aucune he will submit to tu) authority what- 
auto'itS quelconque, ever. 

300. Quelconque^ is sometimes used as synoniraous with 
que ce soit, quel qu^il soit, and with an affirmative phrase ; 
it takes the sign of the plural. 



j'«u 



e w mora 

the king 

painted 

Geuner. 

'y. Tliere 
y avoir 

and 
art. 
is 
■ubj-1 2 

tempi ation 



rANTIVE. 

^lusteurSy 
the num- 



ctivea oij 
idersy has 



oms. 

nt, agrees 
s always 



MrUy what- 

Qous with 
e phrase ; 



Of THl PROWOUNi. 303 

EXAMPLE. ^, 

'^'doniS!,"*" '»'**^"*»»1«^ *^t any two p^inl, idHg givm. 

310. eer<«Mn, certain, some; in this sense i'- nsed alike 
oi persons and things, with which it agrees in gender s but 
It IB always placed before the substantive, 

EXAMPLE, 

^'^tm^f tfnZhSJ!^^'' ''°"""''' ^ '"'''' ^"''^ son^ermn, or woman 
<w, ft une certame femme, say. 

311. Un.une, a or an j when used indeterminately for 
quelque, certain, some person, or some thing, takes th« 
gender of the substantive with which it is joined. 

EXAMPLES. 

"^ irrj« LnSfr^" • •'^^"' ""° /j^o/A-^rftn a large and beLufki 
granue et belle praine, meadow. 

EXERCISE. 
Some enligiitened people among the Egyptians preservea 

• J o "" *^®* **'^ ** ^""^^ ^"^"^S' ^^«^se attributes thet 

ind-2 irfcf ^i,e art Am< m. pi. 3 X 

represented under various symbols ; this (is proved) 

by the following inscription upon a temple, " I am al> that 

^^"f * f. de m. ce qui 

has been, is and shall be; no mortal ever removed the veil that 

3 nmid 2 1 lever ind-4 voUe m. 
covers me." Every nation has (in its turn) shone on the 

f> -d S071 tour 2 brille 1 

/A^X °*' ^^"^ '^°''^- '^^*''° " "0 ^«^o« «^«^^^ that can 
^'^^'^^'^ . raison f. 

,/=^w!!r^;. 1 ^^"^ '° 'n "^"^"^ ^S"''^* appear monstrous and 
dttei7niner k 1 y2 f. ^*^ —truenx 

deformed, considered separately, or too near; but, if they ar** 
' dii<y"im f. pi. sipareinent de pris on Us 

put in their proper light and place, tu tr.3 point of view 

rnei * jour dknr Jlr,. ^,^f^ 

restores them to beautv and rrrnc 

kur rendre * art. = f. art. ~ f. 



a lady remarkably beautiful. 
ind-4 1 d'unerare'2 beautil. 



v^-* I-.. 



voir 



4 



304 



STKTAJI AND UlIOMS 



THIRD CLASS. 

OF THOSE WHICH ARE SOMETIMES JOINED TO A 
SUBSTANTIVE, AND SOMETIMES NOT. 

312. JVw/ and pas un, no, not any, not one ; are used 
either relatively to, or with a substantive, with which they 
agree in gender, and require nc before the verb -vhich they 
govern. 

EXAMPLES. 

iiUt de toils ceux qui y ont 6l6, not one of these who went there has 

n'en est revenu, returned. 

pas un ne croit cette nouvelle, not one believes that intelligence. 
je n'en ai rtulle connaiseancc, / have no knowledge of it. 

it n'y, a pas une scule personne theie is not a single person that be- 

quilecroie, , ui >/ Uevesit,, 

313. Aucun signijRes nwZ, no> "ot ^^^i when accompa- 
nied by a negation, and may be followed by the preposition 

EXAMPLE. 

voua n'avez aucun moycn do you have 7w means of succeeding in 
rfiussir dans cette affaire, that affair. 

This pronoun is seldom used in the plural, except before 
substantives, which, in some particular sense, are better 
employed in that number. 

EXAMPLE. 
U hVi' fait aucunes dispositions, he hasmade no preparatioiu. 

Rem. Jlucun may bo used without the negation in in- 
terrogative sentences, or in those which express doubt, or 
exclusion. 



EXAMPLES. 



attcun hotiiifie fut-il Jamais plus ims ever miy vum more success/id ? 

heureux 1 

on doiite qu'aucttne dc ces af- they doubt whether any of those 

faires r^iississe, affairs loUl succeed. 

le |rius beaa niorceau d'elo- the finest piece of eloquence theit 

qu^ice qu'il y ait dans au- exi. is in any language^ etc. 

ctme langue, etc. 



EXERCISE. 

No v/ie likes (co see hinaseif) as he 

se voir tcl que 



IS. i\o expression, n» 
f. 

truth of desi^ and colouring, no strokes of genius in that jnreat 
f. dessein de cdo^ris trait 



6» TH« PROiNOUKi. 



306 



^T* • mime 



s;";sr' •'"'•'«?"- (^-:tl> i 



an*!* 



readoning 
TO-.$onnemeiU ni. 
piu^ of glory 



Did any man ever attain to such a 

jamais 2 parveUr'md-i 1 cs * 

I doubt whether thcrd 'd6 in- any science a 

(me y av ir Bubr-l ' . .^ f 

more evident principle. 
plus lumimux 2 pc m. 1 

nhtit •^"';^'°*^»«''» expresses a difference between' tViro 
objects, or between one and several, as : quelle auh^ 
chose Mez-vous <le moi ? what else'do y;uS of mt 
-iEM. ^wfrc IS sometimes used relatively of persC s, but 
in an mdeterminate manner, as: faime^mielx gu^ vZ 
Vappremezde tout autre que de moi, I had rather ylu le^n 
It ofany other person than me. ^ 

Pallr: V^"" ^'"f''' '! ""^Y"' S®"^^^« and numbers, Pun 
I aut?e, les urn les autres, les unes les autres. each other 
one another. ' umer, 

EXAMPLE, 
il faut so secourir I'un ['autre, we oughi to assist me anotk^. 

Of one another, to one another, of eadk other, to each 
other, are rendered by, Pun de Pautre, Pun a /Wrl the 
preposition being placed before /'at^/re\ 

When used separately, they denote a difference. 



EXAMPLF. 
les passions s'entendent les 
unes avec les autres ; si I'on 
se laisse aller aux unes, on 
attire bientot les autres, 



our passim^ correspond tcith one 

ariother ; if ne abandon mr selves 

loth ones, t/ie others wiU soon 

JoUoio. 



Rem. In the latter case /'t^Ti is used for the person, or 
thing first mentioned, and Pautre, for the nerson. nn LZ 
iasl spoken oi. * ' '""*=» 



* This is acco 
Vu^n being the 
Pautre, that is 



ccoi-dingto common rules of grammatical corastniction ■ 
B b2 



306 



SYNTAX AMD IDIOMS 



316. Uun ei V autre, both ; these two words mark union j 
run€ H P autre sont bonnes, both are good.* 

EXERCISE. 

Aik ^ anotkeri Would any oUwrhay^ b«en to 

Demandeid avoir cond-2 asuz 

■olf<(mc«*ited us to think that his priTate ojMnion could 
tV amour-propre * pour penser que partiaUie/-2—f.l poiivoir 

counterbalance tho public sentuncntl Reason and faith 
»ub-3 baJnncer 3 ojrinion f. 1 Raiton f. foi f. 

equally demonstrate that we were Created for another life 
9 (i€monlre?' I crew ind-4 f. 

They speak ill of on* another. The happiness of the people con- 
parler mal de in. 

■titutes that of the prince ] their true interests are connected with 
/aire — .m. intiritm. lie d 

each other. Presumption and pride easily im'nuate them- 
pl pi. t art. presomplionf. wrt,. orgiteil 3 ae glis^ 

•elves into the heart; if we allow one admission, it is 

1#*1 ' m. Vony donne d 2 f. 3 entree 1 

mucn to (be feared) that we shall soon (abandon our-elves) to the 
bien craindre on * bientbt 2 ne se liwe 1 

other. Both relate the same story, though imlher believes 
rapporter faitm. ;■'"■ '"''>-; ne penser 

it to be true. 

que * soit 

317. Le mtme, la mtme, les mimes, (he same, the very 
same, are used relatively to, or with a noun, and agree in 
gender and numl^r with it. 



C9 sont les mdmes raisons, 
ce poSme est le m6me que cclui 
oont je vous ai pari^. 



they are the same reasons, 
this poevi is the same that I 
vyMioning to you, 



toai 



318. Tel, telle, altho'igh properly adjectives, may also be 
used relatively in speaking of persons. 



* IJun et Vavtre, ni Vun ni Vavtre. In the nevr edition of the Die 
tionnaire de I'Academie, the following examples are given. 

Pun et V autre y a manque y each of them has failed. 

Vun et V autre sont venus, both have come. 

ni Pun ni Pautre ne viendront they will not come either of them. 

ni Pun ni PoAiitc ne vieitdj'n. nsithfir nf thsm ■»■!!! ftmr-. 
It seems that the verbs in the plural when Vun et Pautre, ni Pun ni 
Pautre, may be transferred after tne verb, as an adverb, ils sont venus 
Pun et Pautre, but when there is no distinction, but union in the 
action.— See Pe«<Zuin/ies No 32C. 



09 THE PRONOUNS. 



807 






EXAMPLE. 

tel fait ties lib^ralitifl, qui uo such is liberal in giving who doet 
paio pui Ben detten, not pay his debts 

319. Plusteurs, which is always, as an adjective, joined 
to a noun plural, may also be used absolutely in reference 
to persons. The verb which it governs must be in the third 
person plural. 

EXAMPLE. 

pluaieuw ont cru le moiide 6ter- some or several have thought the 
n*l> icarlii to be eternal 

EXERCiSE. 

Doea he always maintain the sajtie principles '] Yen, they are 
smdenir — pe out k 

absolutely the same. That general ia the same who commanded 
—ment pi. ~ —der'mil-2 

last year. SiuA a conduct is inexplicable 

art. dernier 2 unnie f. i « 1 conduite f. — 

There are no such customs in this country. I never 

de cmUumes f. 2^^y^ ^- o,i 

heard (any thing) like it. Such a man sows who 

tnten-dic dire nen de * * semer 

received several 
recevdr ind-4 3 

letters Of tlioae raanuscrii»(3, ihere are several much 

lettre f. pi. Parmi — crits y en avoir qu'on beau- 

esteemed. Many by endeavouring to \njnre others 

caup 2 estime I c?i s'efforr^r de nuire d ert. 

Injure themselves more than they think. 
se nuire a nepenser 

FOURTH CLASS. 

320. OP THOSE WHICH ARE FOLi^oWED BY THE CONJUNCTfON 
que, AND WHICH REaDIRE THE SUBJDNCTIVE MOOD. 

They are gut que ce soit, guoi que ce soit, guoi qu£, quel- 
que, quel qv£. 

Qui que, whoever, is only said of persons, and signifies 
Quelque personne que, whatever person ; it requires the verb 
following to be in the subjunctive. 

EXAMPLES. 

qui que ce soit qui ait fait ceia, whoever has done that, is a man of 

c'est un habile homme, tedents. 

qui que jo sois, whoever I may be. 

qui que ^'ait elS, whoever it may have been. 



r^fien reaps nothing. I this morning 
recueillir 1 3 matin 4 



qui que c'eiit €U, 



tohoever it mifiU have been 



30f8 



8r>?TAX AKD IDIOMS 



^ui que ce puisse etre, 
je n'ai Vu qui que ce soit, 



esperer de 
Whatever he 

to dfestrdy 
detruire 



whoever it may be. 

I saw -iwbiHiy ;. / did not see any. 

quoi que ce soit, lo succeed in any thing whatever. 

EXERCISK. 

rf!' ^^^^^"'P^r un =2 resvect ml 

«.«^monu.ent e^^^d by g.atitudo; , is the Totb 

of a Just and bte^.ent ^^ 7" l^r ^J\. ,^7- 

beloved who has regard for no one? 

"« «s d'egards 

may do or ^ say, he (will find it) very difficult 
. J^^^ ««*^« bien de la peine 

prejudices so deeply rooted d „ j 

"^XZSte """'""' """ S."'" "^"'"^ '"*^'-- 

/. __ *i ^ ., - , ^ se detmj.rner 

from tlie path of virtue. 

chemin ra. an f. 

CHAPTER V. 
OF THE VERB. 

321. CONCORD BETWEEN THE VERB AND THE SUBJECT. 

The subject is that of which something is affirmed and 
may always be known by the answer to this q™n ani 
est-ce qm / who, or what is it ? as : Purre wY, P^ter "i^r 
Vo,,muvoU, the bird flies; if it be asked, quiVlccaui 

ttt t:^ The *" "™' >'■ '*'-" ?«' "'^ ? -h^t ^l 
P^n-e'ald SL^ZZ f^K^ll^l^-r' .few that 

There are three subjects or"pe;™sri;7«,'re«rt 
Mou/(e,«fe, singular; »o««, ^ ,7* /to, pQ,.""' ■^' 

sublec? '"™' '' "^ ''"' ^™'' """"^'- ""'pe-- »" -s it. 



OF THE VKRB. 



30!) 



EXAMPLES. 



/, 



je ns 
tu joaea 
il aime 



/ Uiugh 
tAou j}laijest 
he loves 



nous parlons 
vous plaisantez 
lis sont fous 



ue speaJc 
you jest 
t/iey are mad 



la vertu est ainiablc, virLue is amiable. 
Ris is in the singular number, and the first person, be- 
cause jV, its subject, is in the singular, and the first person. 
Joues is in the singular, and the second person, as <«, is in 
the singular, and the second person, etc. 



EXERCISE, 
he who 



in 



The most free of men is he who can be free even 
li^re art. celui metne 

slavery. Are we not often blind to our defects 1 

art. esdavage m. ♦ s^aveiigkr ind-l sur defaut 

All men (are inclined) to laziness, but the savages of hot 

lart. tendre ind-l art. sauvage chaud 2 

countries are the laziest of all men. Do you think of imposing 
art. pays 1 * enimposer 

long on the credulity of the public ! Thou canst not deny 

bngtanps a =f — ^m. pouvoir nicr 
that he is a great man. 
lie Buhj-l 

When a verb is govenied by two or more nouns, in the 
singular, it must be in the plural. 



EXAMPLE. 



nion p6re et ma mere m'aiment 
tendiement, 



my father and mother 
tenderly. 



love me 



EXERCISE. 

His uprightness and honesty, make 
droUure f. pron. honnetetc faire 

every body. Strength of body and of 



liim courted by 
rechercher de 

mind meet 



art. f. 

not always together. 
ensemble. 

precious gifts 

= "Z. don m. pi. 1 



art. ccUe 

A good heart and a 
m. 

of nature, 
art — f. 



art- se rejwontrer 

noble soul aro 

bean f. de art. 



322. When a verb relates to subjects of different persons, 






with the second rather than the third. The person addressed 
is named ^7**^, and the person addressing last. On this 
occasion, the pronoun plural nous, is generally placed before 



310 



• rWTAX AND lUlOMt 



the verb, as its principal subjects, if one of the several sub- 
jects, IS m the first person, and the pronoun plural vous, if 
there is' no first person. - ' 

EXAMPLES 

"""li^nnr^r ^'^^i ''\ ""?'' ?°"^ ^^'' *?/'"'^ ^''l^^, a^^ I, read 
nouvelle, ^^ ^ '* ^'^'^"'^ ^^ei/^r the mw pamphkU 

"Zl^Z"^^^ ami,vous viendrez f/au and your friend mUconu wUh 

-- EXERCISE. 

rou, your friend, and I, have each a different opinion. In 

chacun 2 f. i 

enjamef. se plaire ind-2 a inf-1 

ther. Neither I, nor (any one else) have been able - to un- 
, , , , ^* d'autrcs ne pouvoirintlA * com- 

and your brother, not to ("give way) to the impetuosity of your 
,. ; . * ae sabandonner = 

disposition. 

caractcre m. 

323. When a verb has the relative pronoun gui for its 
subject. It IS put in the same number and person as the noun, 
or pronoun, which is the antecedent of that relative. 

EXAMPLES. 
veH^r^"" *' '"' ''^"^ "°^- i^ ^i^y^^ told this 7iews? 

v:rsorhete?xr""'"^ '' X^:^^^^^-^^ ^- --^-^ «- 

TT ., EXERCISE. 

cehd ^^'^^jojfl^lains most of mankind, is not always he 

celui se plamdre k plus art. /towme pi. ^ 

""fc^r/S""^ '" ''°"""™ <°^ *™> Y»» thae ™h 

♦ . u ^'"' vouloir 

'." r*, ^°" ™;^ t 'W' 7r"'; ^""■^^^'^ '"-^ 

t.spi If ne t. pi. foriement congu I pi. 
nobly expressed, read the works of Homer and Plato 
rwblenieTd exprime onvrage 

324. There are some cases in which a verb, although 
governed by several nouns in the singular, is not put in the 

third nprgnn rk1iii.»] A r^ „ °i ^ ^ . r"* '" "*^ 

^ - _ - y^^^., j.-^ j^.^y CAUuipics oi sucii cases are 
here given, with remarks on the cause and nature of their 
deviation from the mle given, No. 322. 



1. 

2. 
his bi 



OF THl VBRB. 



ift 



EXAMPLES. 



le toi aussi Men que son ministre, 
veut le bien public, 

son honnetete, autant qiie son es- 
prit, le fail r^iherchtr, 

Tenvie, comme 1 urabition, est une 
passion aveugle 

la seduction, o^t la terreur Va en- 
traine dans le parti des rebelles, 



Ike king as well as his minister, 
wishes /or the public good, 

his honesty, as much as his wit, 
makes him courted. 

en''}y, like ambition, is a blind pas- 
sion. 

either persuasion, or tenor, has 
draum him into the party of the 
rebels. 



Observe. First, that : aussi bien que son ministre, au- 
tant que son esprit, comme Vambition, are, as it were, ad- 
vtrbial phrases, which might be placed at the end of the 
sentence le roi veut le bien public, aussi bien que son mi- 
nistre, etc. and consequently that, although there are ap- 
parently two subjects, there is really but one. 

Secondly, we do not affirm that la seduction in conjunc- 
tion with la terreur has acted, but that either the one or the 
other has done so. There is consequently no unity in the 
action, no collective effort. 

325. A verb may be in the singular, when preceded of 
nouns substantives in the plural. 

biens, tlignjtes, honneurs, tout dis- riches, dignities, honours, every 

parait, a la mort, thing vanishes at death.' 

jeux, conversations, spectacles, games, conversations, shmos, no- 

rien, ne la distrait, thing diverts her. 

perfidies, noirceurs, incendies, mas- perfidies, enormities, conflagraMons, 

sacres, ce n'est la qu'une faible massacres, all this k but a feeble 

image, etc. representation, etc. 

non-seulement toutes ses riehesses not anly all his riches and honours 

et tous ses honneurs, mais toute but all his virtue vanishes. * 
sa vertu s'evanouit, 

In the three first examples, all the things enumerated 
biens, dignites, honneurs, jeux, conversations, spectacles, 
are summed up in the words tout, rien, ce n^est-ld, which, 
being singular, must necessarily have the verb they govern 
in the same number. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Fear or inaliility prevented them from moving, 

2. The fear of death, or rather, the love of life, began to revive in 
his^bosom. 

0. Aiciuiades, as wetl as Plato, was among the disciples of bocratca. 

4. Lycurgus, like Solon, was a wise legislator. 

5. Euripides, as much as Sophocles, contributed to the glory of the 
Athenians. 



SfNTAX AND IDIOMS 

JSntrnSrLtaToT^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^« '^' becauBe^„o„a/of those 
O:^ ln&bmy,ivtpuissa7ice ; moving, r«wiW€r. 
U.) Began to revive 5e reveille; In, aufand de.- bosom. r«ur 
U.) Among au ttombje de. ^ j > «/ou*m, wwr. 

(6.) We, /?^/i ; none, rim ; those things, tx>ut cda. 

326. PECULIARITIES. 
La gloire et la proaperite des mechants CHt courte. 
It might have been soni courtes ; but as each sUbiect 
^ot w 7 ^ '^P^-'l*^ proposition, /«, ^/ozVc rf.* mechants est 
couite, la prospente des mechants est courte, F6n61on has 

subject '" '^"^"^^' ^' ^^'"S applicable to each 

Bacine has said : 

Q,uelle 6tait en secret ma honte et mes chagrins. 

Quels etaient would have been more regular, but in point 
ot elegance, and as a latinism, the verb has been made to 
agree with the first noun. 

Ni j'un ni I'autre no sera I'ambasBadeur. 
JNi la force ni la douceur n'y peuvent rien. 

One alone can be the ambassafieur, and consequently the 
verb can only be applicable to one of them. ^ 

ver^Ll;St3?rurr"^ both unavailing, consequently the 

327. NOUNS OF MULTITUDE AND NOUNS COLLECTIVE 

PARTITIVE* 

1. The words armee, army; peuple, people j nation, 
assembly J or any other nouns of multitude have the verb 

EXAMPLES. 

le'rrplitunfpaix"'""""'"''' 5f '^T*'^- .^ *^«^ innvMom, 
IB peupie veut la paix, the people vnsh for veace. 

^procegera, ^ jwo^ec^ Am. * ' 

un peupie de heros va naitre, a nation of heroes wiU, spnng. 

2. Nouns collective partitive as la 'nhinn'^ t^..-.^a^ ^..-.^ 
gmntm, quaDtity j multitude, multitude Vni/w^Tnumber • 
beaucovp, much j ;;ew, few ; etc., etc., have the verb in the 



m 



OP THE VERB. 



313 



itly the 
tly the I 



ii r 



EXAMPLES, 
la plupart du monde le oroif , , . 

la plupart dcB hommcs le |S„' „» ^^^i ^^^^^^ ^^^i^e it 
une troupe do jeunes gens S ''"'^ "^^'^ ^''"^^' ^<'- 
raient apres lui, * ^^^'^ ^-Z y'^wn^ /v^/e ran aftet- 

Whatever be the noun which rln » 
^^ ?"fV^ -^^ --t be in the in^u^. ^^ "^^^'^' ^' '^^^s, 

6ZH, The words infinite and /a «/w«an 
selves, require the verb to be in the Sural as"?'!^ ^^. ^^'^"^^ 
pensent, la plupart sent d^avis, whenever de p^sZnl^-^'!^ 
homms, etc, are understood, ^^^^ personnes, or cfg, 

EXERCISE, 

inlvlf Hu^raTSrd'^^^^^^^^^^^ ^' --^-h-e, a state 
2. M.^y ;,..^. think that pSyTs the ^rt of un^^S^ • 

truth, by calling imagination^o tL Up of^eion'"^ P^""""^" ^^'^ 
»». I'^ac persons consider that *;»,« i-j 

unreasonable avarice ""*'' '^^ "'^«y. «»aj be lost by 

away from the wicked the ro of hff ^ •'' j™?™S '"™''''». 'o'ako 
.ons, and from envy ito serums , '""""'''' *""' ''"'"""y "» Poi- 

'r^^Z^^ZS ™ '=" "-" - ""= '='="' »f battle : .ho 
I^'ln^U::,^XtS.:n',:4^j|.^^^^^^^^^ »« .he .ee„i„ 

hi /nZ^' ^''"""P' • ""^^"^ '■"' '*' ^e^^* '^ / linen lin 

C c 



314 



"TNTAX AND miOMK 



^g.^Moo», mure, „U^, « „,^^, ^,,„^^^ ^^^^.^^^ ^^^^^^ 

"toq" t!! ™.' '"""'" ^"" ■'^«^«'' -O ™= VERB. 

Drecedk 1/ ™ jl*"' f ""^ v^'''' "''"" * "<>»" ">"" always 
precede the v erb, and cannot b^ separated from it <^il, 

aLurr^."' "^"o"-^ ~" '" '"«^-'- Ttt 

EXAMPLES. 



le roi est revei»"» 

le roi ne r«"^endra pas, 

Ic roi Jui a parle, 

j0 roi le lui a donng, 

le roi roviendra t-il ) 

leroileluiat-ildonnfi t 

le roi ne le lui a-t-il pas donne 1 



ifj^e king has rnlurned. 
the king wiU not return 
the king has spoken to him. 
th^ king km given it to him. 
1V7M the king return ? 



fMs the king given it to him ? 
330 Whpn fho K- ■ . "^ ''"^ ^^^ ^'''S given it to Mm ? 

EXAMPLES. 



je parle, 

parle-t-il 7* 

ne lui a-t-il pas parle ? 



/ speak. 

does he speak ? 

hasheru>t spoken to him 7 



EXERCISE. 

coL%r dS Jhi'^ur^" ^'""'^ ' '''''' ^"^'^P^ '^ * <^-«rt their 

man i'Cs^JTst ttl pt^te'o/S^tf r '.''^•^^ ^^^^^ ^f a 
thing to truth. Presence of God, and who is to sacrifice every 

4. The ambition and avarir^ nf mo« ^i. 

happiness. '^^'^^ ^^ ™^" are the sources of his un. 

5. They punish, in Crete, three vicps whi,.!, i. 



* i«5 u»e of 



ia» hyphen h«« been explained, No. 4. 



y 



I 



f. 

ERB. 

Iways 
except 
>r the 



OF THE VERB. 



im ? 

s the 
ative. 



itself: 
ng to 

their 

^of a 
every 

> rm^ 

uipu- 

e. 

ihing 

itself 



M to 



\i 



1 



315 



etc (t/ua a^el hunger m^A.^''^''^'.'^ Numidie; eoaded bv 
«', «/fc, .7*, elks areiuppSd! '^ ""*'' ""^ ''^'^' «■"» 

are to be^urned fh'u^ ^ ',71^ ^^^ "^^«h ; such questions 
</or*.? "^' est-ce-gueje cours r est-ce que je 

, __ BXERCISE. 

I. Have you forgotten all thof t> , 
Aat;. 3^^ escaped the shaf^ of v^.T''^^"*:^ ^*« ^^^n^ for you? how 
preserved from the dangers whh^h^ enemies? i,ow /i^^r/y^m been 

tCtl: '" '""' ^«^^* to ^kntfedge?„T'^ ^°" °"^^ «'^«'^ ^^ 
2 ^^J"""^^"lo««ly savcdyuu I ^^ ^"'^^^^''^ ^^e all powerful hand 

«-« of mXTftet'^^E^ 

mature you make use ofS onlvl^ T^'-^' ^°" ^^^« Feceiv^ S 

3. I>o not ^/ie^/s/^^;^^J'^°^'/ to deceive and co^^^^ "°"' 

our *^osperity. "^ '"^^"^ ^^«^ ^^e experience often cont^iute to 

a whole, anrbetu'stlhf iXl?" P''^^^*^*^ Because each work is 
«he never deviates. Why on thT- "^^ ^" ^^ernal plan, from which 
so imperfect? It is becaC tt IS"^'^'^' ?'^ ^'"'^'^'^^^Sof ^^^ 
any thing and incapable ^f^'embirdiTr '"^^ ^'^^ unable to JrTate 
can^^^produce only a., ^^^t^:^^^:^^:^^^ 

^^i^^^S^^^^^^ preserved, ,aran^^, ,, ,„ 
(2.) Devotino- consacrrr- mltb^ J ', ^*''^<^> coiiserver. ' 



(4.), Because. c'^siC^ !'/?"'"''""« •<>. '«<m«- m. - -"- - 



U^M-^tI'JC ''' ""^ '" ""™«o»». are lite^IIy 



je meurs innocent 
jo lo vcux bi 



EXA.MprEo. 



dit-il. 



adit Louis I die innoceni, smd Louis 
^ (*^i very wiUing said h^. 



XVL 



31& 



t/TNTAX AND IDIOMS 



I 



The subject of impensonal vei 

EXAi IPLES. 



is placed after the verb. 



il est amv6 de grands raalhcurs, great misfortunes liave happened. 
a vint a ma voix un bon vidllard, at mij call, there rame an oltl man^ 

333. When tlie adverb and adjective ainsi, iel, begin 
Ihe sentence, the subject is placed after the verb. 

EXAMPLES^ 

tel ^tait I'acharnement du soldat, such was the fury of the '■ Hitr 

que, etc. thaty etc. 

ainsi finit cette sanglante tragS- thus ended thai bloody tragedy, 

die, 

fiXERCISE. 

1. True glory, said he is founded on humanity; whoever prefers 
his own glory fo the feelings of humanity, is a monster of pride, and 
not a man. 

2. There have happened, for these ♦ ten years, so many events ex- 
ceeding all probability, that posterity will dnd it very difficult to credit 
thetn. 

3. Such teas that incorruptible Phocion, who answered the deputies 
of Alexander, who were telling him that this powerful monarch loved 
him as the only honest m&n ; well, then Ji, let him allow me 1 to be 
and to appear so. 

4. Thus ended, by the humiliation of Athens, thai dreadful war of 
twenty-seven years, to * ^^'hich ambition gave rise, which hatred made 
atrocious, and which was as fatal to the Greeks, as their ancient con- 
federation had proved advantageous to them. 

(I.) Is founded, v£ se trouverpas hors de; feelings, sendmenl. 

(2.) There have happened for, il se passer depicts ; exceeding, kors 
de ; probability, vraisemUance ; will find very difficult, avoir bien de la 
peine ; to credit, ajoulerfoi a. 

(3.) Loved, cherir ; honest man, homme de bien ; well Jto ! to be so, 
d^etre tel; appear so, leparaltre. 

(4.) Emho, se tei-miner ] gave rise, fairenaUre\ mViAG ^ rendre \ had 
pro vol, ttre. 

After aussi, peut-etre, aussz bien, the verb assumes the 
interrogative form. II est ricke, missi est-il recherche, he 
is rich, and therefore sought after. 

334. The noun or pronoun subject comes also after the 
imperative ofpouvoiy-, devoir, and faire. 

EXAMPLES. 



puissent tous les peuples se con- 

vaincre dc cette veritCi 
dusse-je y perir, j'irai, 
fasse lo ciel <jue .... 



may all nations be convinced of thi^ 

truth, 
though I perish there, I will go. 
heaven grant that » . ^ , 




0» THE ViRB. 



317 



The 



lere are some other cases in which the subject may be 
placed after the verb, but only as a matter of taste and 
elegance Such transpositions must be left to the experien- 
ced writer. 

fiXERCISE. 

1. The gods grant that vou may never experience such misfortunea ! 
*• 5?ay. yoU) oh wise old man, enjoy the happiness you deserve. 
J. 1 hough I were to perish in this enterprise, 1 will not give it up. 



^1.) Grant, /aire; experience, cprouver de. 
To enjoy, jouir de ; ha 
To give up, renancer a 



^ _ \^ia.m, jaire ; exnenenco, cjyrouver de. 

'i'\ .T° ^f^J'^y' ^°^^'' "^ ' happiness, le bonheur que. 



335. The distinction between the active, passive, and 
neuter verbs has already been explained, No. 94, 95, the 
regimen direct and indirect have also been explained. No. 
170. ^ ' 

The noun, which is the object or accusative case of a 
verb active, as also the indirect cases, are all placed after the 
verb. 

EXAMPLES. 

une mere cherit ses enfants, a mother cherishes her chUdren. 

un pjre donne tous scs soins a a father gives aU his atleiUim to 

safamrlle, his family. 

je re^ois une lettre de mon frSre •/ receive a letter from my brother. 

N.B. The placo of personal pronouns has also been fully 
Explained, No. 223 and following. 

i;^£RCIS£. 

He has discovered to all other uationi his ambitious 

mmitrer art. * peuple m.fl. =2 

design of enslaving them, and has left 

dessein m. I meUre dans Vesclavage inf-l ne laisser 

us no means of defending our liberty, but by endeavouring 

aucun moyen inf-l qut: en tdcher inf-3 

to overturn his new kingdom. Homer represents Nestor as 

de renverser royaume m. 

the man who restrained the ungovernable wrath of Achilles, 

ceUi moderer ind-^ bouiUant courrouxm. 

the pride of Agememnon, the haughtiness of Ajax, and the 

Jieite f. 
impetuous courage tjf Diomend. He dared not lift nn 
= — m. 1 niorHide oser ind-2 lever * 

his eyes, lest they should meet tl ^' his 

*art. depeurde * • ren<(mtrer iai-l 

c c 2 





318 



iYNTAX AND lUIOMS 



friend, whoae very uilcnce condemned him. 

art. mdmc 2 m. I ind-2 

theni, because he loves thctu. 



lie caresses 



336. When an interrogative sente»ice begins with gtul, 
de quel, the object comes before the verb. 



EXAMPLES. 



quel objet voyez-voua 1 

a quelle science vous appliquez- 

V0U8 1 

de quelle aflfaire s'occupo votre 
frdre 1 



what object do you, see ? 
to what science do you apply your- 
self, 
what is hreUier (dwut 7 



337. Thougli the natural order of the ideas seems to re- 
quire that the regimen direct be placed before the indirect, 
the perspicuity of the sentence does not allow it in all 
cases. 

When a verb has two regimens, the shorter is generally 
p'aced first ; but if they be of equal length, the regimen 
direct will precede the indirect. 

EXAMPLES. 



lee hypocrites s'etudicnt — a parer 
U vice — des dehors de la 
vertu, 

les hyiwcrites s'etudient a pa- 
rer — des deliors de la veiiu — 
les vices les plus honteux ct 
les plus decries, 

I'ambition sacrifie — & present — 
a I'avenir, mais la volupte sa- 
crifie — faveiiir — au present, 



hypocrites viake it their study to 
deck vice mlh the appearance of 
virtue. 

hypocrites make it their study to 
deck with the appearance of virtue 
the most shameful and most odi- 
ous vices. 

ambition sacrifices the present to 
the future, but pleasure sacri- 
fices the future to the p-esent. 



1. Illustrious examples teach us, that God has hurled fromtheir throne 
princes who condemned lib laws : he reduced to the condition of a beast 
the haughty Nebuchadnezzar, wAo waTited to usurp divine honours, 

2. Wretched is » the man who feeds his minds with chimeras. 

3. Our interest should prompt us to prefer virtue to vice, wisdom to 
pleasure, a^id modesty to vanity. 

( 1 . ) Illustrious, fameuz ; teach, aj-preiuh z ; hurled, renverser ; haugh- 
ty, superbe ; Nairuclwdonosor ; wanted, vo loir. 
(2.) Feeds, repaitre. 
(3.) Should, devoir. ind~l ; prompt, ^o ter; pleasure, volupte. 

338. A noun may be governed at the same time by two 
verbs, provided those verbs do not require different regimens, 

EXAMPLES. 

on doit aimer et respecter ks we ought to love and respect kings, 
rots. 



OF THK VERB. 



319 



I carcs8i!« 



ith gtuly 



ply your- 



s to re- 
indirect, 
it in all 

enerally 
regimen 



study io 
nance of 

study to 
of virtue 
Host odi- 

esent to 
e sacri- 
mt. 

Ir throne 
fa beast 
ours. 

Isdom to 



haugh- 



ty two 
imens. 

1 kings. 



ce general attaquaetprit /a viUc, Ifuit getbci al attacked and took ih« 

cuy. 

But we must not say : 

- ofncier attaqua et m rendit tAat ojficer attacked and made 
iaitre do la ville, himself master of tlic city. 

But turn the sentence thus : 

cet officier attaqu<i la viUe et that officer attacked the city and 
8 en rendit luaitro, maae himself master of it. 

because attaquer is active, and se renclre requires de, 

EXERCISE. 

1. Luxury i,like a torrent, which canics away, and ovcrthrovs 
every thing it meets. 

2. Nothing can * resist the operation of time ; it, at length, nnder- 
nunes, alters or destroys every thing. 

3. Among the Spartans, public education had two objects : the 
first, to harden their bodies by fatigue ; the second, to excite and 
iwurish, in their minds, the love of their country, and an enthusiasm 
for what is great. 

(1.) Carries away, enliaiiicr ; overthrows, rc?tiwser ; every thinfr 
toiit ce que. °' 

(2.) Operation, action ; at lenth, d la tongue ; undermine, miner. 

(3. j Among the Spartans, d Sparte ; to, de ; harden, endurcir ; by d ; 
their must de reiidcred by t/ie article ; for what is great, dcs arandcs 
choses. 

339. PASSIVE VERBS. 

Passive verbs require the prepositions de ov par, generally 
de with those verbs which express a moral action, and par 
with those \\ hich express a physical one. 

EXAMPLES. 

un jeune homme vertueux est a virtuous young man is esteemed 

estime de tout le monde, of all. 

la poudre a canon fut inventee gun powder was invented hi B. 

par Berthold Schwartz, Schwartz. 

In this sentence voire ouvrage a ete lou6 d^une maniere 
fort delicate par un grand accademicien, par is used to avoid 
the repetition of ofe. 

Puristes pretend we ought not to say le monde a ete cree 
par Dieu, but de Dieu, This opinion has for its object to 
avoid an equivocation, with the oath or, rather, interjectioh^ 
purdzeu ' this is being over nice, as the words par Dieu, 
in the above sentence, convey no idea of irreverence, but on 
tlie contrery of admiration to God. 



m 



SYNTil ANtt HJloMt 



EXERCISE. 

The city of Troy wu tak?n, plundered, and destroyed by thd 
T/jie pris f. saxca^er tieti-uU 

eonfed.'rate QrcckH, 1184 years Iwforo the Christian »ra : this 
con/ederi 2 1 ans avant 2 dre l I 

tevent has been celebrated by the two great (»ofjt« of Qreeco 

art. 
fcnd Italy. You will only be beloved, esteemed, -.d 

pr, art* ne 

eourted by men, (in proportion as) you Join the 

rechercher de que autant qite jaindre ind-t 

qualities of the heart to those of the mind. God pu- 

= f, pi. pr, 3 pvn 

wished the Jews every time thatj 

nir {passive Voice ind-3 2) peuple Juif 1 tvuies lesfois 

deaf to the voice of the prophets, they fell into 

souid p-iophttc sing, toniber ind-3 • dans 

idolatry and impiety, 
art. a art. = 

' 340. NEUTER VERBS. 

The nature of these verbs has been explained at full 
length, No. 96, 126. Their chief difficulty consists in the 
preposition which they require before the noun coming aftei* 
them ; pains must be taken to ascertain it, especially as it 
almost always differs from that which is used n English. 

34' 1. Some neuter verbs are used absolutely, ast^'e d(yrs<^ 
I sleep '^je marches I walk. 

EXAMPLES. 

V0U8 plaisez a, cette dame, ymi please that laiy. 

avez-vov pense a mon affaire 1 have you thtmght of my affair "i 

342. Some govern the propos'\tion, a, such as : plaire^ 
obeir, resister, applaudir, croire, penser,, etc. etc.* 

343. Others govern the proposition, c/e, such as : jouir^ 
se moquer, se servir, 9e tromper, se repentir^ mourir, dependre^ 
avoir besoin, etc., etc.» 



♦ The government of verbs is the greatest difficulty the English 
learner has to encounter in his study of the French language, as the 
correct construction of the wliole sentence depends upon it. Suppose, for 
instance, you had to translate, imi have resisted orders on the ctecution 
of which OUT : ccess 'ievended-. If vou have Dreviouslv ascertained that 
resister gover • i the dative and dipendre the genitive, then you will say 
correctly, iWi. avez resiste a des ardres de Vexecution dcsqneh notresvxcet 



\-J 




CF TIliS V£HB. 



3S2I 



the 



into 
dans 



il jouit d'une bonne Hanto 
\h fortune tlunt il Joutt 



he enjoys f^ood hiallh. 
n *wivi...<^ «w..v « jw».... the fortune which he ciijoys. 

Observe. That mnny neuter verbs have the reflected 
fomi, thus : s'arrcter, to stop j se 2)luire a, to take pleneure 

in. 

\ EXERCISBi 

ThJs V iontimeat has pleased the king and i»U the nation. 

\ « tt 

In his Nrctirenient ho enjoys tho fa'*;ilties of his 

daM \elraitc f, jmiir dc tmtt = I. pi. 

soul. To sVndcr (any ono) h to aBBasinalc him if cold blood. 
♦ vib^irc (le qwclqu'un c'est * "^ _ - *^"^ *■ 

The honest ^nan seldom (permits liimsflf) «o -ost 
/ \ raremait 2 se per9ftvUre I dc * art. itsantene 

^ because Ik knows the most ^nnocent jests -nay 

: ^1, puree que \avoir qiie l- pl- * pouvoir 



sometimes hurt \he reputation. It is only in retirement 

(fi'^lqu^Jm nuire a \ f. cc tie que art. 

that ono truK enjoys one's self. Hu work has 

on veritulkmenC^ jouir 1 de soi ouvrage m. 

pleased every o\ because it unites to real utility 

tt art. moru^ joindre un 2 = 1. 1 

the charms of \tylc, and tho beauties of senli- 

agrement in. ^l art. n\ sing. art. pi. 

ment. V 

344i J^euter verbs, do iHt all take the same auxiliary > 
some have avoir, others have {>fre. 

KXAMI\E9. 

ils sont partis, T^u have gone 

les soldats ont couru, <Ae miers have ran. 

Some in one sense, take the auxiliary, etre, end in an- 
ther, avoir, \ 

EXAMPLES. ' 
1. lis out echappe. 3. ils sont ecliappes. 



dependait. Neglect to ascertain this point, and you will translate 
literally thus : vous avez resiste les ordres sur I'cxecutton, d^sqiiels depen- 
dait notre succes. , „ _ i -tr i i,„,.. 

The Dictionnaire des Verbes or Dictionary of French Verbs show- 
ing their regimen, 1 vol. l2mo. will it is hoped, be tound a great assist- 
ance to those who wish to write correctly. „^i«„«:„„ 

The Familiar and Conversational exercises, containing a selection 
of about 150 pages of English sentences, chosen on account ot their 
upr-uliaritv of construction and frequent recurrence m every day s con- 
Norsation, will also afford good and useiui practice ou luw suojeci. 



"1 






4. 



r-$^%^' *%.,»., ='^'»'**i4d>/-> *,/< 



322 >^ 



/if^, 



■■■ti 



■j.,^*' », ij**,-' ■■ 



«yWTAX AND IDIOM* 



^ ^.^d^^t-viz 



The first implies the 



welir consult f '^'"^^^"^ ^"^^^^ ^'^^ ^^^^"^^ wH do 

«mW JiLTolT "".^^%Thi^h take the verb tire jailer, 
l^nl IhZ' r''''-'^ ^"^^^^''' (t« overflow) c^c/7er, t/.. 

tournJJrZZ' '^''''^'^' (*^ ^^* off again), 'lulter, re~ 
' '^^''^'^''* ^^rvenir, tomber and W. / 

lesenfa "examples. 

elle etei^ arrivee avanrmo/* ^"' ^1^ c^iZ^r^;! <Z!^^^ to the garden. 
nou8 5owme5 convonn^ ^o sfie had arnveie/ore me. 

torts, "nvcnus de nos j/re Aare canfi^dmr wrongs. 

la rividre «^ debordec, ,.. - , ' 

ces grands homnipq Jy»i » .. ^"^ *"*^<^ ha$>verjtovon. 
ctdps, "'*''' "^ ^^'^^ de- i/i^5e^r^c4#tm m-^ all dead. 

^ mes' ^'"^'■^*^"« ^''^^^ devenus true leai*ed nien have become scarce 

vot^^bilIet...«echuavantvotre your fU wiU faU due tefore you 
ces oBufs sont eclo^ ^'^^^- 

il est intervenu dans c^i f o . «• • ^^ ^^^^ '^''^ hatched. 

on dit que son p?L et ;5T' ^"^ ^^^[fered in that affav; 

scmtmotts ^ ^* '* "^^« ^J'^y thai his mothe,' and father 

sentions ' '"'"' "^' ^« "°« d«' ^^ ^m/^^.«^. /^^. sprung frm. 
masosureto/narHno., *.• our dissentions. * "^ 

ce manage. P''"^eni/de ^c ./izZ«V,^ ^ai! are issued frok that 

Us jjort/ rpruiw« . mamage. •' 

^^^'^rep.rl„ pour la cam- <% «« j:,^ »,w^ .«,«,,^ „^«i,, 

H a vouhi courir et i\ est tomhH a. *"^ 7j 

346 TVr«.,4 ^"usjci'? why aia they covie hither? 

iJ*t). J\e liter verbs, which takp thn tr^.K 

5«5/;m2r. ''''^'''''**'^' convemr, counr, echomr, paraitre. 




These list* are taken from Mr, Sievra«'« edition? 



I 



■''i i--^''%i'--i- ■"■ 



havinflf 

ndwe 
\fi do 



\1 



\l 



\l 



- .1 



,/ 



WJ' THE VERB. 



323 

l^XAMPLKS. 

"mXfSr ■"''"'"" * *°" ^'iooafaiUr ka, ,r^i f„ ^ 

EXAMPLES. 
Jn^/4 AVOIR (fad's. Txr ■„ A 

/at accoum 6ur-le-chL a -n . , ^^^^^ ^^''h^ 0^^^). 

/ imviediately ran to his assis- ^^ ^'''''''^ '''''' ''P ^-^ ^i Aa^te. ^ 
tance. 

ilaaccrusafortuneenbicnpeu- «on ormi^Ji ..t 

de temps, ^ . o^^gueil cs« accru avec se8 

to fem Araij- ttc nigU 
la^fiev.« . cease pendant une la fievre est cesse depuis une 

face des affaires, ^ ^* cette femme ej^ chaiigee a'^fairo 

circumstances Iiave altered the fnro /;,^ .! 

of affairs. ^^'' ^^'f. i^f^'^^ « ^o a&cr^rf a^ /<, 

le bal a commence vers minuit J'^VV- 

the boM began tawardsZdt^hL' nous en1SLes,°'""^'^'' ^'^^^'^''^ 

«et enfant /z rr,A ~.«.i-^* ^^'■f,.^^^ !^^^ ^gwi w/ten we came if,. 

ladio, " i" • ■— -^^ iiia- ccae pianie es< crfte prodigieiwe'- 

tk^amd has graven dnnng his th^rpl^rUi, pr .igiously gr<ncn. 




324 



SYNTAX AND tDIOMS 



i ( 



dcpuis ce moment il a dechu de 

jour en jour, 
he has been on the decay ev>v since. 
j'ai deraeure vingt aus a Paris, 
/ have lived twenty years in Prris. 

ils ont descendu la montagne 
beaucoup plus vite qu'ils no 
Vavaievi montee, 

they have descended the hill much 
quicker than they had ascended 
it. 

le prix du ble n'« pas diminue 
depuis six mois, 

the price of wheat has not fallen 
for these six months. 

elle a dispru subitement, 

she has disappea?'cd all 07i a sud- 
den. 

ils pnt echappe au danger, 
ihey leave escaped danger. 

elle a fort embeJIi pendant son 

voyage, 
she is grown handsome on her 

journey, 
yai entr6 en ce lien, 
/ have entered that place. 
Jesus-Christ a expire sur la 

croix, 
Jcsjis- Christ expired un the cross. 
ce jeunc horame a grandi depuis 

peu de tem^js, 
that young man has grown very 

lately, 
vous avez rajeuni dans votre 

voyage, 
yon are grown younger in your 

journey. 
il a monte quatre fois a sa cham- 

bre pendant la journee, 
he went up into his room four 

times in the co^irse of the day. 
la procession a passe sous mes 

fenetres, 
the procession has passed under 

my iirindow. 
ces malhcureux oiit tous peri 

Uaijis ie combat, 
those unfortunate men have aU 

perished in the battle. 



il est bien d6chu de son credit, 
he lias lost much of his credit. 

il est demeure a Paiis pour a 6tu- 

dier la medecine, 
he has remavned in Paris to study 

physic. 
ils sont descendus, 
ihey have come down. 



il est enRn diminu^ de moiti^, 
it has at lastfaUen by half, 



elle est disparue depuis quinze 

jours, 
it is noio a fortnight since she has 

disappeared. 
ils sont echappes depuis hier, 
the have made their escape since 

yesterday. 
on croirait qu'elle est enibcllie, 
07ie would think that she is grown 

handsomer. 

vous eles cntre, restez-y, 
you are in. stay. 
la treve est expiree, 

the trxtce has expired. 

assurcmcnt vous etes bien grandi, 
indeed you are much groxon. 



vous etes rejeuni a mes yeux de 

dix ans, 
yon are grown younger in my eyes 

by ten years. 
il est monte dans sa chambre et il 

y est reste, 
he is gone up into his room and '.as 

remained Viere. 
la procession est pass^e, 
ike procession has gone by. 



que sont devenus ces malheureux 
qu'on avait cntasses dans vos 
prisons 7 ils sont peris. 

what has become of tlwse unfortunate 
men who had been heaped in your 
dungeons ? theij arc dead. 



O? THE VERB. 



BUo 



credit, 
edit. 

lour a 6tu- 

is to sttidy 



n 



lis quinze 

ice she has 

lier, 

icope since 

)cllie, 
is grown 



^n grandi, 
o%on. 



i yeux de 
In my eyes 
nbre et il 
t and '.as 



lalheureux 
dans vos 

unfortunate 
c'd in your 
fad. 



combien de temps avez-vona 
reste en Angleterre ? 

what stay did you make in Eng- 
land ? 

la pcndulo a sonne cinq heures, 

the dock has struck five. 



StVit reates sur 



re^ 



j'ai Wen vieilli depuis deux ans, 
/ am grown micch older within 
these tieo years. 



cent combattants 

la place, 
one hundred combatants have 

maimed on the field of battle. 
trois heures etaient sonnees, low- 

qu'on s'est mis a twable, 
it had strnck three, when we sat 

down at meat. 

avouez que nous sffmmes bien 
vieillis, 

confess that we are groion very old. 
OF THE VERB BEING REGIMEN. 

348. When two verbs come together the second may 
be, Ist, m the infinitive j 2tlly, in the indicative mood; 
odly, in the subjunctive. ' 

OP THE VERB IN THE INPINITIVC AFTER ANOTHER. 

3^9. The second verb is in the infinitive, when we 
speak of one person only, u e, when the subject of both 
verbs is the same. ^ 

EXAMPLES, 
je veux sortir, / ^oish to go out. 

nous esperons voir le roi, we hope to see the king. 

The subject of vouloir and s&riir is the same : / wish / 
"^^F ,?"* V^"" ""^ esperer, we hope we shall see the king. 

350. But here again is a difficulty for the learner : the 
infinitive following ig sometimes governed by the preposition 
a, sometimes by «?., sometimes by pmr, and sometimes 
there is no preposition at all. 

BXAMPLE8. 

/ like to read. 

I fear io f all. 

I loork to get my living. 

I am to go. 

This difference depends on the preceding verb of which 
the government must be ascertained. 

351. Aimer mieux, valoir mieux, alter, esperer, fallm'r 
devoir, pouvoir, savoir, vouloir, etc, require no preposition 
before the following infinitive. 



J'aime a lire, 
je crains de tomber, 
je travaille pour vivre, 
je dois partir, 



J aimerais mieux mourir, 
V0U3 devriez Eiortir, 



EXAMPLES. 

/ had rather die. 
you ought to go ant. 

Dd 



326 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMi 



I w 



i ' 



j f 



352. Achever, finir^ affeder, se depecher, se hater , 
crai dre, apprehender, desirer, etc., require tlie preposition 
de. 



il affecte de I'aimer, 
elle craignait de tomber, 



EXAMPLEg. 

ki jfecfs to like it. 
she feared to fall. 

353. AimeVf app-endre, consentir^ se plairey s^appreter, 
etc. require a. 

EXAMPLES. 



^'aime a danger, 
consentez-vou9 a I'^pouser 1 



I like dancing. 

do you coTisent to marry her ? 

Thepreposition;)owr is used when in order to,h either 
expressed or understood in English. 

EXAMPLE. 

11 va a la campagne pour chasser, he is going in the country to shoot. 

354?. Verbs generally require, before the infinitive, the 
sartie preposition which they require before the noun. 

EXAMPLES. 

je vous blame de voire rcfus, I blame you for your refusal. 

je vous blame de refuser. / blame you for refusing. 

355. Sometimes a verb governs two different prepositions, 
because it has two different acceptations. 

S^effarcer de, to endeavour, is taken in the moral sense ; 
s^efforcer a, in the physical. 

EXAMPLES. 



he tries to please. 

he exerts himself to speak. 



il s'efforce de plaire, 
il s'efforce a parler, 

These peculiarities of the language cannot be taught by 
rule ; they belong to individual words which must be con- 
sulted. See Dictionnaire des verbes. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Do you prefer living* in the country 7 

2. Come, when you have done writing. 

3. Are you afraid of falling 1 

4. He cannot walk. 

5. Does he not like travelling 1 

6. She takes delight in teasing. 

7. Has he not consented to na^ vqu 1 

8. They are gone to London to see if they can find a Houde for th» 
season. 

9. My sisters learn drawing. 




OF THE VKRB. 

1 i* iTf ^ °i'^ *** ^'"^^ ^" tune. 

U. Make haste to get up and to dress. 

'1.) Preferer, vivre ; in, a. 
o.) Craindre, 
(5.) Aimer voyager. 
(7.) Consentir. 
(y.) Apprendre, dessiner. 

(II.) Esperer; in time, a temps. 



327 



i 



je crois que vous oye?. .-aison, 
je doute que vous ayez raison, 



(2.) Finir, ind-d. 

(4.) Pouvoir. 

(6. ) Se plaire, tourmenter. 

(8.) AUer, voir, pouvoir. 

(10.) S'appreter, sortir, vcnir. 

^^^',1 ^?, *^epecher, so lever, 
s'habiUer, 

OF THE VERB IN THE INDICATIVE AND THE SUBJUNCTIVE 

MOOD. 

ihP^' ^^®V^® subjects of the two verbs are different, 
fubjuXe ""''' " the indicative mood or in the' 

EXAMPLES. 

/ thnk you are right. 
. I doubt your being rigU. 

357. The indicative mood is used after all verbs exores- 

3 Z^r"^'""' ""'' ^"'"^^" speaking ^.ara7S^. 
arie/ positive manner ; among such may be enumerated 

croxre, imagmer, concevoir, reflechir, cJsidcrer, ZseZr 

remarquer, compter, esperer, demontrer, etc., etc. ' 

EXAMPLES. 

isplrlnfltir'- .• I believe he has arrived. ' 

esperons ^ la chose ira bien, let ns hope the thing wiU succeed. 

in TvlltC' ^^'""^ "^^ conjunction que is never omitted 

358 Ifthe same verbs are used interrogatively or nega- 
tively, they require the subjunctive mood after them ^ 

EXAMPLES. 

itpTreTJ^urolif la 1''"" -n 5 ^^ '"'^ '"^^^^ '^' ^^ '^'^ 
Sr ^''^ ^^ "^"^^ ^^"« '^ y^,^ ^^Pcct the thing wUl go on 

well ? " o 

359. There are some verbs expressive of f.«r. dr.ojM ... 
^■'Zf?f "'' (/mre whicli always have the subjunctive mood 
after them, whether in the affirmative or the negative fZ., 

* This is more fully expiained'ouheTrud^i;;:';;;;;;^^ 



. Jt 



328 



SYNTAX AND IDIOM* 



je (loute qu'il vienne 
je Grains que ccla ne soil 



EXAMPLES. 



/ doubt his coming 
I fear Us being so 



EXERCISE. 



1. She thinks you have not sufficiently attended to her interest "f 

2. Do you imagine it id an easy thing to convince him 1 

3. Tliey say he is going abroad. 

4. Do you imagine I have done it on purpose 1 
4. I wish you may succeed, but I doubt it, 

6. Wc fear he wiU come in our absence, and he will be vexed not 
to find us at home. 

(I.) Croire; to have attended , s,6tre occupe de ; i»/<?r«/, inters t», 

f2.S S'imaginer, clwse facile, convaincrc. 

(3.) Abroad^ a I'etranger. 

f4.) To do on purpose, i^irccxpthn. 

(5.) D6sirer, reussir, douter de. 

(6.) Craindre, venir ; vexed, contrarie de. 

OF THE NATURE AND USE OF MOODS AND 

TENSES; 






I-: 






OF THE indicative; 
360. The indicatiDe is the mood which declares affirma- 



tively or negatively. 

the present 
the imperfect 
Vie preterit dp finite 
the pretent indefinite 
the preterit anterior 
the pluperfect 
the future simple 
the future anterior 



It has eight tenses which are 

jfe parle 
je parlais 
je parlai 
j'ai parle 
j'eus parle 
j 'avals parle 
je parlerai 
j'aurai parle 



361. The present marks that a thing is now passing, that 
is, either existing or doing. 



EXAMPLES. 



J aimoj 
ils jouent, 



/ love, do love, am loved. 

they play, do piny, are plnying. 

361. The present may be used in speaking of a thing that 
is going to be done, or take place, as being more expressive 



.- it_ _ f 

iiiiin iiiC iiiiurc 



EXAMPLE, 
jo suis de retour dans un moment, / shaU be back in an instant. 



OF THE VERB. 



a-2f) 



nterest 7 

)e vexed not 
inter^to. 



S AND 



3s affirma- 
e : 



ssing, that 



laying. 

thing that 
expressive 



tani. 



It IS also used, lu a narrative, instead of the preterit, in 
order to give more force and vivacity to the description, and 
to make the thing, as it were, present. 



EXAMPLE. 

le cheval blesse se deniono ct 
socouc son luaitre 
tonibu. 



deniijno ct the lutrsc bbin>; wounded, struggled, 
i\ Cyrua sfiook off his riUtr ; Cyrus JcU. 



EXERCISE. 

fj\ ^^'H '"• ^''^ ^'/^a.iiber, wlierc ho is relaxing his mind from the 
fatigue of business by some instructive and agreeable rcadinir. 

^. .truth, eternal by its nature, is imiuutable as God himself. 

J. 1 never U'l a day pass without de voting an hour or two to readinc 
me ancients. " 

4. his this week that the new piece comr^ out. 

Trnt.,' ?/■? ■ . •^ P»g'^g«""'"t begun. Immediately a cloud of 
buHl^if iw '?/;"' r^ '^^-rsil^ combatants; nothing /.heard 
who ^5/fn H ""^ ^]vfi'T> ""'■' H'" ^•l^"'->ri"g of the arni of those 
h^l{ Li '''''rf ' ^^'^ "■'"^^^ ^''■""'^^ ^'^^^'^^^ a heap of dead 
thi. fn'n?, I ' "r ^'''"'^ '''■''"'' '''"''y ^^■h*'^^ i t'^ere 7s nothing in 
this confused mass of men enraged against one another but Blauohler. 
despair, revenge, and brutal fury. ° ' 

(I.) Is unbending, delasser ; reading, kclurc. 

['f -) ^y, dc ; imnmiixhlti, iiiimuubl/j. 

(>3,; Let devoting, consacrcr ; reading, la lecture de, 

C'i.) Lome out, on downer. 

(5.) Sight, vrcsence; nothing was, etc., ^w ?<6' /?m<^, ind-2 ; en-rage- 
rtient began, on en vemr am nuuns, ind-a ; cloud, mude ; arroWs, traU: 
darkens, obscurar ; nothing is etc., on ne pins que ; doMnX, plainiif) 

hlT^^' *'''''^'- '''"'^''''- '"''''' ^''•°^^"«' ^'^^«"-' •^'-^"eath, sous; 
h^y, monccan : rivers, ms^cw, ; stream, couler ; there is nothing in 
etc. cc 7ie ctre dans ; mass, amas ,• enraged, achurnc ; but, %Le 
filaugater, massacre. ' ^ ' 

362. The 2?npe?'fect Je jmrlais, I was speaking, I did 
speak, 1 used to speak, I spoke ; expresses a thing being 
done at the moment another takes place. 

EXAMPLE, 
t-ua eniie, /<vrrf. 

The iniperfect expresses also repetition, habit, descrip- 
tion of things habitual and stationary. 

EXAMPLES. 

je recevais de ses nouvelles J heard from him every veeL 
toutes les semaxnes, ^ 

'^"I'llif^^*'" A P^^^j'^-^J'^i^ ^'-^^"^ I n^as in Pari^ J often vent 
souvent aux Champs Klysee., to the Chavps Ehysecs. ^ 

D d 2 



I 



330 



SYNTAX AND WlOMH 



.'. r 



'I 



iroUa la place ou elle aimait a this is the place w/ure she liked to 

s'asseoir, sit down. 

■on pere etait fier, hisfatker was very proud. 

lo livre 6tait nur la table ; quel- the book was laying upon the table, 

qu'un I'aura pris, soniebody viust have tab 



taken it. 



EXERCISE. 



1. When 1 was at Paris I went every morning to take a walk in the 
Champs Elysces, or the Bois de Boulogne ; atferwards I came home, 
where I employed myself till dinner, either in reading or writing ; 
and, in the evening, I generally wmt for amusement to the French 
Theatre or the Opera. 

2. When I was in the prime of life, like the light butterfly, I 
fluttered from object (o object, without being able to settle to any 
thine : eager for pleasure, I seized cverjr thing that had its a[)puarance : 
alas ! how far was I then from foreseeing that I should deplore with 
so much bitterness the loss of that precious time. 

3. For a short time after Abraham, the knowledge of the true 
God still appeared in Palestine and Egypt. Melchisedec, king of 
Salem, was the priest of the Most High 2 God 1. Abimelcch, king 
of Gerar, and his successor of the same name, feared God, swore by 
his name, and reverenced his j)owcr. But in Moses' time, the nations 
adored even beasts and reptiles. Every thing was God but God 
himself. 

(1.) Take a walk, sepromener ; in d; came home, reni/rei- chez soi ; 
was busy, s'occuper ; reading, (^ h.e verb) ; for amusement, me delasser ; 
French Theatre, Comedie Frangais'', 

(2.) Prime o" Ufe, Jle%ir de Vagc ; butterfly, papilloii ; fluttered, 
yoler ; being able, pouvoir ; settle, me fixer ; eager for, avide de ; had 
its appearance, m'm prescntait I'image ; how, cpie ; with so much 
bitterness, {so bitieiiy.) 

(3.) Swore, jurer ; reverenced, admirer ; the nations, on ; even, 
jusqu'd ; but, exceptc. 

363. The p'eterit definite, je parlai, is used in speaking 
of things done during a period, a year, a month or a iveek, 
entirely elapsed, and when the precise moment is specified 
or understood in which the action took place. 

EXAMPLES. 

jc lui ecrivis a mon arrivee a / icrote to him on wy arrival at 

Bath, Bath. 

nous nous rencontrames I'annee we met last year at a watering 

derniere aux eaux, place. 

This preterit has been called the historical tense, on 
account of its serving to express things which have happen- 
ed at a period distant from the present. 

EXERCldE. 

Amenophis conceived the design of making his son a conqueror. 
He set about it, after tiie manner of the Egyptians, that is, with great 



oi^ruii vmu* 



331 



she Weed to 

m the table f 
aken it. 



walk in the 
came home, 
3r writing ; 
the French 

butterfly, I 
jettle to any 
ippearance : 
leplore with 

of the true 
lee, king of 
oelcch, king 
[k1, swore l)y 
the nations 
(1 but God 

•a- chez soi ; 
vie delasser ; 

. ; fluttered, 
ide de ; had 
h so much 

on ; even, 

1 speaking 
or a ti'eek, 
3 specified 



arrival at 
I toatering 

tense, on 
) happen- 



conqueror. 
with great 



ideau. All the children who were bom on ♦ the samw day as Sesostria 
were fovM^rA^ to court by order of the king: he had them educated as 
hi8 own children, and with the same care as Scsostris. When he 
tO(is grown up, ho made hun serve his apprentioesWp in a war against 
the Arabs : this young prince learned there to bear hunger and thirst 
and siMued that nation, till then invincible. He afterwards attacked 
I^bia, and conquered it. After these successes, hn formed the project 
of subduing the whole world. In consequence of this *, he entered 
Ethyopia, which ho made tributary. He contiyiucd his victories in 
Asia. Jerusalem was the first to feel the force of his arms : the rash 
Hehoboam could not resist him, and Sesostris carried away the riches 
of Solomon. Ho penetrated into the Indies, farther than Hercules and 
Bacchus, and farther than Alexander did afterward. The Scythians 
obeyed him as far as the Tanais ; Armenia and Cappadocia were subject 
to him. In a word, he extended his empire from the Ganges to the 
Danube. 

Making, /am? de; set about it, s'y prendre; after, d / ideas, pensee ; 
brought, amener ; had educated, /aire clever; grown up, grand; made 
serve, ^^/aire; apprenticeship, apjfrentissage ; in, par ; entered, entrer 
dans ; made, rendre ; as far asjicsqu'd ; Cappadocia, Cappadoce, 

364. The preterit indijinite, fai parle, is the tense which 
is the most used in French ; it expresses things done, or 
which have happened in the course of the day, recently, 
within the week, the month or the year in which we are. 

EXAMPLE, 
j'ai rencontre votre frere ce matin, / met your brother this vwrning. 
^. The preterit indefinite is used also to express assertion of 
a thing having been done, without any reference to time. 

EXAMPLES. 



j'ai voyage en Italic, 
j'en ai parle a votre oncle, 
u'avez-vous remavque aucune 
faute 7 



/ travelled in Italy. 

I have inenlioned it to your uncle. 

have you mticed no mistakes 7 



It is also used figuratively instead of the future. 



EXAMPLES. 



shall you have do9t£ soon, ? 

yes, I shall liavc done in a minute. 



avez-vous bientot fini 1 

oui, j'ai fini dans un moment, 

EXERCISE. 

1. Enflamed with the desire of knowing mankind, I have travelled, 
not only among the most polished nations, but even among the most 
barbarous, I have observed them in the different degrees of civilization, 
froui the Biuie of siiupie natur-s to the most perfect state of society, and 
wherever I went, the result was the same : that is to say, I have every 
where seew beings occupied hi drying up the different sources of bap. 
pmess that nature had placed within their reach. 



I 



iijn|iiiiiujHiiwijuinuimii 



wmmmmmmm^ 



332 



nrHTAX AND iPIoM* 



i. I A^^w /mw/feri th,« year in Italy, xvhcre I /Uid an* opuortunllv of 
ofsemgaovcral ma«ter.pieci,8 ofai.tiqiity, and where 1 7«Sra valuable 
^llection of scarce medals. 1 there ad/,ured the porfSn.o which 
tKoy have brought architecture, painting, and niusir b!ft what J.S 
'""..Tw^r-;^'" the beautj; of thectioiateofSes '"' ^^"'"'''^ 

,J'^ 1 u' '^*' '"^"''■"•i. ^^"^rne, 2>l. to cA-; pohshcd nations vcui,/^ 
police; barbarous, nx'tm smvaL^e: from JeL k- l»^tl ' ^ ^ 
^usqu'd ; wherover'l went, dans W«. fc/ S • S re'sul w^i^'»r' •' '°' 
a^.. ..c sa.e result^ in dryin, up a tlin'^^S^t^^X S 

r^l'^"^ Opportunity, occctsion; niaater-pieccs, ch^-d'wuvm : scarce 

365. The two preterit anterior, fern parle, fai eu parU 
are commonly used after au udverh of ti^.e, sd^h as^T^V, 
ttussttot gue, quand, ^ * 

EXAMPLES. 



d6s que j'cus dine je sortis, 
dds que j'ai eu dine je suis sorti, 



assoo,i as I had di-ncd I went mil 
J did go out as S0O71 as I had done 
dinner. 




^y^^ The .a«eVe.p.^;;;i;;%=„ Z^:r; 

EXAMPLE. 

' <^out my In-eakjj^t to day 

^u7^^' J^^^ expresses the" com- 

pletion ot an action, at the moment another took place. 

EXAMPLE. 
j'avai« .oupe quand il entra, / ^ad done supper v:hen he entered- 

It IS generally preceded of Je6' que, quand, lorsouc aus- 
sitdt que, and, like the imperfect, ser'ves to expresThabitua 
thing, repetition, and to describe. * naoiiual 

EXAMPLES. 

j'alliiis a la chasso des que i'avais / ?«<'«/ /»// .7,,,^/ 

d^ieune ^ i T , shnoling as soon as I 

u«jeune, ^^ ^^^^^^ breakfast. 

EXERCISE. 

1. A.S soon ^s \ fiad eramhifl/l th\a r^K<>r..>w^ t . • » . ^ , 

its causes. " i— »"««.;««, i inca lo nnd out 

2. As soon as we had crossed the n^er, we found oui-sclves in a wn<vl 
where there was not a single foot-path tmced. °"'^^*'«'« "» * wood 



OF TJIK VERB. 



333 



iportunlly of 
'« a valuable 
n to which 
'hat pleased 

ions, paiple 
p, pur: to, 
8 tho pauie, 
3ach, d leur 

s : scarce, 

eu parle, 
8 lies gucy 



loetit out. 
I had done 

tenses as 
«. Tiie 
> to time 
8 recent- 
acts, as :- 



I mvintes 
day 

10 com- 
ce. 



? entered' 
C) aus- 
labilual 



on as I 

iiiii out 
a wootl 



3. As soon as the great Scsostris had satbjicd \m ambition by the 
feonouest of so many empires, he returned into Egypt, where he devot- 
ed the whole of tlic day to adminUtering strict justice to his people, and 
in the evening, he recreated hiniseli by holding conferences with the 
learned or by conversing with tlie most upright jKople of his kincdora 

4. i had only reccivea, like most of the grandees, aii education in 
which I had imbibed nothing l)ut sentiments of pride and insensibility • 
that w, they /ia</ //o^^tt- every thing in their jiower, to etitlc in mo the 
happy and benevolent disj^sitions which 1 nod received from nature. 

(1.) As soon as, desque; tried fo find out, en rechcrcher, 
(2.) Crossed, traverser: found ourselves, se trmiver ensace: foot- 
path, 5e7i^m- rfe. 6 6 . w* 

(3.) Tho whole of the day, j<«r/-<^t//<!7-; administering, rcnrfre / irif-1 ; 
Btnct, exact ,' recreated, deUn^ser ; by holding conferences, ds'e»<rc/«m-; 
upright, h&nnete ; people, ge7is. 

(4.) Grandee, grand; imbibed, luiser; they, mi; in their t»ower. 
cequonpouvotr,nvl-ii) stifle, etmijjtr ; henc\ oltaxX, bienjaisant. 

367. The future absolute, jeparkrai, is that tense which 
expresses tliat an action or event will take place, at a tim^ 
which does not yet exist. 

EXAMPLE. 

j'irai domain a la campagne, I shall go to-mo) row into the country. 
The future anterior is the tense which expresses that at 
a time when a thing will take place, another thing will have 
already taken place. 

EXAMPLE, 
quand j 'aurai fini jo sortirai, whe^t I have done, I shall go out. 

368. It is customary in English, to put the present tense 
after when, it is not so in French, the future tense must al- 
ways be used, if speaking of things to come. 

EXAMPLES. 

I wiU skno it to yaii when I have je vous le montrcrai, quand jo 

Z*''^) I'aurai fini. 

when he co7nes, do let me knoiv, quand il viendra, faites le moi 

savoir. 

369. The future is also used after si, when it means 
wether, that is, when a doubt is expressed. 

EXAMPLE, 
jc no sais si mon p6rc viendra, / do not hmo tohether my father 

will come. 

VVllPn W miaqnia iif*\\a Ai4..../^ .^,.„. ^-.i l,_ 1 

EXAMPLE, 
nous irons a la campagne domain %ee shall go into the county to-mmrow 
s'il fait beau temps, if it i^ fi^i^. 



334 



STNTAX A!tti IDIOMI 



I: 



I 



thel^^l. *"'* '' "f"^ ^" /'^""^' •" ••^"^^"^•g sentences like 
these, do as you please, faites comme il vousplaira or com^ 
me voua voudrez, 

EXERCISE. 

Ml;J^r«S'^oJ?''^^°VY^t^ ^"/ '^.^°''^'^' which t/ntf t^/Aer almost 
"ff ffiac^. .1 T","' ^ ''*'" ""'^ ''ee'JhyselfgndmWy changed. Smil- 

^ T S/V / ' "°*^1'",S bu the sad remembrance will be 'eft theo 
myself '^Imv ^r" If' " J°"?^"'7 ''^^^ ^""'^■^'' ^"'l ^ «'- i' epanng 

U;Sve««I WJ^/"" ^''^'■?'^,>^*: 'celebrated dTscourse of Bossuet on 
siates vn,^7/*J7j and/^«^^^ tin the causes of the rise and fall of 
denK ietp'^T'^ at the rev olutions, more or less suS- 

inXVosriishS^^^^^^^^ which api^ared to you 

(1) Will wither, (mi/Z^' a/w^s^ as soon withered as 47^ wA>^. 

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES OP JiS.P^Bi4/S, JE 
PAR LAI, J'AI PAR'.E 

Pni'^^J-^^ choice of the proper tense, between jeparlais, 
Jtttparlpjeparlat .3 so diffic«lt for the learner, it requires 
ri'^f !? understanding of the peculiar acceptation of 
!n»?v^i^^'l:'•*^' the following passages selected and 

to &1 • ^" !""''"«'»"' ■"»/ P-'ove useful in addition 
to the loregoing rules. 

We read in Marmontel — 

^twy""''?' ^'i^* '^^ ^"^"^^ *"^' <^«''^' ^"' '^ti^e affcof fifteen had 
«mji ele dans le monde ce h • , v ' ^ worhiXSTlniui 
qu'on appelle un petit prodige, c Vv/f^r /^. "^^''^ '' '"^"^ 

The author uses the pluperfect, because he describes 

What was at a period of time anterior to all those \\c\\ he 
is going to mention. 

Again, 
il/amij dej vers les plus galantsA^ composed the imst acrcable 



atJai^ pas 



dans 1a voisinage une joire 
u'il n'eiit cel6bree : 



femme qu' 
V cttiji uuairaage uo iaisser tant 
de talents enfouis dans une pe- 
tite ville ; Paris (kvait en 6tre 
le iheatre, 






love-sonnets imaginable : there 
was not a pretty woman in the 
iieighbourhood that lie had not 
celebrated ; it was a pity to let 
so many talents be buried in a, 
litletown; Paris was the stage 
on inhich they might to be exhibited. 






6V Thit VERi. 



iJB 



Mere the author makes use of the imperfect, because he 
speaks of ti;e habitual occupation of Celicour. 



EXAMPLE* 



et Von JU si bien, que ^ nAre 
•e resolut do I'y envoyer, * 



and they contrived TtiaU^s so, thai 
hts fatlutr determine to scul him 
there. 



Now, the author passes to the preteil. definite, becauN* 
he IS no longer speaking of what was habitual or repeated* 
but of an action which once occurred, and long ago* 



EXAMPLE* 



ce p6;e etait un honn^te homme, this father was a good sort of .uin 
!l"/."if ?i^: 'l^l^'A^^?''^ "* ^- '^^. was fmd of wU, wu.^ 



voir, et qui admirait, s^ins sa- 
voir r rquoi, tout ce qui ve- 
nait de Ja capitule. II avait 
mdme dea relations litt^raircs, 
et du nombre de ses corrcspon- 
dants etait un connaisaeur 
nornme M. de Pintac, 



having any, arui admired, with- 
out knowing why, every thing 
that came from the metropolis. 
Nay, he even had some literary 
connexions, and am'*n his corres- 
pondents was a connoucur of the 
name of Pintac. 



Here again, the author resumes the form of the imperfect, 
Hs he IS now speaking of the habitual state of Celicour's 
lather, in his little town, 

EXAMPLE. 

ce/Mj principaomenfd lui que it was particuUrly to him tnat 
C6hcom fiU recommande Celicour was recommended 

The form of the preterit definiic; is now resumed, becauEe 
this IS said of action passed at a time long elapsed. 
And in Moliere's Fourberics de Scapin, we read 

co»>^me nous sommes grands as we are great friends, he im.ne- 
ami3, il me^« aussitot confi- dialely imparted the secret of Ms 



dence de son amour, et mo 
mena voir cette iille que je 
trouvai belle, a la verite, mais 
non pas tant qu'il voulait que 
je la trouva 'se, 



love to me, and took me to see 
that girl whom I rertainly thought 
•pretty, but not so r,„iich as he wided 
me to do. 



Here jit, mena, trouvai are all referring to actions past 
long ago, and they serve also to state facts but not to des- 
cribe permanent thinff«= Vcntlait. nr thp fTsn+ras-.r := ?« ^V.^x 
imperfect, because it expresses the constant and continued 
desire of Leandre that his mistress should be thought pretty. 



— .,.ifl©£*Ci W "V I 



336 



STNTAX AND IDIOMI 



Again Scapir. says : 

c'est ce que je lui ai dit. Sai 
rejete bien loin dc pareillea pro- 
positions, et jo lui at bien fait 
entendre que vous n'cliez [)oint 
une dupe, pour vous deman- 
der des cinq ou six cents pis- 
toles. Enfin, tipres plusieurs 
discours voici ov s^cst reduit 
lo r6sultat de notre conference. 



thai is lohat I said to him. I 
woidd not hear of such proposals, 
and I gave him to U7iderstand 
that you were twl a dupe to ask 
you five or six hundred pistols. 
Fimilly, after several speeches, 
this is wJutt has been the resuU 
of our ivtervieio. 



Here the preterit indefinite, fai parU is used, because 
Soapin relates what he has done since he saw Argante, 
consequently in the course of the day in which he is speak- 
ing. There is no description of a continued state of things, 
except in etiezy which refers to the general character of 
Argarite. 

OF THE CONDITIONAL. 

371. The conditional is the mood which affirms a thing 
would be on some conditions ; it has two tenses, the pre- 
sent and the pmt. 

The present of the conditional (je parler lis) is that tense 
whioh expresses that a thing would take place on certain 
conditions. 

EXAMPLE. 

je ferais . itre aftaire avant peu, / would settk your business be- 
81 elle dependait uniqucmsnt fore long, if it only depended 
"6 "lo'j vpo7i me. 

The past of the conditional (faurais parle) is that tense 
vyhich expresses that a thing would Jiave taken place at a 
time which no longer exists, dependant on certain conditions. 

EXAMPLE. 

j'aurais, ou j'eu9se*fait votre af- / would have settled your business 
faire, si vous ni'en aviez. ou m'en if you. had mentionc'd it to me 
eussiez parle, 

372. The conditional is used to express a wish, r.s, 

que j'^ serais, or, que j'aurais ete hoio glad I shovM be, or should have 
content si j avais reussi ! been had I succeeded ! 






* Some writers and Voltaire especially, often make use of this form 
; cussc parle for ^ fiwmw parle. It is hero given as an example, but it 
will be well to follow the first. i ^ «* ii 



Xit TlIK VKHa. 



3.17 



And after si^ whether, expressing a doubt, as, 

demandez-lui s'il seroit venu ask Mm whether he tooiUd have 
av«c nnusj Huppos^. qu'il n'e^t c&nie with us, had he rwl been 
fern eu affaire ? engaged ? 

373. It is usod also before, or after the imperfectj or plu- 
perfect of the indicative, when they are preceded by «i, as, 

notiv nous 6pargneriona bien dcs toe sItetUd spare ourseLves muchpain 

peines, si nous savions modS* did we know how to moderate 

Vet hos dSdrs, oiir desires. 

vous auriex etS plus hcureux, si you would have been more happy, 

Vous tcvitz «uivi mes conseiis, i/yoit> had foUouei my advice. 

31 4>, After guand, quand mtme ; in the sense of though 
even, were I to, 

EXAMPLE, 

quand I'avare poss^derait tout ware the miser to possess all the 
Tor du iiwmdc, il ne serait pas gold in the world, he would not 

encore content, be satvified. 

And in questions like the following, in the sense of is it 
possible th,cet, cauld I ? could you ? really, 

KXAMrLGS. 

croiriez vous votro fils ingrat 1 mild you think your son ungrate:- 

Jul? 
Tauriez-vous soup^onn6 d'un tel could you have suspected Mm of 
vice 1 such a vice ? 

which meansj croyez-vous, pouvez^vous croire, etc. awiez' 
vous pu, etc t 

EXAMPLE. 

lerais-tu* vraiment son His ? can it really be that you should 1 2 

his son ? 
tu n'auraiR ♦ ^nip!c;y4 qu'uno really, you had only recourse io 
juste < ise, :elf -defence. 

EXERCISE^ 

1. IfitU'e;-^ even possible for men always to act conformably to 
equity, ns it is the multitude that must judge their conduct, tde wicked 
would always blame and contradict them from maJignity, and the good 
sometimes from mistake. 

2. What falsA gteps I shmUd have made but for you, at my cntranco 
into the world ! 

3. But for your counsels, I should have failed in this undertaking. 



♦ This is again a form much used by VoRair* it is rot simply a 
question, but it expr^uiCB a feeling of surprise, of dread or tt joy at tile 

thing assorted. 

E £ 



338 



8TNTAX AND IDIOMf 



Pi i 



4. How latufied I should have been, if you bad sooner ittformod me 
of your happiness ! 

$. If we give to infenCT none but jost and clear nptiww, there 
"'^w J ? *** considerable number of false wits in the world. 

6; Had Alexander amquered the whole worW, bis ambilicn wouUi 
not have been aatislied: be vfould still have found himself straitened in it 

X CflttW yw d««<fw bkn vaia c»©«gh to aspifeto that high degree 

8. CovU you ever Aav« thought him capable «f desertinc the irood 
CAUi^e, togo andside withrebefe? 

9. H^tmW you renounce being useful to the present gcKcration be- 
cause envy fastens on you 7 

(^•),'/®^®"> ^^'^'^ wIjw; were, cond-I ,- for meny (that men); t» 
act, subj-2- judge, >^«-<fe; would blame, ind-?: contradict, crMser, 
u^d-7. 

rS.) What que de ,♦ steps, demarche ; but for, sans. 

[3. J But f(w, soTis i failed, ecAow ^ 

f4.) How, que. 

(5.) We, 071} a much less considerable number, bien ntoins. 

(6.) (When Alexander would have conquezeHcl) : straitened, trop d 
VetroU. 

(8i) Deserting, aib(md»n.ner ; to go and side with, po^r se ranger 
sous Us drapeanx de, 
(9.) Renounce, reTwncerdf fastens^ s*atiacher ; oa yovt, d vos pas. 

375. Foreigners are very apt to use the conditional after 
sif when meaning suppose que. They say, 

voub auriez vu le roi, si tous se- yov, vxmtd hope seen the king if you 
ric:i! venu, had come, 

mn mistake cannot be macfe if attention is paid to the 
actual meaning of si, which signifies both if 'and whether ; 
when it is taken in the accept;9tioii of whether the conditi- 
onal is used, not otherwise. 



EXAMPLES* 

je ne savais »i nous irons ou I did not know whether we shauid 

non, go or no. 

si nous allions a la campagne, je if we went into the cewntryj / would 

Yous en prSviendrais, teHlyouofU. 

OF THE IMPERATIVE. 

376. The imperative is that mood which coramandt^ 
exhorts, entreats, forbids or reproves. 

In many verbs a compound of the imperative may be 
used to express ar. injunctk>E to have a thing done previous* 
ly to another, as, ayez dine avant que je remennei have 
d'm&il before T rettim. 



or THE VERB, 



339 



EXERCISE. 

■iSj *''* J^"^ '**^ P^*i *>«' ^k virtue, whkh 

•mg. passionnejxmrtittunuingef. art 

sesouvmw amomsqueML u* 

u«, our choice must be wrong. Let u. not be deceiwd uy 

rfwowmd-1 waiMwiM w laissvr prendre d 

the fiwt appearances of things ; but let u. take time, to 

^, . . *''• se dov-ner art. rfc 

fix our judgment. ArWters of the destinies of men. do irood 
!'.«.. .,. <^rlntre ^nee art. art.*W.n 

«Sr ^ ^^^'^PPyj ^« «<^*if you wish that your memory 

should be honoured ; do good, if you wish that heaven should 

. . «*• luh, 

open to you its eterna* ga't*. 

^ 2 parte i\L 

OP THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

377, Kemarks have already been made (No. 118) on the 
use of the subjunctive mood in French, and some exampler 
have been given, by way of comparison, to show Wlh. 
two lan^ages by no means agree on thia point. T^any 

^hl T !!^^f ^' ^"^ PI'l*'* *he/«^«re, the c^dHimal and 
the present tense which, in French, must be in the *«*- 
juncttve mood. Thus, 

ie ne c'rS^ Sf '^ v. "^"^ " *S^. / «i»r V thmk he is so oW. 

i« i^icrn^-P^'.^" ** '''^.'^' ^ '^'^ ^^k he wUl come, 

eiie est la plus jolie que je conmisse. she is the prettiest I knew. 

^Observe that the present and fn^ure^ the same in the 
subjunctive mood, the context aio:iu shows of which of the 
two we speak. 



je ne crois pas qu'il viennc, 
je ne crois pas qu'il viennC; 



EXAMPLES. 



/ do not think he is coming. 
I do not think he will come. 



The use of the present or of the Dast tenses nf 4Ke fi.i»»- 
i^T'No. 388^/^'™*"^^ ^y ^h« Precedmg verb, as ^1 be 

fnifJ^' '^^ .«»^i^nctive mood is used in French afterihe 
loUowing conjunctions. 



i: 



3M 



MX ST AX AND WtOfiW 



'J "1 






i ', 



II n. 



unless 

in order that 
God fordid thai 
in case 
before 
aUhougk 
far from 
if. is not that 
far fear that, kst 
so that, in a manner that 
for fear that 
Ood grant that 
although 
except 
until 
far from 
aUhough, spite of 
oncojisideration thai _ , 
not; that i 

wauld to God that 
suppose 

in order that, that 
ever so little 
yrovid^d that 

(in the place of another amffunciionlljl 
whatever, however 
although 
•without 
except that 
but that 
whether, or 
suppose 
far from it thaS 

EXAMPLES. 

enlrez sans qu'il vom voic, get in without his seeing you. 

a Dieu no plaise qu'il en soit ainsi, God forbid it should be so. 

Those conjunctions which are marked • require ne before 
the verb, though not having a negative sense. 

EXAMPLE. 

aUez doucement de peur qu'il no go gently lest he should hear y<f». 
vuus entcnde, 

EXERCISE.. 

Get up early to-morrow morning, that ^'e stMl in good time Shall 
the day pass aw >y without my seeing you 1 God forbid that l,«lH)uld 

♦ Ne is frequently put before the verb which follows avavt ^e ; yet 
I believe it ought to bo only whenever avant que may be rendered bj 
lest, and when there is an apprehension that a thmg should hap^n 
Hefore another. 



a moins que* 
afin que 
' a Dieu ne plaise que 
au cas que 
avant quo 
bien que 
bien loin que 
ce n'est pas q -s 
de crainte que* 
de manidrc que 
de peur que* 
Dieu veuille quo 
encore que 
exce}»te que 
iusqu'a cc que 
loin que 
malgre quo 
moyennant qu« 

non pas ^ue 
plut a Dieu que 

pose le cas que 

^ur que 

pour peu que 

pott.'vu q;ue 

que 

^uelque 

quoique 

8ans que 

tn ce n'est que 

si non que 

soit que 

eupposS que 

tant s'en fairt que 



at THE VERB. 



Ui 



ifffuiicium!!f 



i<m. 

ne before 



'me. Shall 
wt Iiflbould 



;w5 que ; yet 
•cnclered bj 
luld- hapi^n 



wrong a man who -has ever showed me so much kindnesi. Make 
haste, lest he should set off without you. I shall wait until you have 
done. 

379. It has been observed, (No. 357) that the con- 
junction gu€, used before the indicative mood, coming 
after a verb, expressing an act of the mind in the affirmative 
form is never to be ommitted in French. This shows that 
that conjunction does not in itself govern the subjunctive 
mood, as is erroneously thought by most learners j but there 
are, however, several cases in which gue requires that 
mood after it. They are when que is used instead, or in 
the sense, of the following conjunctions : a moins gucy 
avant gue, sans gue, Jusgu'd ce gue, guoigue, smt gue, 
which are themselves always followed by the subjunctive. 

EXAMPLES. 

j'attendrai (7?^ la pluie soit passee / shall wait untU the rain be over, 

(jusqu'd ce que) 

je ne stwlirai pas que vous ne / shall not leave the house before 

m'aycz payc (avant que) you pay me, 

EXERCISE, 

i. Give me yotfr letter that I may send it to the posl-olffice. 

2. He says he will not marry utUil he has a profession. 

3. He cannot play, but he hurts himself. 

4. We shall not go into the country, unless he consents to cwna 
With us. 

(1.^ Que for afin, que ; to send, cnv(yyer. 

%\ S'° "**"y' ^^ n^fi^r, que for avant que ne ; profession, etat m. 

(3. ) Cannot, il ne saurait, que for sans que-ne. 

(4.) Que for a moins que-ne ; to consent, consentir a ; tocome y aUer, 

380. When the conjunction si governs two veibs, the 
second must be in the subjunctive mood, 

EXAMPLE* 

si voire frerevient domain, Btqu'U t/ your brother eonies to-morrotc, 
fasse beau temps, nous le mene- and the weather is fine, we wiU 
rons a la chasse, iak<f him hunting. 

EXERCISE. 

1. If men were wise and followed the lights of reason, they would 
save themselves many troubles. 

2. If you go to Paris, and will take me with you, I shall be most 
napiy, 

(I.) Etre, ind.3, suivrc ; to save, s'epargncr. 
(v.) To take, itietter ; to be happy, en ctrc enchavAc. 

C e 2 



U2 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



■sin 



there no 9ne that 1 

you reeommend some 
me who would under' 



♦K ^^\ ^11 adjective in the superlative degree, requires that 
the verb following be in the subjunctive. 

EXAMPLE. 
^°voST°M * '°^"^"f« P^"™« q"e give me the best pen, yaw have, 

Obs. Among such adjectives must be included le premier, 
le aermer, le seui, Vuniaue. personne. 
See No. 212. 

382. The relative pronouns que, gut, following a negative 
phrase, govern the subjunctive mood. 

EXAMPLES. 

il n'y avait la personne que je there teas 
connusse, yt^^ 

ne poumez-vou8 m'indiquer un amid not 
homme qui voulut ae charger vian t^ 
(Je cette affaire. take thcd Inuiness. 

383. Qui, que, require also the subjunctive when following 
a sentence expressing a wish or a doubt ; ow, for in v: .cb 
has the same power. ' 

EXAMPLES. 

indiqucz-moi un endroit ou Ton teU me of a pka where that can 

puisse trouver cela, be found. 

choisissez une fenmie qui soit choose awoman who is prudent. 

prudentc, ^ 

EXERCISE. 

o Tii!*^ largest stage there is for virtue, is conscience. 
2. The motions of the {Janets are the most regular that we know, 
•J. 1 here is no one who, in such case, would neglect so important 
a matter. *^ 

4. It may be said that the dog is the only animal whose faithful- 
ness be proof 

5. This is the largest elephant that ever was seen. 

6. Show me a man who calls himself perfectly happy, 

fl.) Stage, theatre^ m. there is, y avoir, 

(2.) Motions, mouvement, m. 

(3.) To neglect, negliger ; matter, iniercl, m. 

(4.) 0» ;j«?i< dire, to be proof, soit a Veprmve. 

(5.) TiMVi, that one has ever seen. 

(6.) To call one's self, se dire. 

384'. There are also a great many verbs which govern the 

Hon, permission, such as dGsirer,souhaiter,prier,preiendre, 
vouloir, entendre, aimer, mieux que, soiiffrir, s'etonver, 

ordunncr, etc. 



CT THE vi;rb. 



EXAMPLES. 



H3 



permettczqueje voua disc co qui aUow me to tell you ukat has 

est arnv6, kappcmd. 

jeveux qu'Ule fasse a i'instant, IimUhuw him do Uthis moment. 

J^ier, dovhr, require the subjunctive, and, when used 
interrogatively or negatively, we must precede the verb. 

EXAMPLES. 

40 me que cela soit, Jdeny its being so 

je ne me pas que cela ne soit, / do not deny out thai U may bt so. 

doutez-vouB qu il ne le fasse '{ do ymi question his doing it 7 

Craindre, appreliendnry avoir pcur, empecAer, trembler, 
have also ne before the subjunctive except when they are in 
the negative form. 



EXAMPLES. 

j'ai peur que cela ne veus fasse I fear that vnU give you pain. 
de la peme, o i, tr 

je n'ai pas peur que cela vous / do not fear that it will give vou 
fasse de la peme, pain. « y*^ 

KXERCISE. 

1. Do you doubt his coming 1 No, I do not doubt but he will come 
after so pressmg an mvitation. 

2. I am afraid he will see me. 

him d?wn *"* ^^' that child ride this horse, I^m afraid he wUl throw 
4. The rain prevented us from going out. 
A Sr" ^°" prevent his doing what he pleases. 
0. We all pray that he be soon relieved irom his sufferings. 
7. I ''o not like people to talk when I am reading, 
o. bhall I read the letter aloud. 

(1.^ Douterque; to come, venir. 

(2.1 To be afraid, craindre. 

(3.) To let, 2)ermettre qiie ; to ride, vionterf to throw dovinjetir a has. 

(4.) 1 o prevent, eynpecher qite; to go out, sotlir. 

(5.) What he pleases, ce que don Lui scmbte. 

(6.) Relieved, delivre j sufferings, peincs. 

(7.) People, on. 

fa\ sik.ii I ,. 7 

385. Eire ravif bien arse, etc. etc. have been noliced. 
No. 209. 




I 'i I 



su 



SYNTAX AND lbrOM¥ 



aLi. i 



HEMARKS ON THE ENGLISH SIGNS OR AUXILIARIES 
DO, DID, WILL, WOULD, SHOULD, CAN, COULD 

MAY, MIGHT* ' , 

386. Do, did, will, would, should, can, could, may, and 
mtgM, are sometimes to be considered as being, simply 
signs of tenses ; in other ca^e8, they nre real verba. 

There can be no difficulty about do and did; these are 
mere expletivep, denoting interrogation, negation, or merely 
emphasis, when they are joined to a verb. 



EXAMPLES. 



!»_:. 



j'aimais, or j'aimai, 

aimd'jel 

aimais-je, or aimai-je 1 

je n'aime pas, 

je n'aimais pas, or, je n'aimai pas, 



/ do love. 
I did lov't 
do Hove ? 
did I love ? 
I do not love, 
I did not love. 



In all these cases, they are not expressed in French. 

But virhen they are folloured by a noun, or a pronoun, in 
shcrt, by any thing else, except the verb, with which they 
are connected, then they are real verbs, and mean,/atVtf. 

EXAMPLES. 

faite^moi ce plaisir, do me that favour. 

II 10 nt, ^g fii^ ,^^ 

il fit plus qiiVn n'eiit pu csp^rer, tc dU 'more than amid have been 

expected, 
Should is only a sign of the conditional, when it express- 
es a thing which may happen upon some condition, and, in 
fact, It 13 used for would. 

EXAMPLE. 

j'airaerais la vie champdtre, si I slmtldlike a country life, if mn 
mes affaires me permettaicnt affairs would pennU me to in. 
de suivre nion goiit, dulge my inclinations. 

But when it implies duty or obligation, it is a distinct 
verb, and must be expressed by devoir, as, 

nous ne devrions jamais nous we should never swerve from, the paf.h 
ecarter du sentier de la vertu, ofmrl^ie. 

Can, could, may and might, are not so difficult as they 
appear at first sight j because, in almost every instance, 
there is no improprietv in rendering them Ijv tHn vgrK 



^x ?^%.}^^ manner o^ rendering misrht, i/tould, ought, No. 15 of 
Model Phraaca on Difficulties, at the end. ' * > 




i\ 



«r THK VCAH. 



346 



vapV» 
J 



pouvoir* In general, the firat two imply n power, a possi- 
bility, a capability, etc. and the others a pennioaion, proba- 
bility, otc 

EXAMPLES. 

je piu« lo faire, / can do it. 

il pourruit lo t&irt!, Ac could da Hi 

olle pourrait vcnir, she might aunt. 

elle aurait pu venir, she miglU Atiw come. 

puif<je VOU8 parlcr 1 may I speak to you 1 

Can is rendered by soMoify when it is used for io know 
how, 

EXAM;>Lfi. 

elle aait chanter, she can sing. 

Do, did^ shall, will, etc. in English, are sometimes used 
elliptically in answer to an interrogation, or in an affirmation. 
In such casei5 the full sense is always given in French, that 
is, the verb, which is understood in English, is repeated. 

See No.. 20 of models of phrases, at the end. 

EXAMPLfi. 

ferez-voQs votro the mo aujour- sAali you dv your exercise to-daf 7 
d'hui 1— Oui, je le ferai, yeSf. Is/tall. 

CONCORD BETWEEN THE TENSES OF THE 
INDICATIVE. 

387. When the first verb is in the imperfect, the preterit, 
or the pluperfect, the second verb is put in the imperfect, if 
we speak of the present time. 

EXAMPLE. 

jo croyaia, j'ai cru, j'avais cru / thought, I have thought, I had 
q\xe vous 6tuiiiez les mathSmar thought thai you were studying 
tiques, the mathematics 

And in the pluperfect, if we speak of past time, 

2 X AMPLE. 

il m'assura qu^il n'avait jamais he assured me that he had never 
tant; ri, laughed so mxLch. 

And in the present of the conditional, if we epeak of a 
fulHr^time, 

£ X A xu. Vuii* 

on m'a dit que voire frdre vien- / was told your brother would come 
drait a Lon^res I'hivcr pro- to London next winter. 
chaiu. 





Il F 



346 



STNTAX AND IDIOMg 



to things of common ot'ut'ce ^r'Sj'? I' ^^^^? 
application. ^"rrence, or states a fact of general 

EXAMPLE, 
je voua diaais, Je vou« ai Ait ia r t^n 

U feliciw du m™," tlo «v^ ^ Z""'- '*«' *"^ ^«ute 
It denotes a thin? nast r^hS! /u i "™? * '^"'8 Present. 

IXAMPLB. 
vide qu'ambitieux !?! ^«!f »* ^w* a pe,>ple as awel- 

EXAMPLES. 

et le plus honn^te hZSedo ^nfff' ^^ ''^^^ «"^^ <^ 
son temps, *^ "^^ ^^'^^ ^^ ^ost upright man of 

tha, which i^^^Sdtyi: rr v:'b:'' ^^ '"* "*'■<"« 



..^ „^„ vc^iupB ae- 

roiques, vous devez avoir re- 
marque que ces hommes, dont 
on a fait des demi-dieux. 
etar^ des chefs feroces a 
barbares, dignes a peine du 
nom d homme. 



men wlio have been ntade demu 
gods, wereferodous and barbarous 
chiefs, scarcely deservmg the fume 



EXERCISE. 

»i.i»,'s=.-.isr„'&"„xss Sir* 



\ 



Of THE VKR», 



?4T 



\ 



t J; \tZ\^'!i ^ ***** y°"' ^^'^ occupaUon i^ to f«rm your 
tMte, your heart and your under«tanding. ' **' 

». Danns, in his flight, being ♦ reduce*? to th« necf>mi*« nr.wt»wi« 

r:i wistri-srur^! ^^ ^ie..^#:rrtrLit;^ia 

thL^^ w ***f '• "*"* '*"?y '^^^ t''^ '"'^nn^". and correct, everr 
thmg Uiat w found m us rude and harbarous. ^ 

knowledge spread into Sreeee .„d tlie neighbourinTi^ntrit! 

«i!i; A.™Sfer' ^'^"■' '''"'•■ "^'^" ■^'"•- »««". "«'■'• 

^q'^ rr*^*"' ^*^' ^^y ^'^^ ^*^''^® voice) on 
?i'< n^^'^i deioule; muddy, bourbeux) affirmed, ossi^rer. 
^4.; «vare has etc. (active voice) <m avoir; in me wie- in oronor- 
tion,autimt; civility, hmneUAi. uime, we, in propor- 

(5.) Corrects, effoMir ; is found, 5c ^owrcr de, 
>SX J^v«rran,;7ar<romV; not so much, moim. 
SkX t' 7 J thunderbolt,>f<ire, m. ; (to) which. 
ion^er,#S* ' '''^' ^^^^^ "^«''^' A^^r, ind-2 ; .f it, y; any 

coto^ri^fSie/""'^''* '^''^"*'*' ^^««^'''^; neighbouring, cirammmm 

388. When the verb of the principal proposition is in the 
present, or future, that of the subordinate proposition is put in 
the present of the subjunctive, to express a thing present, or 
future ; but m the preterit, to express a thing past, vve say, 

alaporteedeceluiquil'^coute, himself te the understandihg of 

fJ^^'i^^''^^^^rbtesoitde he vnU wish ymr brother to be 
lapame, one of the -party. 



348 



HTtiTXX ANU rOIOMS 



fill 



But wc must say, 

pour it'dtre ^leve h ce point de to have risen h that pilch of gran- 

ipramleur, il faut que Rome aU deur^ JRom'^ • .ve had an 

en. une Huite non intcrrompue uninterru ' 

de grands horameii, nww. 

Exception. Tlioagh the first verb } 
future, yet the second may .>9 put in he *. 
perfect of the subjiMictive, when some cor ♦tonal expres- 
sion is introduced into the sentence. 

EXAMPLES. 



■tion oj great 

e present, or 
ffect, or plu- 



il n'est point d'homme, quelque 
m6rito qu'll ait, qui nc fU 
trds-mortifie, s'il savait tout 
ce qu'on pense de lui, 

ou trouvora-t-on un hommo qui 
no/i^ la mdme faute, s'il etait 
axposS aux m6med tentations ? 

je doute quo voire frere ekt 
renssi sans votro assistancr. 



there is no ma», whatever merit 
he may have, that would not 
feel vmf much mortified, were 
he to kno0 all that it thought of 
him. 

where will you find the man who 
would not have cornhiitted the 
same ciror, had he been exposed 
to the same tcmplatians 7 

I donht whether your bother would 
have succeeded, hcul it not been 
for your assistance. 



EXERCISE. 

1. He who wishes to teach an art, must know it thoroughly, he muft 
give none but clear, precise, and well-dicested notions of it ; he must 
instil lYicxa, one by one, into the minds of his pupils, and, above all, he 
must not. overburthcn their memory with useless, or unimportant rules. 

2. He mvit yield to the force of truth, when they shall have suffered 
it to appear 5n its real Ugh*. 

3. Tlxere is no work, however perfect people may suppose it, thaf 
would not be liable to criticism, if it were examined with severity and 
in every point of view. 

4. I doubt whether his piece would i xve had the approbation of 
connaisseurs, if he had not determined to make in it the changes you 
judged necessary. 

(1) It must (that ho who, etc. know it); ho must (not repeated), (fUt, 
instil, faire entrer; by a; overburthen, surcharger; unimportant, 
ijisignifiant. 

(3.) (It must, ind-7, that he); yield, se rendre ; suffered, permettre ; 
it to appear, (that it appear) ; real light, vrai jour. 

(3.) Would he liable, preter, 6ub>2; with severity, i larigueur; in 
sous \ point of view, face. 

(4.) Approbation, suffrage; had determined, se decider; in it, y; 
jiiijcred, inn -4. 

When the first verb is in the imperfect, the preterit, the 
pluperfect or the conditional, the second is put in the imper- 
ihci of the mibjunctivo, if we mean to expretw a thing present. 



i a f gran' 
te had an 
m of gretd 

resent, or 
t, or plu- 
l expres- 



n>cr merit 
vxnUd not 
fied^ were 
thought of 

? man who 

hiiUed the 

en exposed 

7 

other would 

it not been 



ly, he mupt 
t ; he must 
i)ove all, he 
rtant rules, 
arc suffered 

se it, thaf 
everity and 

Tobation of 
hanges you 

eated), qut. , 
nimportant, 

permettre ; 

ngue^ir; in 

; in it, y; 

eterit, the 
he imper- 
ig present. 



OP THE VERB. 



u$ 



i 



or future ; but it is put in the pluperfect, if we wwh to ex- 
press a hing that is p?8t. 

Je votiUUs, fmi voulu^ iV* • ijoulu, je voudrais, or feusse voulu ^'il 
finisee celte affaire. 

Je ne savau pas, je n^ai pas sv, etc. que voua eu'^sicK ^udi6 2e5 r/t^z- 
themafufies. 

Remark. With the preterit indefinite, the second verb is 
put ir the present, if it expresses a thing of comiQon 
occurrence. 



EXAMPLES. 

Diett a entoure 1m yeux ce tuni- God has su,irminded the etfes with 

que« fort minces, transpa- very thin tunics, transparerU on 

rentes au dehors, afin qu'on the outside, that we may see 

pnisse voir a travers, through them. 

And in the preterit, if we mean .o express a thing past, 
as, 

ii a fallu qu'i/ aU solicits sea juges he must have been obliged to soli- 
cit his judges 

EXERCISE. 

1. Mr. de 1 urcnne never woidd buy any thing on credit, of trades- 
men, for fear, said he, they shouM lose a great part of their demand, if 
he happened to be killed. All the workmen who were emnloyed about 
hia house, had orders to bring in their bills, before he set' out for the 
campaign, and they were regularly paid. 

2. It would be bdter, for a man.who truly loves himself, to lose his 
life, then to forfeit his honour by som. base and ahameful action. 

3. Lycurgus, in one of his laws, had forbidden the lighting of those 
who came from a feast in the evening, that the fe&r of not being ible 
to reach their houses m\g\\i prevent them from getting intoxicated. 

4. People used the bark of trees, or skins, to write upon,* before 
paper was known. 

5. Go and * ask that old man : for whom are you planting'! he 
will answer you : for the immortal gods, who have ordered both tkat I 
should profit by the labour of those that have preceded me, and that 
th68e who should come after me, should profit by mine. 

(1.) Would, vouloii, ind-2; buy on credit, prendre a credit i of, 
cAe^r ; happened, vemr ; were employed, <mmii^- ; about, ;>owr ,- bills, 
vie /noire ; he, on ; set out for, se viett/re en. 

f2.^ To lose, (that he %could lose) ; forfeit, t€)-%ir. 

(3.) In, par ; the lighting of, que on eclairer, Bubj-2 ; that, afin que t 
reach their houses, se rendre chez eux ; getting intoxicated, s'enivrer. 

(4, J Peonle. 07i ', bark. i/UH'/'ji ; skirss 'nsnti. .- Unj'.is'.i s^n. xnT'tri: 

(5.) Have, ordered, -yoM^ir ; both, e/; by,'<fc. 

The subjunctive is elegantly used in elliptical phrases, 
where the principal proposition is omitted, as, 

F F 



350 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



qu'ii vive (Je sonhaite quHl,) 
qu'il «e soit oublie jusqu'a ce 

point ! (je suis surpns qii'il) 
qtii '^'aime, me suive ! (je vciix 

qtie celui qui) 
heureux Thomme qui pout, ne fut- 

ce que dans sa virlHesse, jouir 

de toute la force de sa raison ! 

{jUM/dd ce Tie scrait que), 



may he live ! . 

that he sluniU so forget himself. 

mhoever loves me, let him foUoin 
me. 

happy the man that can, were it 
only in Ms old age, enjoy the 
whole strength oj his reason. 



CONCORD BETWEEN THE TENSES OF THE DIFFERENT 

MOODS. 

389. Remark. Our intention is not to give the concord 
of all the tenses, but simply to mention some of the princi- 
pal, ' 

THE INDICATIVE 

After the imperfect may come three ttnaes. 

EXAMPLES. 

* . . i (}^Mnd vons ecriviez. 

Je lisais } quand vons avcz ecrit. 
( quand vons ecrivifes. 

The preterit anterior requires the preterit definite, as, 
guand feus fini, vous entrdtes. 

After the pluperfect may come, the preterit definite, the 
preterit indefinite, the preterit anterior, and the imperfect. 

EXAMPLES. 

C qjiand vous entrain ^ 
J'avaislu \ q^^<ind 'VOUS ties enlre 
j quand vousfutes ent/re 
y quapA vous entriez 

After the preterit anterior indefinite, comes the preterit 
indefinite, as, quand fai eu dine, vous etes enire. 

In conjuction with si for suppose que, the future absolute 
requires the present, and the future anterior, the preterit 
indefinite. 

EXAMPLE. 

Vous parlirez, sijc vetix 

II sera parii, si vous Vavcz voulu 

CONCORD BETWEEN THE CONDITIONAL AND TFIE 
IMPERFECT AND THE COIN DITIONAL. 

The conditional, first and second, are used in conjunction 
with the imperfect, and the pluperfect governed by .«*. 




OF THE VERB. 



351 



EXAMPLE. 

Vous pa,iiriez, sije Is voulais. 

Vous seriez parti V^i^ f ^^'^^^ *'^^'^ 
■' ( sije I'eussi. voulu 

The present of the conditional and the two past tenses o( 
the conditional may be used in conjunction with each other. 

EXAMPLES. 

Qiuind I'avare possedcrail Unit Por <lu monde, il no seratt pas eneoie 
content. 

Q,ua7id Alexandre aurait conquis tout I'univers, il n'av/railpas ete can- 
tent. 

Vausfussiez parti, sije Veusse voulu. 

CONCORD BETWEEN THE PRESENT AND THE FU- 
TURE AND THE OTHER TENSES OF THE 
INDICA.TIVE MOOD. 

391. These two tenses may be joined to all the tenses of 
the indicative and conditional. 



EXAMPLES. 

"" vous partcz aujourd'kui. 

vous pariirez demain. 

vous sercz uurfi. ^tutnd, etc 

vous partiez hicr. 
Qj^ ^^f. \ vous parities hier. 

Ondira I ^"* <^ vous etes parti ce matin. 

vous futes parti kier^ quand^ etc. 

vous etiez parti hicr, quaml, etc, 

vous partiriez aujourd'hui, si, etc. 

vous seriez parti hiei; si, etc. 
^vous fussiez parti plulot, si, etc. 

Kemark. The same concord exists when the sentence 
is negative ; except that for the present absolute of the 
indicative, th^ present of the subjuYictive is substituted. 
Imtifid of, onne (lit pas que vous partez auj our d^hui, the 
genius of the French Ic iguage requires that we should say, 
an ne dit pas que vous partiez aujourdViui. 

The imperfect, the preterit definite, the preterit indefinite, 
and Ihe pluperfect, are followed either by the imperfect, or 
the pluperfect. 



examples. 



On disait 
On dit hier 
On a dit 
On avail dtl 



f ^ } vous dtiez varti. 

J 



( vous pwfliez OAiminVhui. 



352 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



ii 



The future anterior requires the pretei it indefinite, as, gtSt 
aura dii que vous avez menti. 

The conditional present may be followed by the present, 
the imperfect, the preterit indefinite, the pluperfeci, the 
future of the indicative, aa well as by the three conditi* 
onals. 

EXAMPLES, 

' quHl se trompe 

qu'il se trompait 

qn'il s'est trompe 
On croiraitl <!''<'' j^/^tmt trompe 
j 0" il se trompera 

J u,'il se tromperait, si^ etc. 

qu'U se serait trompe, si, etc. 
^quHl sefut trompe, etc. 

The firat conditional past may be followed by the imper-* 
feet, the pluperfect, as well as by the two other conditionals* 

^ EXAMPLES, 

(qu'^U tombait 

On mtraU cru, \ '^'^\ etaitUrmbe 
I qwu serait tombe 

The second conditional past may be Joined fo the same 
tenses- 

PRINCIPAL CONCORD WITH THE TENSES OF THE 

SUBJUNCTIVE 

392. To the present, the future absolute, and the future 
anterior of the indicative i» generally joined the present of 
the subjunctive. 

EXAMPLES, 

il veui 
il vatuaa 
il aura touIu 



y qite ro'i !j parliez. 



To the imi>erfect, the preterit deli..^:., the preterit indefi- 
nite, the pluperfect, and th^ preterit ai.ferior may be ioined 
the imperfect of the subjunrHv. . 



EXAl/.i'i.KS, 



jiff vwiiais 
je voulus 
j'ai vj/ulu 
j^avms vovZu 
feus voulu 



1 
f 
J>giM; f^i r '"(fitismz. 



J 



•r THE VBilB. 



353 



s, as, oTs> 

present^ 

feci, the 

conditi' 



e imper-' 
iItionals!# 



ihe same 



F THE 

fie future 
resent of 



•it indefi- 
[)e ioined 



To the future anterior the preterit of the subjunctive, as, 
il aura voulu quHl soil parti. 

The conditional present is accompanidd either by tlie 
imperfect, or by the pluperfect of the subjunctive. 



EXAMPLES. 



je voMdrais qtie 

faurais vmdu 
j'eiisse voulu 



votis partitsiez 
vausfussiez parti 

> gue vous fussiez parti'. 



OF THE INFINITIVE. 

393. The infinitive is that aood which cojivey« ih© 
abstract idea of an action unconnected with time or peisons j 
thus, aimer, parler. The u-j of the infinitive after anothei* 
verb, the prepositions cfe, a, pour., placed before it accordiwg 
as the case requires, etc. have been noticed No. 350, which 
see. 

394. The participle present is uFed in En^ish in many 
cases which require the infiniti^'e ir French. The principal 
and most common, are when the English participle is 
governed by a pieposition. See Exceptieiv, 400,- 

EXAMPLES. 

/ blame you, for having refused, je vous blame d'asdvt refuse. 
he has gotie wit/umt q)eaking Lo ii est parti sans me parler. 



me. 



she lakes delight in teazing, 
I ItJre dancing, 



elle 8C plait a tourmenter. 
j'aime a dansei; 



Observe thai the same, or the corresponding, prepositions 
are not always w^^^ i, because, as it cannot too often bo 
n-peattsd, the two languages dilfei!' essentially in this point. 

EXERCISE. 

• We only shut at eyes to in 'h because we fear lo 
nc * art. art. qtie parce que de 

see ourselv ;. r^ we aic. We were yet far from the caotle, 
2 n^ii:^ I let que ind-2 e^icore 

when one ofour fviends .^ame to join us. f did not think I 



to 

* 



sot out so soon. 



ind'3 

He promises 



every day 
art. pi. 
amend, but I do not rely upon his promises. 

se corrig - cctipter promesse f. pi. 



was 
ind<2 • dev ir 

that he will 

de * - 

They talic 

on 



of a tecret expedition ; he hopes to bo (u\ it). He reties upon 
2 — f. I * en 

Ti2 



354 



it^TAX ANW idioms 



seoing you very soon to terminate amicably lus a/lkir 

int. 1 au premier pur pmw al'amiaile 

with you. You ,expec.d to take a journey this year; but 

s aitendre md-^ /aire vmjrrgem. 
your father has changed his mind. He threaten, to punish us se- 

(U* avis fie ^, 

vcroly, if we (fall again) into the same error. 
veremeni reUnnber fautc 

OF THE PARTICIPLE, 

395. The participle is a part of the verfi which partakes 
of the properties both of a verb and adjective ; of a verb, an 
it signifies action and state, of an adjective, as it expresses 
the quality of a person, or thing. 

There are two participles, tho partia'ple present, and the 
participle past. 

OP THE PARCICIPLE PRESENT, 

The participle present always terminates in ant: as 
aimantj finissant, recevant, rendant. 

3.96. The participle present is uudeclined, that is takes 
neither gender nor number, when it expresses an action, 
and may be turned by the present or the imperfect of the 
indicative mood, une montagne, or des montagnes dominant 
(i.e.) ^ui dominent ou dominaient) sur des plaines ^m- 
merises, a mountain or mountains commanding immense 
plains ; un homme, des hommes, ime femme, des femmes 
Itsant, parlant, marchant, {qui lisent,fjui parlaient, qui 
marchent) a man, men, a woman, women reading, speaking, 
walking. But when, like an adjective, it expresses simply 
a quality, »t takes botlx tlie gender and number of its substan- 
tive j as un hommc obligeant, an obliging man ; une femme 
obligeante, and obliging woman ; des tableaux parlmts, 
speaking portraits ; la religion dominant^ the established 
religion j a la nuit tombante, at night falling. It is known 
to partake of the nature of the adjective when it is put be- 
fore the noun in English. 

What grammarians call gerr d, i nothing but the 
participle present, to which the wor' ,7 is prefixed ; on se 
forme Pespiit en lisant de bans livres, we form our minda 
by reading good books. 

EXERCISE. 

That mou?itain being very high, and thus commanding a vast 

okve cdnsi domincr sur gmnd 



Of THE VKRB. 



355 



Im &fl'air 

year; but 

nish us Be- 
si. 



partakes 
I verb, as 
expresses 

', and th© 



ant: as 

; is takes 
I action, 
ct of the 
lominant 
ines ^m- 
immenfic 

femmes 
ent, qui 
peaking, 
5 simply 
substan- 
J femme 
variants, 
ablished 

known 
put be- 
but the 
; on se 

minds 



a vast 

gmnd 



cilciit of country, waa very well calcultttcd for our obHervalionB. 
tlenduc pays ind-2 * proprc a 

This woman is of a gootl disiwaition, obliging every one, when' 

caracttre ra. taut Ic vimutc quand 

over sho (has it in her power). They go cringing before the great. 

kpaiivoir rampcr flevant pi. 

that they may be insolent to their equals. The state of pure 

ajin (ic * * inf-1 pi. avec egal 

nature is the savage living in the desert, but living in his family, 
. famiile f 

knowing his children, loving them, (making use) of speech, and 
connaitre ^^^ ^^ ^^^,.^,^ 

(making himself understood.) An agreeable languor iraiK^rocp- 

tibly (laying hold) of my sonsop, suspended tho activity of my 
blcmcfU s'emparcr sens ifmpmdre ind-3 ^ ^ 

soul, and I fell (asleep). Time is a real blunderer, placing. 

smrfm/«rind-3art. ,rrai brrnuUm), netlre, 

replacing, ordering, disordering, impressing, enwing. aDDroachinir 
remeltn, ranger Ucrange^ d,prun^' ,ff-J; '^gJl^X^' 

(impossible to be known again). 
)n6co)uuiissa6le 

397. The participle present is frequently uaed in English 
as a substantive, which is not tlie case in French. 

EXAMPLE. 

his ruling passmi is hvMin.g, sa passion dominaate est la chiissc. 

When governed by a preposition, it is rendered in Frencli 
by the inhnilive. (No. 394.) 

EXAMPLES. 

prevent him from dmng nmchkj^ emp6chez-lo do fairo le mal 

gieat lalLeis. ^ux grand? parleur.i. 

398. The participle present frequently takes the place of 
the indicative in English ; it must not then be rendered lite- 
rally, but in the following manner. 

EXAMPLE. 

/ rmt th^m riding post, je ks ai renconires qui couraieiU la 

postc. 

399. Sometimes also it is used substantively with a pos- 
mm\o pronoun } then, it must be rendered in French by 



m 



SYNTAX AJVD iDibM* 



Ii 



Hie indicative oi: the sujunctive, according as the case re- 
quires. 

EXAMPLES. 

the fear of his coming (lest Ac sftould la crairttfl qu'il ne vint nous f our- 

Mme) fuirrassed Jis, mcntait. 

/ doubt his bdn^faith/iU. je doute qu'il soit fidole, etc. 

wfiat do you think of his tmriting que pensez-vous de cela 1 il m'a 

^^^^f tent. Savez-vous qu'il m'u 

ecrit 1 qu'en pensez-vous 7 

400. In No. 394, it has been said that the infinitive is 
used aOer prepositions in French, and not the participle 
present. The only exception to this rule is en. 

EXAMPLES. 

nous en parlerons en marchant, toe will talk about it as we walk. ■ 
on apprend en enseignant, we learn by teaching others. 

401. The participle present alw^ays forming a phrase 
incidental and subordinate to another, must necessarily 
relkte to the subject of the principal phrase, when it is not 
preceded by another noun, as in this sentence ;— 

je no puis vous accompagner a / cannot accompany ym into the 
la campagne, ayantdes affaires country, having some business 
qui exigent ici ma presence, that requires my p-esence here. 

The participle present ayant relates to the subject Je, 
since the subordinate proposition, formed by ayant, could 
have no kind of relation to the principal proposition, if it 
could not be resolved into ihisparce quefai des affaires quL 
etc. But, in this sentence : 

combien voyons-nous dc gens, Iu)w many people do joe see, who, 
qui, connaissant leprix du knowing the value of time, waste 
temps, le perdent mal a-propos i it improperly ! 

Connaissant relates to the substantive gens, because this 
is the word which it modifies, and because the relative qui, 
placed between that substantive, as the regimen, and the 
participle preeent, obviates every kind of ambiguity. 

Remarks. Two participles ought never to be used 
together without being united by a conjunction, as, etc, 

EXAMPLE. 

c'est un homme aimant ot crai- he is a man loving and feanns 
gnantDieu, God. ^ * 

2. The relative en ought never to be put either before a 
participle present, or before a gerund. We cannot say, 






case re- 



nous 'our- 

elc. 

lat il m'a 
qu'il m'a 
/ous 1 

initive is 
participl© 



e walk. • 
s. 

a phrase 
icessarily 
1 it is not 

I into the 
Intsittess 
cchere. 

bject je, 
d, could 
ion, if it 
dres qui, 

see, who, 
ime, waste 

ause this 
tive gut, 
and the 

be used 
etc, 



t fearing 

i)efore a 
say, 



of THfi YEftt* 



357 



Je vous ai remis nioit /Us etUre les mains, en voulaiU Javtt quelque 
chose de bon, 

becauae the sense would be ambiguous : for, the meaning is 
not: 

As I wish to do soviething good, or, as I wish to do well, I have put my 
son into your hands. 

But, 

/ have put my son into your hands^ as I msh to vuike something of 
hiai. 

We should say : Voulant enfaire^ etc. 
Likewise this sentence would be improper : 

Le prince tempere la rigueiir du pouvoir, en en partageant les 
Jondions. 

On account of the repetition of the word ew, used in two- 
different senses, viz., as a preposition and a relative.- Another' 
turn must be then ? dopted, as, 

Oest' en partageant lesfonctions du pouvoir, qu^lcn prince en tempere 
larigueur. 

OF THE PARTICIPLE PAST. 

Tho participle past has various terminations ; as, aime 
Jini, ouvert, aissous, etc. 

402. The participle past is sometimes declined^ someti- 
mes not, thus, 

Av^Z'VQUS raangez tonics ks /raises que iwus avez cuoillics ce matin. 

»dveZ'Vous mange, vous avez cueillies are two verbs in the 
aame tense, and person, yet one participle mange, is unde- 
clined, the other, cueillies, is feminine plural. This dif-* 
ference, apparently contradictory, is grounded upon a 
principle which must be explained. 

OP THE PARTICIPLE WITH ETRE. 

403. The participle past, when accompanied by the 
auxiliary verb ctre, agrees vvith its subject in gender and 
number. 



EXAMPLES. 



mon frore est tombe, 
mes freres sont tombes, 
ma sceur est tombee, 
mes sceura sont tombees, 
la nuit tsera bientot pa»sce, 



my brothffr is fallen, 
my brotliers are fallen, 
my sister is falle^\ 
my sisters are fallen, 
the night will soon be over. 



■:.\:' ■ 



358 



srwrAx and idioms 



Ici spcctaclcB sont fr6qucnte«, Ike theatres arc frequcnkd. 
ccttc fleur est tort recherchee, tHsJhwer u much sought after. 
lis Bont tort estimes, tliey are very viuch eiteciiicd. 

There is an exception which is explained at No. 410; 
participle past of Reflective Verbs. 

EXERCISE. 

Firc-ftrms were not known to tho ancients. iKhnmcl. the 

art. arme a fmi. p|. ind-l connu <tc IsmaU 

eon of Abraham, is known among tlic Arabs, as (the man) from 

parmi Arabc cclui 

whom they sprung, and circumci»ion has remained (among 

clre smii art. f. etre dcmeure Icur 

them) 03 tho mark of their origin. Heaven is that permanent 
I- art. _2 

2!lV 1 ^'"^^ ^^'"^^^ ^^® J*^*' "''*' ^<^ be received after this life. 
«^e f. 1 ou pj. ritTfli>. * ^p.^.^^ 

In Abraham's time, tiie threatenuigs of tho true God were 

'iw ^ art. 1 vienace f pi. jnj.^j 

«^r'Jj/^^r'' "'"« "'■ "^^'f' ^"'' '" ">" '-» °f 'Sfr- "' 

.. il/<?iie art. 

naUons were corrupted, and tho world, which God has made to 

manifest his power, was become a temple of idols. That dread- 
pouvoirm. devest ^,., 

/tifeLiJf 1 '^^"''' threatened tho state with instant destruc- 
mi^iciisetl ind. deprochain^ fl 

tected by englightencd governments. 
tege art. edaiie 2 i 

PARTICIPLE PAST WITH AVOIR« 

404.. A participle past with avoir, may be the compound 
tense ot tx neuter verb, or of an active verb, 

405. The participle past of a neuter verb is invariable. 

EXAMPLE. 

ello a dormi, she has slept. 
-nous avons ri, we have laughed. 
ils ont pense, they have thought 

406. The participle past of an active verb is declined in 
one case, and not in the other. 

avez-oous mange Icsf raises qm vans avcz cucillics, 
1. The participles never agree with the subioct or nomi- 
native ol the verb. 



OP THE VKRB. 



359 



Ics soldats ont attaquS la ville, 
racs fiUps ont de88in6 ces flcurB, 



r nomi. 



EXAMPLES. 

mon frfiro a 6crit, my brother has wrilten. 

mes frfirea ont €cnt, my brother have uritten. 

ma BOBur a eerit, jmj sister has vmtien. 

!es Amazonea ont acquis do la ce- the Amazons have acquired cele- 

j6brite, fyrity. 

j'ai contraint lea soldats a mar- I have forced the soUHcrs to march. 

cher, 

2. When it agrees it is with the accusative case or object. 
If it precede, it is not declined. 

EXAMPLES. 

the soldiers have attacked the tmon. 
my (laughters have painted these 
flowers. 

EXERCISE. 
The Romana successively triumphed over the most warlike 

Romain successivcment 2 ind-4 1 de beUiqueux 2 

nations. Lampridius relates that Adrian erected to Jtaus 

1 racontcr Adrieii clever ind-G 

Christ some temples, which (were still to be seen) in his 

dc art. on encore 2 voir xuH-V I de 

time. Happy those princes who have never (made use) of their 

* art, user 

power but to do good ! We have spent the whole day 
pouvoir que pour art. Men journee f 

in tormenting ourselves. One has seldom seen a great stock of 
a int-1 a nous 1 rarcment fonds m. 

good sense in a man of imagination. The errors of Descartes proved 

sens — = ♦ 

very useful to Newton. 

Oeaucoup servir ind-4 — 

407. The participle past of an active verb agrees with 
the object or accusative when it follows it ; that is, it agrees 
with the noun substantive, which is the antecedent oique, 
me, te, se, Ze, la, nous, vous, les. 

EXAMPLES. 

les livres que j'ai lus the books which I have read. 

la lettre que j'ai ecritc, the letter which I have lorilten. 

lus agrees with gue of which the antecedent is livres, ni. pi. 
Ecrite agrees with ywc of which the antecedent \s lettre 
f. s. 

Nous avons cueilli des fraises et nmis les avons raangees. 

Cueilli is undefined, because it nrecedea the object 



360 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMS 



i\ 



11 



/raises : mangees ia feminine plural, because it followa lea 
antecedent f raises. 
A woman says, 

voua m'dvez trompeo, yoii have deceived vie. 

Trompee agrees with me of which the antecedent femme 
is understood. 

In admirative and interrogative sentences, the participle 
agrees with the noun following que c/e, combien quel, 

EXAMPLES. 

quo do soins elle a eus ! w/uit attentions she has rmt with I 

quelle affaire avez-vous entre- wfiat a£ar have yaii undertaken ? 
prise 1 

EXERCISE. 

All the letters which I have received confirm that important news 
<*• pi- confirnier 2 s. 1 

The agitated life which I have led till n. v, makes me sigh- 
agite 2 f I mciter jusqu'd present 

for retirement. The sciences which you have studied, will 

apris art. retraite f. f. pi. 

jnove infinitely useful (to you). The persons whom you have 
etre f pi. 

t?Mfr«cfe<i appear to me possessed of reason and taste. Nothing can 

plein pr. 

equal the ardour of the troop which I have seen (setting off). What 
egaler f. pi. inf-l 

measures have I not talien ! What fortunes has not this revolu- 
de marches f pi. /aire f. pi. 

lion ruined! What tears has she not sAco! / what sighs has she 
re7iverser que de f. pi. veisei- m. pi. 

heaved ! I have thought her agitated by the furies. This day is one of 

pousse crcnre = 

those which they have consecrated to tears. The language in 

m. pi. consdcrer art. Idngue f. ♦ 

which Cicero and Virgil have written, will live in their works 

Ciceron paf ouvrage 

I could have wished to avoid enterhig into those details, but I 

.. * vovMr * eviter d'entrer — m. 

thought them necessary. The tribunes demanded of Claudius 
aoire'm^A trilntnm.\)\. ind-3 d 

the execution of the promises which the Consul Valerius had 

f. 
given them. 
faire lew 

408. The participle past takes neither gender nor num- 
ber, either when the partiple and the auxiliarv verb to which 



OF THS VERB. 



361 



0II0W8 lea 



int femme 

participle 
el. 



.t wUM 
rlaken? 



•rtant news 
2 B. 1 

es me sigh* 

tudied, will 

I you have 

'fothing can 

ff). What 

this revola- 

hs has she 
pi. 

[lay is one of 

angulage in 

^Ang%ie f. * 

their works 

ouvrage 

laild, but I 
-m. 

)f Claudius 
alerins had 



nor num- 

T tn whirli 



itiM joined are used impersonnally, or when that participle 
18 followed by the verb, -vhich governs the noun, or pro- 
noun preceding \U 



KXAMPLES. 



\e» chaieurs excessivoa qu'il a 
fait cottc et^, ont beaucoup nui 
a la recoilc, 

quelle f&cheuBC aventuro vouh 
C8t-;l arriv6 1 

U luaison que j'ai fait b&tir, 

imiteK lea vert us que vous avez 

cntendu louer, 
les mathematiques que vous 

n'avex pas voulu que j'^tu- 

diasse, 



have 
done 



the excessive heals, which we 

had this summer, have 

great injury to the corn, 
what unpleasanl adventure have 

you met with? 
the house which / have ordered 

to be built, 
imitate the virtues ichick you have 

heard praised, 
the malhenuitics which you 

would not permit me to study. 



To make a right application of the second part of this 
rule, we ought to examine whether we can put the regimen 
immediately after the participle. As we cannot say ; J'm 
fait la maison, vous avez entendu les 7!erius, vous 71'avez 
pas voulu les mathematiquesy it follows that the regimen 
belongs to the second verb. "ometimes, howe\er, the 
regimen may relate either to the participle, or to the 
following verb, according to the meaning of the speaker. 

Thus,yc Pat vu peindref means, I saw her picture drawn ; 
hutje Vai vue peindre, signifies, I saw her painting. 

Sometimes it happens likewise, that, in jisentences which 
seem to resemble each other, the regimen in one belongs to 
the participle, and in the other to the verb which foliowa it. 
For instance, this question, avez-vous entendu chanter la 
nouvelle actrice ? Have you heard the new actress sing 1 
Should be thus anwered, oui,je Vai enter.du chanter, yes, 
I have : (I have heard her wb . she sang) but this question 
amz-vous entendu chanter la nouvelle ariette 1 have you 
heard the new air sung ? must be answered, am je Vai 
entendue chanter, yes, I have. (I have heard it to be sung). 

409. The participle past does not agree with the antece- 
dent of en. 



EXAMPLE. 



sachantque nous aimions le gi- knomng that we were fond of 
bier, il nous on a envoye un game, he sent us a basket fiiU. 
panier, 

G G 



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%. 



A 



V^, 







IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 







1.0 



I.I 



1.25 



12.8 



mil 2.2 



1^ 1^ 

m m 

M 12.0 



1.8 



U IIIIII.6 



<^ 



W 



/a 



'n 



>>.. 



"^ 







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Hiotographic 

Sciences 

Corpomtion 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 




•^^^ 






d> 



& 



% 



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€n 



i> 




n^HHMSimiipwwiikPiiann 



362 



! f 



•YNTAX AND IDIOMf 



' 



m 



af:- 



EXERCISE. 

The groat changes y;hich (hav«^ taken pla«e) in ad- 
changemcnt y am- ind-4 art. 

ministratKHi, have astonished many peofrfe. The heavy' 

Men des personnes grand 

rains which we have had in the spring, have been 

pluielji. *il fairexnUA 

the cause of many diseagea. The scarcity which there was 

vrudadk t pi, disette f. ind-4 

la'st winter, has afforded the opportunity of doinz 

art. dernier 2 1 dojmer occasion inf-» 

much good, What news has reached joa? How many 

f^^n est-ilvenu que de 

imprudent steps were taken on that occasion t How 

faux demarche {. ^\. ils'estfaire en 

many large ships have been built in England within these fifty 

gros il se construire indA depim * 

years t The figures which you have learned to draw are of 
— apprendre dessinet 

grea$ beauty. We ought never to swerve from the 

"tin * foMoir ind-i * s'etoignei' 

good path which wo have begun to follow. The measures 
route f. on mesure Lpl. 

which you advised mo to adopt, have not succeeded ■ 

cor^eiUer ind-4 de prendre re ussir 

The rule, which I have hegnn to explain, seems to mo very 

TGgk f. expliquer semhler 

easy to (be miderstood). You see that I have not (been mistaken) 
saisir se tromper ind-4 

respectiog the affairs which I had foreseen you would have 

prevoir que 
in hand. 1 asked for some pencils, and he has sent 

♦ demander ind-4 envoyer 

me some very good ones, 
en 



PARTICIPLE PAST WITH REFLECTED VERBS. 

410. It has Deen said, No. 121, that all active verbs may 
be used reflectedly. 

The participle past of such verbs agrees witii the subject 
or nominative. 



EXAMPLES. 

©l|p s'est blessee, 

nous nous summes ennuySs, 

Here blessee, ennuyes, agree with »«, nous, of which elh, 



she has hurt herself, 
we have got tired. 



■HP 



OP THE PREPOSITIONS. 



863 



in ad- 
art. 

I heavy 
grand 

ave been 

here was 

ind-4 

of doing: 

inf-> 

iw many 

', dg 

tif How 

liese fifty 

♦ 

are of 

er 

from the 



measures 

esure £.pL 

ICC ceded ■ 
etissir 

rao very 

mistaken) 
iper ind-4 

aid have 

has sent 
envoyer 



i. 

srbs may 

3 subject 



But hercj 



il s'est casq6 la jambe, 
Luerdce s'est donn6 la mort, 



he has broken Ms leg. 

LAwreda destroyed Aerself, 
^^^\^onne are undeclined, because they precede itmAe, 
mart, which are the ob ects or accusatives of the verbs 

case or dative. But, speaking of the broken leg we Si,y, 

^\Ze\f '*''"'"'"'" '" ^'''' I don't kno^o how he broke it. 

^ J^ecause cassee follows la, of which >mi6 is the antece- 

EXERCISE. 
Our troops have^ fought with great courage. They have not 

sufficiently made,^ha.e. Did^„ot our sisters stop (on^the) 

road, '^-^"^^^-y^^hould.^^^^ Showmethehand 

""^''^ Tan^^^ '"'• ^^"^ ^'"^^''^^ J^'^vo made themselves 

famous by their courage. What strange fancies she has' '^'' 

{nf„ !,« 1 1. , , , chimires se n^ttre 

into her head! I don't think you have cleaned your teeth 
1.U' • /. ^ nettover 
tbis morning^ Indeed I have cleaned them before I went out. 

avant de sortir 



lich etUf 



CHAPTER VI. 

GENERAL REMARKS ON THE TSE AND MEANING OP SOME 
OP THE FRENCH PREPOSITIONS. 

«nKt!i;r'^^^ °^f f prepositions is to connect two nouns 
anoter ''' ""^ '*'' ''^'*^"" ^^''^ '^'^ ^^^^ ^^ ^"^ 

meaning of a and^e; the former never means /ro;;^, but to- 
cai hat f«" > ""^^^ '' ''"'^ '^^ ^^"^*^^^ ^"d ^Wative 



mmmmmmmm 



IIHJIMUI 



364f 



SYNTAX ANl^ IDIOMS 



EXAMPLES. 



corne near the /we. 

to from the fire, 
e does it with readiness, 
write to John. 



approchcz-vous du fou, 
6ioignez-vou8 du feu, 
11 le fait de bon coeur , 
6crivez a Jean, 

En and dans have nearly the same meaning ; but they 
differ in this, that forme" is used in a more vague, the 'atter 
in a more determinate sense. 

EXAMPLE. 

J'elais en Angleterre, dam la province de Middlesex. 

A, en, are rendered by to or in before nameb of countries 
and places, but they must not be used indifferently. «>5 is 
used before proper names of places, en before names oC 
countries, provinces. 



EXAMPLES. 



il eat alle en France, 

elle est allee a Rome, 

ils demeurcnt en Normandie, 

elles resident a Roue.i, 



he is gone to Prance, 
she is gone to Rome, 
they live in Noi'mandy. 
they live in &r at Rouen, 

From what has just been said, it follows then that eik, op- 
account of its indeterminate nature ought not to be followed 
by the article, except in a small number of phrases sanc- 
tioned by usage. 

EXAMPLES. 

En la pesence de Dieu ; en la grand! chambre du parleme!niy en I'ad-- 
sence d'un tel ; en I'annee mil huHcent dix-sept, etc. 

with respect to the expressions. 

En I'honnenr, en I'dge, it it better to say^'aVhonneur, a I'&ge.. 

413. Jlvant is a preposition in this phrase. : 
avant le jour, before day-light. 

But it is an adverb in this : 

n'allez pas si avant, do not go so forward. 

Jlutour and a/en^owr, must not be confounded; a\f,i(mr 
is a pre HTsition, and alentour an adverb. 

EXAMPLES. 

tous les grands ^taient autour aJl the grandees stood rovnd tht 

du tr6ne, throne. 

le roi 6tait sur son trone, et les the king was upon the throne, and. 

grands €taient alentour, the grandees stood roujid. 



is 
m 






U 
il 






op 

ill 
si 



m( 
m< 






but they 
the 'atter 



V. 



countries 
names oT 



lat efky qit 
i followed 
ses sane- 



ly. £71 l'a6*- 



ge. 



I J atiitntr 



round the 

throne, and 
id. 






Of THE P!t£POSlTIONS. 

Jlvant and ouparavdni are not used indifferently. 
Jlvant is followed by a reginxen. 



365 



EXAMPLES, 
avant Paques, b€f&)e J^asler.. 

avant ce temps, before that time. 

*duparavant is followed by no regiipsn. 

EXAMPLE. 

Pre^ o mdipres de, are not the same expressions. Pret 
10 an adjective. 

But prcs is a proposition : 
™°^.0"^*S« est pros d'etre mj w&rk is nearly fiiUshed. 

An t-avers^nd atravers differ in this: the first is followed 
by the preposition de, the second is not. 

ilXAMPLE. 
U se fit jour au travers des en-1 

a TtU a ttavets le, en- rJ:f *" "* *--^* '^ 
nemis, j ^* 

Jlvant denotes priority of time and order. 

EXAMPLE. 
// esi arrive avaut moi, I'article se met avant le rum. 
Devant is used for en presence, ms-orvts.. 

EXAMPLE. 
// a paru devant kjuge ; U loge devant VigUse. 

Devant IB likewise a preposition marking order, and isthe 
opposite of opre*. > v* iwuic 

EXAMPLES, 
il a le p&sdevarU moi, he has precedence of me 

81 vous 4te8 presse, courez de- Jf y^ are in I Ku^rry, run be- 

Enyers^nd vers, towards, are also different as to their 
meaning, the former is put before names of persons, with a 
!!!.Tll'!?!?!!-^'!?^®^l''P'^^^^ "»<>*'««» and is put before 

Gg2 



m 



SYSTAX AND IDIOMS 



i' I 




mn 




EXAMPLES. 

comportez-vouB bien envcrs lui, behave well towards him, with re- 
gard to him. 

W% inftrehaient vers la vilJe, they were marching towaxds (Jke 

city. 

•lie s'avan^o vers moi, she advanced towards me. 

THE DSB OP THE ARTrCLB WITH PRBPOSlTrONS.. 

414. Some prepositions require the article before their 
regimen ; others do not ; and others again, soraetimes atJ- 
mit, sometimes reject it. 

The following prepasiiions generally require the article 
before the noun, which they govern. 

nvers, I no 

xcepte, pai 

ors, pej 

ormis, poi 

cbez le prince, 
clans la maison, 



ayant, 


depuia, 


cnvers, 


nonobstont, 


aprfes, 
cnez, 


dcvant, 


excepte, 


parmi, 


derrifere 


hors, 


pendant, 


dans, 


durant 


hormis, 


pour, 



selon, 
suivant, 
touchant, 
vers. 



avant I'aurore, 
apr^s la promenade, 



envers leg pauvres, 
devant Teghse, etc, 



There are, however, exceptions. 



avant terme, 
avant midi, 



EXAMPLES. 

avant diner, 
apr^s midi, 



pour lit «ne paillasse, 
depuis minuit, ete. 



A noun governed by the preposition en, is not, in general, 
preceded by the article. 

EXAMPLE. 
En ville, en cam- ^ne, en extase, en scnge, en pKSccs, etc. 

Varmee est entree en campagne, means the army has 
taken the field ; but M. J\\ est alle « la campagne, means, 
Mr. N. is gone into the country. 

These eleven prepositions a, de, avec, conire, entre, 
malgriy outre, par, pour j siir, sans, sometimes admit, some- 
times reject the article before their regimen. 

If the article is used in these phrases : 

Jouer sur k velours, 

St. Paul veut de la subordination ew^re la femme die man. 

Sans Ics passions, ou serait le merite 1 

It is suppressed in, 

Etre sur pied ; un peu de fa9on8 nc gate rien e^Ure mari et femme. 
VivTo fin/ns. 'iinsLKums,. c'p.st vivre sans vlaisirs. et sans wdncs. 



u; u 



■i 



Ml 



OP THE PRBPO81TI0N8. 



367 



m,witk re- 
fowavdf the 



fore their 
times at)- 

he article 
>n, 



bant, 
:hant,. 



pauvres, 
lise, etc, 



le paillasse, 
uit, etc. 

1 general, 



c. 

rmy has 
, means, 

•<?, entre, 
litj some- 



1, 



et femm©r 



This difference arises of course from the noun being taken 
in a general and definite sense, or in a partial and restricted 
signification. 

REPETITION OF THE PKEPOSITIOJSS. 

415. The prepositions de, a and en, must be repealed 
before all nouns which they govern. 

EXAMPLES. 

voyons qui I'emportcra de vous, ht us see vMch of us will excel 
de lui, ou de moi, ym, ke, or 1. ' 

die a de I'honndtete, de la dou- she has politeness, sweetness, erace 



ccur, des graces, et de I'esprit. 

la loi, que Dieu a grav6e au 
fond de mon cojur, m'instruit 
de tout ce que jo do:s d I'au- 
teur de mon ctre, au nrochain, 
a moi-mdme, 

en Asie, en Europe, eti Afriqiie, 
et jusqu'cTi Amerique, on 
trouve le mdme prejuge 



and abilities. 

the law which God has deeply «i- 
graved on my heart instruds 
me in evcnj thing I owe to the 
author of my being, to my neigh- 
bour , and to myself. 

in Asia, in Europe, in Africa, 
and even in America, we find 
tJie swme prejudices. 



The other prepositions, especially those consisting of two 
syllables, are generally repeated— before nouns, which have 
meanings totally different j but seldom before nouns, that 
are nearly synonimous. 



EXAMPLES. 



rien n'est moins sclcn Dieu et 

selon le nionde, 
cette action est contre I'hon- 

Deur et contre touto espece do 

principes, 

But we ought to say, 

il perd sa jeunesse dans la mol- 
lesse et la volupte, 

notre loi ne condanine pcrsonne 
sans I'avoir entendu et exa- 
mine, 



nothing is 



God 



less arxording to 
and according to the world, 
that action is contrary to honor 
and every kind of principle. 



he wastes his yoxdh in effeminacy 

andpleasuie. 
our laics condemned nobody witJund 

having heard and examined him. 



OP THE GOVERNMENT OF PREPOSITIONS. 

417. Some prepositions govern nouns without the help 
of another preposition. 



EXAMPLES. 



devant la maison, 
hormis son frferc, 
5«tns son 6p6e, 



before the house, 
except his hother. 
without his sioord, etc. 



itinAfa Ma»-iitit*^ 4Ka l«^1»^ ^^4* 4V\^% 






l2'-iiU 



VI tit's; »-'i^*-' 



\ «^ ^•>h^«« A ■ ^^ Wk ^«^k 



f- \j *v«^4X^ 



»» M.^ i 



■iHPPft« 



OwS 



ITNTAI AMD IDIOM ■ 



SXAMPLB8. 



r^ de la nMftnon, 
I'insu de «on frhte, 
du-dMsvM du pont, 



Tiear the hmcse. 
wnkTunim (o his brother, 
above the bridge^ cf-ij. 

These four, Jusque, par rapport^ quant and sauf are 
followed by the preposition a. 

EXAMPLES. 

jusqu'au mois prochfein, tiU the next month. 

quant a moi, as for me, etc. 

Practice alone can teach these different regimens. 

A noun may be governed by two prepositions, provided 
they do not require different regimens ; thus we may say 
with propriety, 

celui qui ectit selon Io8 circon- he tsho writes according to circum- 

stances, pour et con >e un stances, both foi' and against 

parti, oat un homine bien me- a party, is a very contemptiUe 

prwable, man. 

But it would be wrong to say, 

Celui qui 6crit cnfaveur et contre un parti, etc. 
because enfaveur requires the preposition de. 

Prepositions which, with their regimen, express a ciiK 
cumstance, are generally placed as nearly as possible to the 
word to which that circumstance relates. 

EXAMPLES. 

on voit des personnes qui, avec we see persons who, with a great 

beaucowp d espnt, commettent de deal of wit, tommU very greaL 

^ tr6s-grandes fautes, faults. !> B ^'- 

J ai envoy6 a ki paste les lettres <iue I have seiU ta the post-oMce ih" 

vous avez Rentes, ut^s which you have imitten. ' 

croyez-vouspouvoirran»ner|WJ5-^« do ym think you can reclambv 

douceicr ces es^nts eg&tesl genUeness, those mistaken pZ 



If we attempt to alter the place of these prepositions, we 
shall find that the sentences will become ambiguous. 



CHAPTER VII. 
OF THE. ADVERBS. 

PLACE OF ADVEB3S.. 

418. In simple tenses, the adverb is generally placed af- 
ter he verb; and, the compound tenses, between the 
auxiliary and the Darticide. 



I 



sauf are 



provided 
! may say 

fo circum- 
1(1 agai-nst 
'contemptible 



ess a Gif>^ 
ible to the 

'ft." 

oiih a great 
very greuL 

>st-office ike 
yevyriUen. 

reclaim by 
istaken ^co- 
itions, we 
IS. 



placed af- 
v^een the 




•V VffK ADVSRB. 



EXAMPLES. 



the man who is most learned is 
generally he teko ikinks mosi 



modestly of himself. 
have you ever seen a pedant more 
absurd and more vain? 



fhomme le plus ^cXaxti est mdi- 

iiairem^U celui qui jKinse le pins 

modeslanent de lui-mdnic, 
avez-vous jamais vu un pedant 

piuH abeurile et plus vain } 

Compound adverbs, or adverbial phrases are placed after 
the verb, and even after the participle past in a compound 
tense. 

EXAMPLE. 

c'est a la mode, that is fashionable. 

il oAt fallu se lever plus matin, it icould have been necessary to rise 

earlier. 
nous nous somnies lev6a a la hl^te, we got vp hastily. 

Exceptions. 1. — Adverbs of order, rank, and thoee 
which express a determinate time, are placed either before,^ 
or after the verb, 

EXAMPLES. 



we oug/U, firsts to do our duty; 
secondly, enjoy lawful pleasures. 



nous devons premidrement faire 

notre devoir ; secondement cher- 

cher les plaisirs permis, 
aujourd'hut il fait beau ; il pleu- to day, it is fine ,- it mil rain per- 

vra peut*dtre demain. haps to-morrow. 

2. These adverbs, comment, ou, d^oii, par ov, combt'en, 
pourguai, quand, used with, or without interrogation, are 
always placed before the verb which they modify. 



EXAMPLES. 



comment vous portez-vous 1 

oil allez-vous 1 

il ue sait comment s'y prendre, 



hoxo do you do 7 

whither are you going 7 

he does not Icjioto how to set about it. 



The adverbs tres,fort, infiniment, etc. are always placed 
bofore the adjective which they modify. 

EXAMPLE. 

c'est une feminc fort belle, tres- she is a woman very beautiful, of 
sensible, et infiniment sage, great sensibilUy, and infinitely 

pudent. 

Adverbs of quantity and comparison and the adverbs of 
time souvent, iovj'ours, Jamais, are placed before the other 
ad/erbs. 



EXAMPLES. 



iipoliment, fort poliraent, 
trfes-heureusemcnt, 



so politely, very politely^ 
very happily. 



wmmHIMii 



370 




■ YWTAX AND fOIOMS 



le plus adroitomenl, the most skUfuUy 

'^Zr ' '''''^"'"' t^J never JrLintmaUlyumUd. 

ils «ont touiourrs r!nM>mble tktii «« ^u^.. > .1 

c'est^uvent . n^proviste ,u'il ^A^XfrfuXX. 

-yottvm^ may, however, be preceded by an adverb of 
quantity, or comparison, ad si souvent, assez souvenL fort 
souvent, plus souvent, mains souvenf; trop souvenL ^ 
, When ad verba of quantity and comparison meet toirether 

^sta^SeT' ''' '^"'"'"^ '^ ^'^ ^^^ '^> which'cttlTha" 



fli peu, 
trop peu, 
tr6s-pcu, 



bien peu 
bien plus, 
bien davanta^e, 



beaucoup* trop, 
beaucoup plus, 
beaucoup moing, 



tant mieut, 
tant pis, etc. 



Bien before another adverb means very much, quite, 



^ EXAMPLES, 

bien assez, 
bien tard, 
bien moi;iB, 

When after the verb it signifies well, 

EXAMPLES. 



quite enough, 
very late, 
much less. 



assez bien, 
fort bien, 



pretty well, 
very well. 



©P THE NEGATIVE We. 

rn^!^V^r '^ ^"'*^"™^/7 to use two negatives in French, ne 
comes before the verb ; pas or pcrint comes after it. The 
* rench Academy havn discussed the four following questi- 

o* wu^^^ ^^ *^® P^^^® °^ *^® negatives ? 
vice'vi^sa?'^ ^""^ ^"^ '^^ "^^"^ '" preference to ;?otnf and 
3. When may both be omitted ? 
^. When ought both to be omitted 1 

f..t^!^'^ ^"^j^""^ I' ''^ ""^'y "'^^"^l importance, we chall 
S view? ^^ ''^ ^^'^ Academy, and agreeably to 



*Bdaiukmpiu not, as the English ^^;/i susceptible of being modi- 






cUtly united, 
'.dly. 

a<lv€rb of 

went, fmi 

mU 

Bt together 

ii3t.om has 

nt mieut, 
nt pis, etc. 

mife. 



rench, ne 

it. The 

ng questi- 

?otwf and 



we chall 
leably to 



sing modi- 
'*ctt,r, etc,. 




OF THE ADVERB. 

First Question Where in the place of the negatives 1 

Pour ne point voir, or, pour ne voir pan. 

^Who ^^^ °^,''®' "'°''^'» ^''''^^^ ^h® imperative, the tenses are 
either simple, or compound. In the simple tensei^l^ 
p(nnt is placed after he verb. ^ ' -^''* "" 



EXAMPLE. 
II nc parle pas ; ne parle-t-il pag 1 

In the compound tenses, it is placed between the 
ary and the participle. "«»ween tne 

EXAMPLE, 
II n'a pas parle ; n'at-U paa parl6 1 
In the imperative, it is placed after the verb. 

EXAMPLE. 
Ne badinez pas. Ne vous en alJoi pas. 



auxili- 



Second Question. When \svas, to bp !»«, 
ferenceto;?^/!^, andmcevcr^a/ ? ^o ^"5 ^"St . 

I f"™ ''^ denotes an absolute negation. To sa v 

p27Z' '^"^""'' '^ '» fy' '■' *">""<- -^ -'ail. 

TT!, ' ^"T '".'?•' """ "f restriction. To say • 
beilfedC^t' "^"'' " '° "y' "^ ^- """'■'•S of what can 

Hence the Academy concludes, ihMpas is more proner 
denotiSl&r'^' "•' """^"'' -" o*- 3i 

EXAMPLE. 




mmmmmm 



372 



SYNTAX AND lOIOltS 



!' !i 



2. Before nouns of number* 

EXAMPLE. 
U n'y a paB dix ans, It is not tm yean, ag§t 

Point ia elegantly used, 

1. At tho end of a sentence* 

EXAMPLE. 

on a'amusait a, bpb d^peni, ct il lliey wav amvsine tke>nselv«s ai 
ne s'cn apercevoit point, his exf-mse^ and Ke did not per* 

ceive it, 

2. In elliptical sentences. 

EXAMPLE. 

je nroyaia avoir a faire & un hon- / thought I haa to dtal ^oiJi an 
nSt« homme ; maifl point, honeU nian ; but no, 

3. In answer w interroga e sentences. 

I EXAMPLE. 

irez-vous ce soir au pare? — shiiU von go lhi$ evening to the 
point, pnrfc '/ — no. 

The Academy also observes, that when pas or point i9 
introduced into interrogative sentences, It is with meanings 
somewhat different. We make use "f point, when we 
have any doubt on our minds. 

EXAMPLE, 
n'avez-vous point €te la ? have you not been there ? 

But we use pas, when we are persuaded. 

EXAMPLE. 

n'avez-vous pas 6t6 la) but you have been there, have not 

you? 




iLA. 



Third Question. When may both pas and point be 
omitted 1 

They may be suppressed, 

1. Aftc* the words cesser, oser, and pouvoir ^,h\it Ihifl 
omi3sion is only for th f^ sake c elegance. 

EXAMPLES. 

je ne cesae de m'en occuper, / incessantly think about it. 

je n'ose voua on parler, / dare iwt speak to you aixy^d. it. 

je ne puis y ponser soni fremir, / cannot t/iink of it vrUkout skud- 



htviielvti at 
lid iwt per* 



tal wuh an 



mmg.io the 

it point 19 

meanings 

when we 



e, have not 

I point be 
J but this 



U it. 
ab&fU it. 
r'dhff&t shui' 



Ot tfli a^Vkrii. til 

We likewise say, but only in fjimiiitr conversation, 

ne bougei, ao not stir. 

2. In expressions of this kind 

y a-t"il «n homme dot.t ello ne is there a m>;n that she dms not 

in6(lise 1 shnJer ? 

Avei-vouji iin ami qui ne soit have tjou a frintd but :it not Ukt- 

dei mieiiB 1 ^oiu mine ? 



Fourth Question. When ought botli »<m and »o»W to 
be omitted / 

They are omitted, 

420. When *he extent whif.h we mean to give to the 
negative is sufficiently expressed either by tlie words which 
nistr^t it, bjr words whMch exclude all restriction, or when 
the ^cvb is joined to an ad"erb, • pronoun having a nega- 
tive sense, as, J<f,mais, plus^ aucun, personne, rien, nul^ 
nullemmt ; and also tc the word? Aien, goutte, mot, which 
in some cases, have been through cwtom ccnoidewd as 
negatives. 

Tv exemplify the first part of this remark, we say, 

BXAMPLESIr 

I go oiU but seUlom. 

I shall Twt go ouCfor three days. 

To exemplify the second, we say, 

EXAMPLES. 



Je ne sors gu5rc, 

je ne sortirai de trois jours, 



je n'y vais jamais, 

je n'y pense plus, 

nu! ne seit s'il est digne d'a 

mour, ou de haine, 
n'employez aucun de ces strata 

g^mes, 
il fie plait a peraonne, 
rien n'est plus channant, 
je n'y pense nullement, 

To exemplify the third, we say, 

EXAMPLES. 



I never go there. 

I think no viore of U. 

nobody knows whel/ier fie be rfe- 



sennng of love, or haired, 
use none of these stratagems. 

ht pleases nobody, 
nothing is more charming, 
I do not think of it at aU, 



il nV voit goutte, 
J6 n'er ai cueilU brin, 
iJ ne d't root, 



he cannot see at all. 

I did not gather- a ^prig, 

he speaks not a inoid. 

But if to m<;i we join an adjective of number, pus must 
be added, as 



TT — 



^fffmmmmim 




3U 



SYNTAX AND IDIOMi 



EXAMPLES. 

il ne (lit pas un root qui n'inl6- he speaks not a word Cut what is 

resse, interesting. 

dans ce discours, il n'y a pas m that speech, there are not three 

trois mots a reprewdre, words that are exceptionable. 

421. The substantive which follows a negative phrase i« 
governed by the preposition de, 

EXAMPLES. 



he never luis any money' 

have you got no horse ? 

he does not take any useless step. 



il n'a jamais d'argent, 
n'avez-vous pas de cheval 1 
il ne fait pas de demarche inu- 
tile, 

If, after such sentences as we have just mentioned, either 
the conjunction que^ or the relative pronouns qui or doni, 
should introduce a negative sentence, then in.thld last, pas 
and point are omitted. 

' EXAMPLES. 

je ne fais jamais d'exces que je I never Mmmitted any excess, wilhont 

n'en sois incommod6, being ill after it. 

je ne vois person ne qui no vous / see nobody but what commends 

loue, y(nL. 

4»22. When two negatives arc joined hy ni, pas is 
oK'tted. 

EXAMPLE, 
jo ne I'aim* ni ne Testime, / neither love noi- esteem him. 

When the conjunction ni is repeated, j^as is also left out. 

EXAMPLES. 



greatness 



neitlier gold ncr 
make ns happy, 
he is neither priiden.t nor loise. 
he iias neither debts nor lawsuits, 



can 



ni Tor ni la grandeur no nous ren- 

dent heureux, 
il n'est ni pradent ni sage, 
il n'a ni dettes ni proc6s, 

Pas is used, when ni is not repeated, and when it serves 
only to unite two members of a negative sentence. 

EXAMPLE. 

je n'aime pas cr vain 6ta!age I do not like that vain display of 

d'^rudition prodiguee sans choix emdiliou lavished wilhont choice 

et sans godt, ni ce luxe de and without taste, nor that pomp 

mots qui ne disent rien, ofioords which luive no meaning. 

Pas is omitted when the question used for po-urqum be- 
gins with que, and aiter a moins que, si, instead o^pmtrquoi, 
and with a moins que, or si used instead of it. 



ut what is 

I? not three 
table. 

phrase id 



ss step. 

ed, either 
i or donty 
last, pas 



'£ss, wUhorit 



commends 
i, pas is 



urn. 
left out. 

ititcss can 

r wise, 
lawsuits, 

I it serves 



isplay of 
i/unit choice 
r that pomp 
■) meaning. 

rquai be- 
povrqum, 



OF THE ADVERB. 



375 



why are you not as sedate as your 

brother i 
I shall not go out, unless you come 

tofelck me. 
I shall not go to his house, if he 

do not invite me. 



EXAMPLES. 

que n'6tes-vou8 aussi pose quo 

votre frdre 1 
je ne sortirai pas a moins quo 

vouB ne veniez me prendre, 
je n'irai pas chez lui, s'il ne m'y 

enifage, 

With ne—gue used instead of seulementy and in the sense 
of onltf, but, pas is not used. 

EXAMPLE. 

une jeunesse qui sc livre a sea yotUh, which abandons itself to its 
passions, netransmet a la vieil- passions, transmits to old age 
lesae qu un corps use, nothing but a worn-out body. 

J'Vtfj before^ and jwc, after the verb in the sense oinoih- 
ing but does not require pas, 

EXAMPLE, 
il ne fait que rire, he does nothing but langh. 

Pas is again omitted when that conjunction may be 
changed into stnojif or si ce rCest, 

EXAMPLES. 
a ne tiont qu'A vous de rfiuseir, th^ ^tccess wholly depends upon 

you. 

trop de maitres a la fois nc ser- too many vuuters at once only serve 
vent qu a erabrouillcr i'esprit, to perplex the mind. 

With a verb in the preterit, preceded by the conjunction 
depuis que, or by the verb il y a, denoting a certain duration 
of time,joa5 and/?om^ are omitted. 

EXAMPLES. 

comment vous etes-vous porte hoio have you been since I saw 

depuis que jc ne vous ai vu 1 you / 

il y a Irois mois que je ne vous ai / have not seen you for these three 

^^i months. 

But they are not omitted, when the verb is in the present. 

EXAMPLES. 

comment vit-il depuis que nous how does he live now we do not see 

ne le voyons point 1 him 7 

il y a six mois que nous no lo we have not seen him these six 

voyons point, months. 

It has been seen, No. 211, that ne is used in comparative 
sentences, but as it has not then a negative sense, />a«,;»oin^ 
are of course omitted. 



■-i 



-.1 



3P76 



SrNTAX AND IDIOMS 



EXAMPLES. 

we despise those who speak differ 
rcmUyfimn what ttey thmk. 

he vnites better than he specks, 
it is worse than was said, 
it is different from tehat I thought. 



I have been very near being de- 
ceived. 



oi\ m^prise cenx qui parlent au- 

trement qu'ils ne pement, 
il ecrit mieux qu'U no parle, 
c'est pire qu'^on ne le dissait, 
c'est autre chose que je ne 

croyais, 
peu s'en faut qu'bn ne m'ait 

trompe, 

JVe is also used before the subjunctive mood after certain 
verbs noticed No. 384-, iu which case pas^ pointy are also 
omitted. 

EXAMPLES. 

je ne doute pas qui! ne vienne, I doubt tiot that he wiO, ceme. 

ne desesperez pas que ce moyen, do not despair of the success of 

ne vous r^ussisse, these means. 

je ne nie pas, ow, je ne discon- Id& nst deny hat that it mO/y be so, 

viens pas que cela ne soit, 

j'emp^cherai bien que voUs ne / shaXL prevent ymr being of the 

s6y ez d u nombre, number. 

prenez garde qu'on ne vous se- take care that they do not corrupt 

duise, f)U. 

prenez garde que vous ne m'en- mind ym, rf* imA iMdetstand whtd 

tendiez pas, I mean. 

il craint que son frere ne i'aban- he is afraid his brother shotUd for> 

donne, sakeiam. 

je crains que mon Ami ne meure, I fear my friend wiU die. 

The Academy says, that after nieVy doufevy dtsconveniry 
ne may be omitted. 

EXAMPLES. 
Je ne nic pas^ ou^ je ne dwctonviens pas que cela soit. 

When v^e say, de crainie quHl neperde sonpraceSy we ex- 
press a fear lest he should lose his law-suit. 

When we say, de crainte quHl ne soit pas puni, we ex^ 
press an apprehension, lest he should escape punishment. 

Remark. In these phrases, 

je crains que mon ami ne meure, / am afraid my friend will die. 
vous emplchez qu'on ne chante, you prevent them from singtng. 

J\re has the meaning of the 7ie of the Latin language, 
which equally governs the subjunctive liiood. 

423. The conditional of savoir is frequently used nega- 
tively, instead of pmtvoir in which case pasy point are 
uuiiiteu. 

EXAMPLE, 
je ne saurais en venir a bout I cannot accomplish U. 



speafc diffe" 
y think, 
: speaks, 

I thought, 

ter certain 
, are also 



cemvf. 
success of 

U nay be so, 

king of the 

Tiot corrupt 

efstavid nehed 

r skcvid for- 

e. 

isconveniry 



€eSy we ex- 

M, we exT 
lishmeAt. 



will die. 
nngmg. 

I language, 

used nega- 
point are 




OF TKS ADVERB. 



When ne savoir means eire incertain^ it is best to pmit 
j)as and point. 



EXAMPLES. 



Je ne sais ou le prendre, 
il ne salt ce qu'il. dit, 



/ do not know lehere to find him, 
he does not know what he says. 

But pas B.nd paint must be used wlien savoii' is taken in 
its true meaning, to know. 



EXAMPLE, 
je ne sais pas Ic Fran9ai8, / do not know Frenck. 

We also say, without pas ot paint , 

toe vous deplabe, ne vous en d6- by yowr leave, under favour^ or 
plaise, let it not displease you. 

Plus and davantage must not be used indifferently. 
Plus is followed by the preposition de, or the conjunction 
^ue, 

EXAMPLES'. 

il a plus de brillant que de solide, he has, more brilliancy than so'itdUy. 
H 6e fie plus a ses luftiieres qu'a he relies more upon his ownknow- 
celles des autres, ledge than upon that of others. 

Davantage is used alone and at the end of sentences. 

EXAMPLE, 

la science est estimable, mais la learning is eslimable, but virtue is 
vertu I'est davantage, sliU more so. 

Although davantage can not be followed by the preposition 
iie, it may be preceded by the pronoun en. 

EXAMPLE, 
je n'en dirai pas davantage, / shaU mt say any mote about it, 

It is incorrev.^ to use davantage for 7c plus. We must 
«ay, 

de toutes les flenrs d'un pAttene, of aU the flmcers of a parterre the 
I anemone est celle qui me plait le anemone is that which pleases vie 
W^- most. 



424. 6i., aussiy tant, and autant, arc always followed by 
the conjunction qut^ expressed or understood. 

II h ^ 



H 



378 



srNTAX Ai\D IDIOMSr 



Si, and aussi aire joined to adjectives, adverbs, and par- 
ticiples ; tant^nd autant, to substantives and vevba, 

EXAMPLES. 

J'Angleterre n'est pas si grande England is not ^ large of Prantx. 

que la France, 
ii est aussi cstime (ju'aim6, he is as much esteemed as fie it 

beloved. 
cite a autant de beaute que dc she Juis as much beauty as virtue. 

vcrtu, 

Remark. •Mutant may, however, be substituted for ausstf 
in comparisons of equality. 

EXAMPLE. 

il est modeste autant que &age, he is as modest as imsc. 

It has been said. No. 47. that, in comparisons, aussi is 
iis*d with the affirmative, and si, with the negative ; si, 
may, however, be used in an affirmative sentence, in the 
sense of tellement. 



EXAMPLE. 

? isl 
hardly walk. 



H est devenu »i gros, qu'il a Jo he is be^xme so bulky that Ive cmi 
la i)eme a marcner, 




Jamais takes sometimes the preposition, a, and ioujours 
(he preposition pour. 



EXAMPLES. 



soyez a jamais heurcux, 
c'est pour toujouvs, 



be fm' ever happy, 
it is for ever. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OF THE CONJUNCTIONS. 

425. Que is a conjunction so much used in French that, 
although it has been already noticed in every part of this 
grammar with which it might have reference, it may not 
be unnecessaiy to present here a series of examples of the 
various ways in which it is used. 



and par- 
t's. 



J Of Piantx. 
'd as lie i* 
as virtue. 

i for ausstf 



9, atlSSt 19 

;ative ; si, 
i^e, in the 



f^t Ji£ cati 



I ioujours 



;nck that^ 
rt of this 
may not 
es of the 



Of THE CONJUNCTIONS. 



379 



r 



QU£ 



expressing com- 
parison 

ior\nen que 



je souhaite que 

d rutins que 
avanl que 
sans que 
<^que 
«£tiJSZ^d^ que 
si^ Of quand 

soil que 



r 



EXAMPLES, 

grande que Z'^-tt- > ^*}^ " '*rg«' ^^» 
rope. ) liiUrope. 

ion ne park que i thej taJJ? of no- 
de la nouvelle> tMng but the 
viOoire. ) new victory. 

Squ'tZ Vive pour, jel^^^ ¥ ^'^e, for, 

) souliaite qu'iZ moe. f '' '^^"' ^^ ^° 
S } may live. 

(ceUi ne ^inwa pasi^^^^'','^^^ ^ «« 
i qu'i7 ne vicnne. i f^^ *° ^t. «*^*^M 
■',.,. t *16 come. 

iqujZ/as5« fc w<nw- It/ he commits the 
< dre exi»s, U est\ least excess, he 
' malade. \ is ijj. 

whether he gains, 
or loses his law- 
suit, he is a ruin- 
ed man. 



jusqud ce quo 

pourqnoi ? 
comme 

combicn 



qu't7 perdre, ou qn'il 
gagne son prods, 
c'est un homme rui' 
nc. 
I attendez qu'iZ vie7i-\ 
tie. ^ 



wait till he comes. 



,que ne se corrige- i why does ho not 
; t-il pas f rcfomi? 

niicharU quW est. wicked as he is. 

jjwfi Z>i«i est\hoio great is the 
1 grand! 5 Almighty I 

] f?te je hais Ics me- } how muck I hate 
\ chants! 5 the wicked! 

Another very frequent use of this conjunction is to save 
the repetition of comme, parce gue,pmsgiie, quand, qumque, 
81, etc. when, to phrases beginning with these words, others 
are added under the same regimen, by meanb of the conjunc- 
tion et» 

EXAMPLE. 

si Ton airaait son pays et.qu'on en if we loved our country, and sin- 

desirat sincerement la gloire, cerely wished its glory, we should 

on sc conduirait de maniere, act so as, etc. 
etc, 

426. Particular construction with que before a noun or 
s^n infinitive. 



EXAMPLE. 



c'est tin honiQic 
votjre fr,5re, 







For votrefrere est un homme singulier. 




^ ^ ' WmiiMmii»». ttm mmm ' ' mmmimmm.^^ 



580 



StNTAX \^t) iDioMi 



EXAMFLEl 

e 6tait qUelque chose que dVvoir having begunwas already smne- 
commence, thing. 

For avoir commence etait dejd quelque chose, 

EXSRCISB. 
We have every thing to tear from his wisdom, even more 
. • encore 

Ihan ffdm his power. What men term greatuess, glorvi 

ce que art. appclcr 
power, profound policy, is in the eyes of God ordv 

profond politique, f. d 

misery, weakness, and vanity. May they understand, at last, 

comprendre 
that without internal peace there is no 

avec soi-meme 2 art. 1 «^^ 

happiness. May she be as happy as she deserves to bcv 
rf , . , dele 

Ne^er write before you have thoroughly examined 

sous toutes ses faces 2 1 

the subject which you propose to treat. Let him but hear 

se proposer de trailer • 

the least noise, his terrified imaginatidn piesents to Mm hothin* 
brtMt effraye2 f. 1 * » "* 

T,.. de art. "^°"^^^^^- ^^ """"a^^^ ^-^^-' ^^' 

comes in Why does he not (take advantage) of his youth. 
ne lemier, * projlter 

(in order to) acquire the knowledge he Wants 1 This 

P^^^ coTiTiaissance pi. dont avoir besoin % 

town is a very pretty place. My uncle was a terrible man when 

he was in a passion. 

Full as he was of his prejudices, he would not own 

Rempk md-2 preju^ ind 3 convenir de 

(anything). Full of self-love {as he i*), expect nothintt 
rien petnl 3 -2 ^ 

good (from him). How beautiful is that cultivated nature 

en 16 5 2 4 3 
How, by the care of man, is it brilliantly and richly auomed ! 

_ P^^ ^' pompeusement omp. 

Had profound philosophy presided at the formation of 

St * d£ ind-6 d 

languages, and had they carefully examined the elements of 

art. cangne avecsoin subj-i —m. 



OF THE CONJUNCTIONS. 



asi 



ready smne- 



jven more 
ncore 

3SS, gloryj 

God only 

id, at last, 
re 

no 

point 

CS (0 biBk 

examined 
1 

but hear 

* 

m nothing 

* * 

uestion, tili 

ur brother 

his youth, 

ktsi This 
r besoin 1 

man when 



own 

convenir de 

nothing 
de 
ted nature 
3 

y auomed ! 
sement ome 

nation of 

ilcments of 
— m. 



speech, not only in their relations (to one another), but also 
art. tttscoufs non ^,^^ ^> "* ^^^ 

m themselves, it is not (to be doubted) that lanffaaaes 
en m. -'— < — ° * 

would present 

offrir subj-S <fe art. 

ikame time, more luminous. 



douteux art. 

principles more simple, and at the 



GOVERNMENT OF CONJUNCTIONS. 

427. The conjunctions which unite sentences to one 
another, are followed either by the infinitive, the indicative. 
or the subjunctive. 

Those that are followed by an innnitive, are, 

1. Such as are distinguished from prepositions, only by 
being followed by a verb. 

EXAMPLE. 

** 5"* ..^ reposcr aprds avoir one ought to rest after having la-- 
tra'^"^, bowred.. * 

2. those which have the preposition de after them^ 

iiXAMPlE. 

il travailTe afin de vous 8uri)asser, he works that he may surpass you. 

EXERCISE. 

They were goina to spend a few days in town, 
ne • md-2 * passer * quelques dart, 

only that they might return vnth more pleasure to 

gite powr * ♦ se reirouvtr inf-l dans 

their charming solitude. Many persons work only (in order to) 

ne que afinde 
^qmte _^ consideration and riches, but the honest and 

^m. pr. art. 2 et 

^«S!qT" ^l'*"'^', ('° "^"^^) t'W^e »n stU'Jy. only 

senstdleS i ne employer iaiit de 4 art. ^e 

ft? be useful to his fellow-creatures. I reveal to vou tho 

1^»' semblahUs " divoUe,' ^ '"^ 

plot whjch your enemies have concerted in secret in 

^^^'"^^' onrdir &tt. tinebras£.pl ' 
(irder to warn you against then: artifices. 
premunir ^ 



428. Gonmnctini:.«t thnt ornvAm iht^ inAir^ati^To 



bien attendu que, | autant que, 
a condition que, non plus que, 

a la charge que, j outre <]juc, 



fmisque, 
orsque 
pendant que, 



peut-6tre que, 
comme, 
comme n\ 



Ml 



3»2 



■ rWTAX AND IpIOMi, &C. 



f^ 



tandis que, 
durant que, 
tant qup, 



quand, 
pourquoi 
comment, etc. 



de mome que, parce quo 

ainwque, attenduqvs 

ausai bien que, vu que. 

They are followed by the indicative, because the principal 
sentence, which they unite with that which is incidental, 
expresses the affirmation in a direct, positive and indepen- 
dent manner. '^ 

The me of the six following conjunctions, 

to^\Zt I ^««oWeque, I tenement quo, 

81 CO n est que, ( en sorte que, | de manifiw que, 

varies according to the meaning expressed by the principal 
sentence. r r 

EXAMPLE OP THE INDICATIVE. EXAMPLE OP THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 

^^ TJ^ ^. J^^''"'^" """"l'^ ^.^°«^' J« ^« ^«"^ autre chose, sirumffue 
otdZ ^ ^ ''°"' tf*^""iez avec pIuB d'at- 

'^ri:J^'''''T'^T'"^J ^"' ^ ^' '^thmgelse bttt that y(«i 
that / had exeaUed his ord^s. would study itith greater ardivr. 

The indicative is required, in the first sentence, by the 

verb^airepone/« expressing a positive affirmation, and the 

EXERCISE. 
IFte, you have a more extomive knowledge of geometry, 

%.^Xa' """ ^™ ='- .%x-»"'s ""o- 

5^1^"°" tSfeond.. (''-".Jr ^°-> ' ,S Of--- 
I Will give you this fine picture upon condition that you 

tableau m. d 

J^f^s. ' J «^' ^^ * testimony of my friendship. 
consei-ver md-l temoignage xa. ■ 

429. The conjunctions which govern the subjunctive 
are, 



soit que. 
sans quej 
pour que, 
quoique, 



lllSnu'n eg nyin 

encore que, 
a moins que, 
pourvu que 



3Up|;0gc uUC, 

au cas que, 
avant que, 
noH paa que 



aiiii que, 
de peur que 
dccrainteque, 
etc, 



land, 
urquoi 
mment, etc. 

le principal 

incidental, 

id indepen- 



quc, 
re que, 

3 principal 



BJUNGTIVE. 

B, si rum que 
3 plus d'ar- 

•Ut that you 
ater ardour. 

ce, by the 
1, and the 
ses a corn- 



geometry, 
i, f. 

in astro- 

de 

d tasto 
proii. 

a prisoner, 

* captive 

of enemies, 
that you 



ibjunctive 



i que, 
peur que 
7rainte que, 
tc, 



PROMISCUOUS EXKBCISKS. 



383 



They require the conjunctive, as they alwtiys tmpl^ 
doubt, desire, ignorance. See No. c^78. 



•You know 
connailre 



EXERCISE. 

too well the value of time, to make 

priz m. art. pour que Ure 2 

it necessary to tell you to (make a good use of) it. St udy only 
'* * de de bien employer 

great models, Uat i\ ._^ which arc but middling 

art. de peur que * mediocre ne 

should s^il your taste, be/ore it bo entirely formed, k 
gater subj-l 

(make not the leost doubt) that your method will succeed, 

7ie douter nuUement f ^^^ subi-1 

provided it be well known. Several phenomena of nature are 

*"• art. 

easy (to be explained), supposing tlw principle of universal 

<by the active) art. 2' 

gravitation to be tree, 
f. 1 * 

VROMISCJOUS EXERCISES ON THE NINE PARTS OP SPEECH. 

T/ie Good Mother. 

What a fine morning ! said the amiable Charlotte to her 
matinee f. ind-3 
brother George. Come let us go into the garden and enjoy 
sing. ♦ inf-1 

the magnificent sight of rich and abundant nature. 

de 2 spectacle m. 1 tine 2 fertile 3 1 

We will gather the freshest and sweetest flowers.- We 

y cueiUir frais2 Qxi.z.A\.odorantZ.{.^\.\. 

will make a nosegay, which we will offer to mamma. You 

bouquet m. maman sing. 

know she is fond of flowers. This attention will give her 

savoirque aimer faire lui 

pleasure. Ah ! brother, it will obtain us u smile, p, caress, 
inon f. valoir souHreva. f. 

Ah ! sister, replied George, your 

ma repmdre ind-3 sing, 

proposal delights me ; let us run, let us hasten, that we may 
projet enchanter courir voler afin de* • 

offer her, (whcji she gets up), this tribute of our gratiJude and our 
lui a son lever hommage — 

love. Full of this idea, Charlotte and George hastened 

P'^'-'it' &. hater ind-3 de se ren- 

into the garden. Charlotte gathered violets jessamine 

md-3 de art. pr. art. 



perhaps even a kiss. 
baiser m. 



dre 



-■wmmtfrnm-m^m^. 



38* 

and 



Y>ROlltSC0OUS EXERCIS)^. 



young rose-biKlg which (had but just begun) (o 

' pf. <fe 2 boiUon m. 1 n« ammmencfr gut iml-s4 

©pen their purjilo cups, while George preparetl 
entr'uuvrir de paurpre 2 calice 1 ind-2 de art. 

grtsen «p>ig« of myrtle and thyme, intended to hold up the 
VerdayaiU 2 ^c) m.l viyrte pr. wywi destine soutenir 

flawen. Never had these amiable chHdren exerted theuMetve* 

1 ind-2 3 2 travaiOer 

with (so much) zeal and ardour. Satiaftuition and pleaiure were 
taiU de zele pr. art. f. art. m. ind-2 

painted in all thflir features, sparkled in their eyes, and added still to 
peint trtiU m. pHiller 

their beauty. . 

While they (were engaged) (in this manner), their mother, who 
s^occuper md-2 r 

had seen them irl the garden, came to join them. (As soon as) 

ind-3 • joindre dhs que 

they J perceived her, they flew to her, and said : (Ah ! mamnutj hoW 
ind-3 ind-3 elle lui q%e 

glad we are to see you ! how (impatient we were) for this 

aise 3 1 2 </« il tardait d noire impatience d'avoir 

pleasure. In the pleasing expectation (of it) we (were preparing) this 
ce doux aUejiie f * ind-2 

nosegay for you. What satisfaction should we have had in 

f. ne pas d 

presenting it to you! Look at these rose-buds, these violets, this jes- 
qffrir voir * 

samine, this myrtle, and tliis thyme. Well, we intended them 

Ek ! Uien, destiner ind-2 
for ycu. These flower^ coming from us, would have been dear to you. 
* cher 

In wearing them, you would have said : My children (were think- 
En porter mf. 2 s'occuper 

ing) of me while I slept. I am always as present to their 

ina-2 dormir ind-2 

minds as to their hearts. They love me, and it is by giving me every 
s. 
day new proofs of their afl'ection, that they acknowledge the 
art. pi. de preuve f. reconnaitre 

care I have taken of them in their childhood, and all the 

mn m. pi. qtie 

marks of tendernms I am unceasingly giving them. 
que ne cesser de mf-l leur. 

My dear children, replied the mtthsr. embracing them. 

repondre Jid-3 en embrasser 

how happy you make all my day- ? your gratitude, your tender* 

quel charme ripandre sur * 



to 
iml-ii 

6(1 

2 de art. 

1 up the 
lenir 

themsetvefl 

travaUUr 

agure were 
m. ind-3 

ided still lo 



lother, who 

.8 soon as) 
(its qite 

ammftj heW 
qtie 

for this 
d^avoir 

Miring) this 

1-2 ^^ 

had in 
pas a. 

ets, this jes- 

3d them 
r ind-2 

dear to you. 
cker 

were think- 
s^occuper 

sent to their 

g me every 

owledge the 

nnait/re 

, and all the 



racing them, 
asser 

your tender* 



PROMISCUOUS I2XGR7T8KS. 



S85 



ness, your sttehtlon to nj6, make mo fomct my former misfortunes 
pi. jmir ouSlicr ancim malAeur m. 

rXrir ""^ ^'"''^ "^l'" ^ ^^'^ ''^**' impressions of pleasuw. 

Polvmr sab, i art ''^^ *'°"r""^ *°. ^'*^ ""^ '*^"' ' May it be 

-f OMVMr subj-i art. conlinuer de sain Pcuvoir 

your gmde and your support in the career which Twill soon oe opened) 

- ioulicn rurriiref. ' aUer ind-l s'ohrnr 

to you ! may it complete its kindness by nreservinir vou 

^^ant neL^elecornbt^ bvcnfaU ^l d iZa^^id"" 

from the d^ngc^8 to which you cannot fail to be soon 

* . * tiepastardermii-l 

exposed ! Alas ! I shudder (at them) beforehand, my dear children • 
jreviir en d'avance ' 

the moment is coino when you must enter the world. Your 

oil devoir daw 

Sl^rPL.^^"" ^''^^' '^n^ yoa'f fortune call yt)u there, and insure 
^gureBWg. nmssance appele/ y ' JsZ^ 

you a distmguished rank (in it), I cannot always be you^ iruide 

^ m. 1 y ind-7 

Young and inexperienced, you will find yourself surrounded 

sans experience alter ind-1 inf-l entoure 

by every kind of temptation. (Every thing), even 

sojief. seductiv?i Umt jusque a tat. m. 

vice, presents itself there under an agreeable form, and 

^Jf^'^ y sous * de SiTt. * pi I 

almost always in the shape of pleasure, which has (so many) 
sov^ image art. ^ taTul^ 

""aUrauT ^°'arf J^"'^' r T?"^ ^"^ ^^^ to mislead you, to 
attraitf. &Tt. jeunesse {. On chercher igarer 

corrupt you J they (will make use of) artifice, raillery, and 

employer art. art. = 

to first mipresszons, you are lost. The poison of example will 

'"""'Tglist'^^ ^"'° ^°^' ^'"^^' ^'" Xr// '^'^^^^<^^^^ '^J 
purity "(of them) and will substitute ''Solent passions for 

., *:' ^ . de art. dickirant 2 f. pi. i a 

the .we^t »(rect,„n. which have hitherto made your Lppinl. 

I I 



mmmiwmmm 



— 



386 



PROMIfCVOUS EXERCISEt. 



bid PleMuro is ncK^iPMuury to man ; without it. our 

•ubj-J ait. tat. V Im; 

.e^ictence wouki be dreadful ; (and therefore) Providence, al- 

affreiix aussi art. f. 

ways attentive to our wants, has multiplied the sources of 

besoin a-l-elU «,.. , ■ 

It, both in and out of oursdvcs. but, in tasdng the pleacmres 

* en nous en goxUer 

of the world, never (abandon yourseKes) (to them). Take care 

se livrer y Avmr 

they do not ffovem you; know how to quit them the. mo- 
dominer subj. 1 savoir * * de 

ment they have acquired (too much) empire over you. It is 
que prendre ind-7 Irop de Ce 

the only way to enjoy with delight that ex<;|uisite plea- 
moyen de valine de dehcieux 2 

,siire which we ran only find in ourselves, and which has its 

1 en 

aoiUTf e in an upright and pure conscitinee. Ah ! why cann<^ I 

dant droit 2 3 f. 1 qm 

give all my experience 1 why cannot you like me read the 

dans 

depths of the heart 1 With what astonishment would you often 
abxme sing. pi. 

see vexation, agitation, and trouble, disguised under the 

art. • -m. art. art. — m. deguise sons I 

appearance of joy and tranquillity ; hatred and envy I 

apparence^X. art. pr. art. calme art. f. art. f. I 

concealed under the air of confidence and friendship; 

caehi ■■'■-•■ &tt. amfiance i'. pr. art. 

indifference and e 'fl^hness, affecting the most lively interest ; 
art. egolsine vif 

the most dreadful and perfidious plots contrived 

2 art. adv. 3 trame f. pi. 1 ourdi 

deliberately in the -^ark ; in a word, the most odious 

de sang froid et '"'>e5f. pi. en 3 

vices endeavo.i(ir;i^; show tl: maelves under the features 

traits 

._ . In the world there is but 

qm leur tire oppose 2 art. 1 Tig q^g 

one (moving principle) ; that is self-interest. To .hat 

sevl mobile m. ce art. personnel 2 1 Ced a. hi que 

every action refers, every thing tends to that as to its 

art. pi. se rapporter lui 

ar\i\ T ^nnnr vorv txrpll tnir r1/>ni> ntiihiiutn iVi.>« ^r.^ii. 1.<...-«_ 

fin f. savoir 

will noc be infected by this vice. The sentiments of universal 

de Z 



•«-t. 1 s'ejif.ua tk 

Ql (their opposite) virtues I 



t}RABIMATieAL CONST RUCTlOir. 



ast 



It, our 

ence, »1- 

ources of 

pleaottres 

'ako care 
voir 
the. in&- 

ou. It ia 
Ce 

lite plea- 
ntx 2 

h has its 
cannot I 

J the 

dans 

you often 
mder the 

SOILS 

m1 envy 
art. f. 

iriendship ; 
interest ; 

contrived 

ourdi 

fit odious 

3 
3 features 
traits 

ire is but 
ne que 

that 
d lui que 

as to its 
' universal 






hmmtimm with wyeh I (have alwava) inspk^ yon md 
httnveUlance I ♦ ne fnnt cesser iMA de iaf-l 

of which I have mvu ymi give (ao maay) j^roofii, (remove 

tamt de preuve rassurt:-> I 
Alrei^ every fear) (I might have) upon tiaat subjects bttt will 
' ' rf'awanccS meil star pointui.' ^^^^'''*^^ 

you not yield to other vices not less dangerous 1 Cruel idea, 
de lutn £ 

terrible uncertainty 1 If this misfortune weie *» lui|i|?en, 
^ffreux f. * * arnver ind-9 

•hi my dear children, instead of leing the joy and conso* 

ait. C 
lation of my life, yon would be the torment, the shame aad th« 

kotUel 
disgnn (ofk). Yoa would poison my days, and you 
opprobre en enipaisonner 

would plunge a dagger into the very bosom which gave 
porter art. mor/ f. mime 2 sein m. 1 ind-3 

you life. But whither is my tenderness for you carryihg roel 
art. ou ♦ emporter 

No, my children, no, I have nothing to fear; yott lovi, mo (to* 
Non 

much) lo wish to grieve me so cruelly ; and J shall have 
trap pour widoir ♦ 

the pleasure, (as long as) I live, of seeing you walk in the ways 
lant que ind-7 teiilier 

•f honour and virtue, 

art. pr. a^. 



CHAPTER IX. 

OP GRAMATIC.AL CONSTRUCTION. 

430. Grammatical construction is the order which the 
genius of a language has assigned, in speech, to the diflferent 
sorts of words into which it is distinguished. Gonbtruction 
is sometimes mistaken lor syntax ; but there ia this diffe- 
rence : the latter consists in the rules which we are to ob- 
serve, in order to express the relations of words one to 
another, whereas grammatical construction consists in the 
various arrangements which are allowed while we observe 
the rules of syntax. Now this arrangement is irrevocably 
fixed, not only as phrases may be interrogative, imperative, 
or expositive, but also as each of these kindp may be affir- 
mative, or negative. 



388 



GRAMMATICAL CONSTRUCTION, 



|n sentences simply interrogative, the subject is either a 
noun, or pronoun. 

If the subject, be a noun, the following is the order to be 
observed ; first, the noun, then the verb, then the corres- 
ponding personal pronoun, the adverb, if any, and the regi- 
men in the simple tenses ; in the compound tenses, the 
pronoun and the adverb are placed between the auxiliary 
and the participle. , 

EXAMPLE. 

les lamicres sont-elles un bienpour are sciences an advantage to no- 
les peunles ? ont-elles jamais lions ? Have they ever contri- 
contribue a leur bonheur 1 baled to their happiness ? 

If the subject be a pronoun, the verb begins the series, 
and the other words follow in the order already pointed out. 



\ 



EXAMPLES. 



vous plairez-vous toujours a roe- will you always take pleasure in 

(lire 1 slandering 7 

aurez-vous bientot fini ? shaH. you have soon done ? 

N. B. — [When the verb is reflected, the pronoun form- 
ing the regimen begins the series, this pronoun always pre- 
etrves its place before the verb, except in sentences simply 
imperative.] 

In interrogative sentences, with a negation, the same order 
is observed ; but ne is placed before the verb, and pas or 
jjoinff after the verb in the simple tenses, and between the 
auxiliary and the participle in the compound tenses, 

EXAMPLES. 

votre fr6re ne viendra-t-il pas do- 2(nll M your brother come to-mor- 

main 1 row 7 

n'aurez-vous pas bientot fini 1 ^aU not you hai e soon done 7 

Remark. — There are in French several other ways of 
interrogating. 

1. With an absolute pronoun. 

EXAMPLE. 

qui V0U8 a dit cela 1 or qui est-cc who told you that 7 
qui vous a dit cela^ 

2, With the demonstrative pronoun ce. 

examples. 
eat-ce voi^s 1 kit yew 1 | cst-ce qu'il picut 1 does tt rain? 



^mmmmm 



6UAMMATICAL CONSTRUCTION. 



d89 



» either a 

der to be 
le corres- 
the regi- 
nsesj the 
auxiliary 



(age to 7ta- 
ver contri- 

'SS? 

le series, 
nted out. 



pleasure in 

me? 

un form- 
^ays pre- 
ss simply 

ime order 
d pa$ or 
tveen the 

s. 



me t0-mt/9- 

lane? 
ways of 



3. With an interrogative verb. 



pourquoi ne vient-il pas 7 
comment vous trouvez-vous 1 



EXAMPLES. 

why does he not come? 
how do youfirid yourself? 

Hence wq see that the absolute pronouns and the interro- 
gative adverbs always begin the sentence : but the demon- 
strative pronoun ce always follows the verb. 

In sentences, simply imperative, the verb is always placed 
first> in the first and second persons j but in the third, it 
comes after the conjunction que and the noun or pronoun. 

EXAMPLES^ 



allons Id, 

venez ici, 

qu'ils y aillent, 

que Pierre aille a Londres, 



let v^go theic, 

come Jie7c. 

let them go there. 

let Peter go to London. 

With negationj ne and pas are placed as in interrogative 
sentences. ° 

For the place of the pronouns, No. 218. 

Sentences are expositive, when we speak without either 
interrogating, or commanding. The following is the order of 
the words in those which are affirmative : the subject, the 
verb, the adverb, the participle, and the regimen, 

EXAMPLES* 



un boii prince merite I'amour de 

ses sujels et I'estime de toUs leg 

peuples, 
Cesar eut inutilement passe le 

Rubicon, s'il y eut eu de eon 

temps des Fabius, 



a good prince c::scrtes the love of 
his mltjeds, a}ul the esteem of all 
nulions. 

CiEsar would have civssed the Rubi- 
con to no piirpDse, had t/iere bem 
Fabii in his time. 



s u rain? 



The negative sentences differ from this construction, only 
asnc is always before the verb, and;7«^, or point, ehh&: 
after the verb, or between the auxiliary and the participle- 

EXAMPLES* 

un homme riche no fait pas tou- a rich man does not alioai/s do all 

jours le bicn qu il pourrait, the good he might. 

Ciceron n eut pas peut-6tre ete Cicei-o would not perhaps have Um 

un Di grand oratcur, si le d6sir so great an oratm- had not " 

de s elever aux premieres dig- d^me of rising to the first dieal 

nites n eut enflamme son ame,. ties infLamed his soul. 

Sentences are either simple, or compound. They are 
simple when they contain only one subject and one altri^ 
bute. 

I i 2 



390 



GRAMMATICAL CONSfftUCTlON. 



EXAMPLES. 



vous lisez, 
V0U8 Stes jeune, 



ymc read, 
you are young. 

They are compound, when they reunite several subjects 
with one attribute, or several attributes with one subject, or 
several attributes with several subjects, or several subjects 
with several attributes. 

This sentence, Pierre et Paul sont Aeureu^x, is compound 
by having t\yo subjects ; this, ceite femme estjolie, spiritw 
elk et sensible, is compound by having more than one 
attribute j and this, Pierre et Paul sont spirituels et savants, 
in composed at once of several subjects and several attribu- 
tes. 

A sentence may be compound in various other ways ; by 
the subject, by the verb, or by the attribute. 

By the subject, when this is restricted by an incidental 
proposition. ^ 

EXAMPLE. 

Dieu, qui est bon. 

By the verb, when It is niodified by some circumstance 
of time, order, etc. 

EXAMPLE. 
Dieu, qui est bon, n'abandonne jamais. 

By the attribute, when this attribute is modified by a 
regimen which is itself restricted. 

EXAMPLE. 

Dieu, qui est bon, n'abandonne jamais les hommes, qui mettent sincd- 
rement leur confiance en lui. 

These simple, or compound sentences may be joined to 
others by a conjunction. 

EXAMPLES. 

quand on aimc I'etudc, Ic tempa when we love study, time flies wUhotU 
passe sans qu'on s'en aper- our perceiving it, 
^oive, 

The two partial phrases here form but one. 

tVhen a oeruerice is coiiipused of two partial phrases, 
joined by a conjunction, harmony and perspicuity generally 
require the shortest to go first. 






>m ii^-iMiiiliii^rf- 



subjects 
ibject, or 
i subjects 

)mpound 
spiritu- 

han one 
savants, 

I attribu- 

ays ; by 
icidental 



I instance 



ed by a 

ent sinc6- 
joined to 

PS wilhmU 



phrases, 
jenerally 



GRAMMATICAL CONSTRUCTIOn. 



EXAMPLES . 



391 



qu&nd loa passions nous quit- 
tent, nous nous ilattons en 
vain, que c'est nous qui lea 
quittons, 

on n'est point a plaindre, quand, 
au defaut de plaisirs reels, on 
trouve le moyen de s'occuper 
de chimcres. 



when OUT passions leave us, we in 
vain JUUter mirseives thai it is 
loe that leave theni. 



he is not to be pitied, who fot 
waivt of real pleamre, finds 
means to amuse himself with 



to 

chimeras. 



Periods result from the union of several partial phrases, 
the whole of which make a complete sense. Periods, to be 
clear, require the shortest phrases to be placed first. The 
toUowing example of this is taken from Fl^chier. 
N'attendez pas, Messieurs, 

1. Q.ue j'ouvre une scene tragique ; 
trophSr •'^ '®P^^^^"*o <^« g'''^"^ homme etendu sur ses propres 

encL^l^iSd're^^^^^^^^ ^'^ ^' ^^"S'^"*' aupr5s duquel fume 

a i:«^"® J®. ^^^® «»ei* son sanfe comme celui d'Abel, et que i'expose 
a vos yeux les images de la religion et de la patrie evJoree: ^ 

This admirable period is composed of four members, 
which go on gradually increasing. It is a rule not to give 
more than four members to a period, and to avoid multi- 
plying incidental sentences. 

Obscurity in style is generally owjng to those small phra- 
ses which divert the attention from the principal sentences, 
and make us lose sight of them. 

The consti-uction which we have mentioned is called 
direct, or regular, because the words are placed in those 
sentences according to the order which has been pointed 
out. But this order may be altered in certain cases, and 
then the construction is called indirect, or irregular. Now, 
It may be irregular, by inversion, by ellipsis, by pleonasm, 
or by syllepsis ; these are what are called the four figures 
of words. 



INVERSION. 

431. Inversion is the transposition of a word into a place, 
ditferent from that which, by usage, is properly assigned to 
It. This-ought never to be done except when it introduce*?, 
more perspicuity, energy, or harmony 'into the language ; for 
It IS a defect in construction, whenever the connexion sub- 
sisting between words is not easily perceived. 



i ■• f 



m 



f 

I 



Wl 



H 



GRAMMA'{*IdAL dONStAUCTIdff. 



There are two kinds of inversion : the one, by its bold- 
ness seems to be confined to poetry : the other is frequently 
€lraployed even in prose. 

We shall speak here of the latter kind onIy» 

The following inversions are authorized by custom. 

The subject by which a verb is governed may with pro- 
priety be placed after iti 

EXAMPLE, 

tout ce que liii promet Tatnitie all that t/ie fricnlsMp of the Ro* 
ties Rotnains, 'irians promises hivi. 

Ebmark. This inversion is a rule of the art of speaking 
dnd writing, whenever the subject is modified by an inci- 
dental sentence, long enough to make us lose sight of the 
connexion between the verb governed and the subject govern- 
ing. 

TI|e noun governed by the pr'epositions de and a may 
likewise be very properly placed before the verb. 

Examples* 

d'une voit entrecoupee desan- in a voice itUerrupted by sobs. iMy 
glots, ils s'ecridrent, • exclaimed, 

tant d'injufefl, qu'a-t-elle re- to so much oMisc, what answer did 
pondu? she give. 

The verb is likewise elegantly preceded by the preposi- 
tions apre9i dans, par, sous, conire, etc. and the nouns 
which they govern, as well as by the conjunctions si, quand, 
parce que, puisqtbe, quoique, lorsque, etc* 

EXAMPLES. 

par la loi du corps, je tiens a ce by the law of the body^ t am cojk* 

monde qui passe, nected with this passing wmid. 

puisqu'il le veut, qu'il le fasse, since he wishes it, let him do it. 



OF THE ELLIPSIS. 



432. I^llipsis m \\iQ omission of a word, or even several 
words, whlcb^re necessary to make the construction full 
and complete. An ellipsis is bad, ifthefmind does not 
easily and rapidly supply the words omitted. 



EXAMPLE. 



rius, si j'etaia 
et nioi aussi, 
inenion, 



ies onrBa ue L/a- 
Alexandrc :— 
si j'etaia Par- 



/ Would uC(.epl the ojjers of Da 
riiis, if I locre Alexandei :•— 
and so uvukl /, if / tvcrs Paf' 
imnio. 






^^Memiiii^M^ime^i»0" 



t8 bold- 
equently 

-a' 
1. 

ith pro- 



^ the Ro* 

speaking 
m inci- 
t of the 
govern* 

1 amny 



'ibsy they 
swer did 

preposi- 
! nouns 
) ^uatidf 



am coiii» 

uoiid. 

fit. 



several 
3n full 
)es not 



of Da 
ndei ;— 
'« Paf' 



GRAMMATICAL CONSTRUCTION. 299 

Here the mind easily supplies the words, jV/m accepte- 
rats in the second member. ^ 

The ellipsis is very common in answers to interrogative 
sentences. ® 

EXAMPLE, 
quand viendrez-vous ?-<lemain, when wiU you come l-to-niorrtm,. 
that \9,je viendrai demain. 

In order to know whether an ellipsis be good, the words 
that are understood must be supplied. It is correct, when- 
ever the construction completely expresses the sense denoted 
t>y the words which are supplied; otherwise it is not ex- 
act* 



OF THE PLE0NA5M. 

433. Pleonasm, in general, is a supe.;iaity of words • in 
order to constitute this figure good, it must be sanctioned by 
custom, which never permits its use, except it give greater 
energy^ to language, or express, in a clearer manner, the 
internal feeling with which we are affected. 

EXAMPLES. 
Et que m'a fait a moi cctte Troie ou je cours ' 
Je me meurs. S'il ne veut pas vous le dire, je voiw le diraJ not 
Je I'ai vu de mes propres yeux. * ^' 

Je I'ai entendu de mes propres orciUes. 

^J'^T^'l'^}^'^ ?''* sentence ;~»zc, in the second:— 
moi, in the third ',-^de mes propres yeux, in the fourth ; and 
--de mes propres oreilles, in the fifth, are employed merely 
for the sake of energy, or to manifest an internal feeling ; 
but this manner of speaking is sanctioned by custom 

Kemark. Expletives must not be mistaken for pleo- 
nasms* *^ 

EXAMPLE. 

""'le r^Lf *''^' """ " ^ ""^ '^'^ '*^"* '^ ^^^ "'^''^ "» ^^^ i^ safety 
*'®**^**'' of the state is amm-ned. 

, Which is better than cW nne affaire, oii il va. etc. th«t 
IS, inai4 opaiuiig y, which is in reality useless on account of 
ed to d -^ ^ of expression from which it is not allow- 



3H 



GRAMMATICAL DISCORDANCE. 



OP THE STLLEPSIS. 

4f34>, The syllepsis is a figure by which a word relates 
more to our meaning, than to the literal expressionB, as in 
these phrases : 

II est onze heures ; I'an mil sept cent quatre-vingt-dix-neuf. 

When using them, the mind, merely intent upon precise 
meaning, pays no attention to either the number, oi* the 
gender of heure and an. 

There is likewise a syllepsis in these sentences : 

Je crains qu'il ne vienne. 
J'emp6cherai qu'il ne vous nuise< 
J'ai peur qu'il ne m'oublie, etc. 

Full of a wish that the event may not take place, we are 
willing to do all we can, that nothing should present aji ob- 
stacle to that wish. This is the cause of the introduction 
of the negative, which, although unnecessary to complete 
the sense, yet must be preserved for the gake of the idiom. 

There is again a very elegant syllepsis in sentences lika 
the following from Racine : 

Entre le ^mpZg et vous, vous prcndrez Dieu pour juge ; 
Vous souvenant, mon fils, que cache sous ce lin, 
Comnie eux vous fdtcs pauvre, et, comiue cwrc, orphelin. 

The poet forgets that he has been using the word peuple : 
nothing remains in his mind but despauvres and des orphe- 
lins, and it is with that idea of which he is full th?it he 
makes the pronoun eux agree. For the same reason, 
Bossuet and Mezengni have said, 

Ctuand !e pe.uple Hibrm entra dans la terre promise, tout y cel^- 
brait leurs ancdtres. — Bossuet. 

Moise eut recours au Seigneur, et lui dit : que ferai-je a ce peuple 7 
bientot ils me lapideront. — MfczENGUi. 

Leurs and ils stand for les Hebreux, 



CHAPTER X. 

OF GRAMMATICAL DISCORDANCES, AMPHIBOLO- 
GIES, AND GALLICISMS. 

435 We have chiefly to take notice of two incorrect 
modes of construction, which are contrary to the principles 
laid down in the preceding chapters — grammatical discor- 
dances, and — amphibologies. 



\ 






iinliiii 



relates 
B, as in 



precise 
Ok* the 



, we are 
; aji ob- 
oduction 
complete 
idiom« 
Qces like 



in. 

Ipcuple: 
',8 orphe- 

11 that he 
reason, 

at y cel^- 
ce peuple 7 



IBOLO- 

incorrect 
principles 
al discor- 



■ 



GRAMMATICAL DISCORDANCE. 



m 



\ 



GT DISCORDANCES. 

In general, there is A discordance in language, wfien (k€ 
words, which totepose the variolis members of a sentence^ 
or period, do not agre«^ with each other, either because theii' 
construction is contrary to analogy, or because they bring 
together dissimilar ideas, between which the mind pereeives 
an oppoBition, or can see no manner of affinity. 

Tlie following examples will serve to illustrate this : 

No^re reputation ne depend pas des IouangC8 qu'on notts donne/ 
mais des actions louables que nois faisons. 

This sentence is not correct, because the first mentiber' 
being negative, and the second affirmative, cannot comcf 
under the government of the same verb. It ought to be : 

notre reputation depend, non our reputation depends, not upon 
des louanges qu'on nous the praises which are besUnoed 
donne, mais des actions, etc. ov. us, but upon the praisewaithy 

actions which we perform. 

But the most common discordances are those which arise 
from the wrong use of tenses, as in this sentence : 

II regarde votro maiheur comme une punition du peu de complai - 
«ance que vo^is avez eu pour lui, dans lo temps qu'il vous pria etc. 

Because the two preterits, definite and indefinite, cannot 
well agree together ; it should be : 

Q,ue vous e6tes pour lui dans le temps qu'il vous pria. 

There is discordance in this sentence : 

Ort en ressentit autant de joie que d'nne victoire complete dans un 
■autre temps. 

Because the verb cannot be understood after the que which 
introduces the second member of the comparison, when 
that verb is to be a different tense ; it should be : 
• On en ressentit autaat de joie qu'on en aurait ressenti, dc. 
This 11 e of Eacine, 

Le flot, qui I'apporta, recule egouvante. 
is also incorrect, because the form of tEe present cannot as- 
sociate with that of the preterit definite ; it should have 
been: ^mPaapporte* 



OF AMPHIBOLOGIES. 

4»36. Amphibology, in language, is when a sentence is 
«o constructed rs to be susceptible of two different interpre- 



396 



GRAMMATICAL DISCORDANCE. 



tations : this must be carefully avoided. As we apeak only 
to be understood, perspicuity is the first and most essential 
quality of language ; we should always recollect that what 
is not clearly expressed in any language^ is no language at 

all. 

Amphibology are occasioned, — 1. By the misuse of — 
moods, and — tenses. 2. Of— personal pronouns, t7, /«, /o, 
etc. 3. Of— possessive pronouns, son, sa, ses, etc. 4. By 
giving a wrong place to nouns. 



EXAMPLES. 

Of an Amphibology of the first Kind, 

du'ai-je fait, pour venir accabler en ce& lieux 

Un h6ro8, sur qui seul j'ai pu tourner lea yeux ?— Racine. 

\ Pour venir forms an amphibology, because we do not 
know whether it relates to the person who speaks, or to 
the person spoken to : it should have been : pour gue vous 
veniez, 

EXAMPLES. 

Of an ^Amphibology of the second Kind. 

C^sar voulut prerni6rement surjiasser Pompee ; les grandea richessea 
de Crassus hi firent croire, qu'i/ pourrait partager la gloue de cea 
deux grands homines. 
This sentence is faulty in its construction, because the 

pronouns il and lui seem to relate to Cesar, although the 

sense obliges us to refer them to Crassus. 

EXAMPLE. 

Of an ^Amphibology of the third Kind. 
Valfere alia chcz L6andre ; il y trouva son fils. 
The pronoun '^on is ambiguous, because we do not know 
which it relates, to Valere, or to Leandre. 

EXAMPLE. 

Of an Amphibology of the fourth Kind. 

A la poste, thus placed, is equivocal, because we do not 
know whether it is meant that the letters have been written 
at the post-office, or sent to the post-office. 



MMMMkll 



IfellAMMATlCAL CONSTRUCTION^ 



397 



>eak only 

essential 

that what 

iguage at 

mae of — 
il, hy la, 
;. 4. By 



;iNE. 

e do not 
aks, or to 
r gue vous 



les richesseB 
[loire cle cea 

^cause the 
though the 



o not know 



OF GALLICISMS. 

In the '• Grammaire Plillosophique et Litl^raire," four 
sorts of Gallicisms have been pointed out. Notice will be 
taken here o( those only whieh have reference to construc- 
tion. 

Tlie gallicisms of construction are, in general^ irregulari- 
ties and deviation* from the customary rules of syntax ; 
there are some, however, which are mere ellipses, and those 
u'hich can only be attributed to the caprice of custom. 

General Principle. Every gallicism of construction, 
which renders the meaning of the sentence obscure, ought 
to be condemned. Those only ought to Ije allowed which 
<lo not impair pers|)icuity, by introducing irregularity of 
construction, and which arc, at tlie same time, sanctioned by 
long practice. 

According to this princJipie, this elliptic galliciim is now 
rejected: 

Et qu'ainsi no soit, meaning ce que je voos dis est si vrai qno, 

because it renders the sentence obscure* For instanc^e : 

J'6tais dar ce jardin, d qjc'ainsi. iie mil, voilu une fleur que j'y ai 
cuoillie, thai u., ct pour prcuvo dc ccla, voila une fleur, etc. 

Moliere and La Fontaine seem to have been the last great 
writers that have uscii this expression. 

One of the most common gallicisms is that in which the 
impersonal verb il y «, is used for il est, il exisie^ These 
expressions : 

II y avail uno fois un roi ; — il y a cent a parier centre un, 

are gallicisms. There are two in thfe following sentence : 

il n'y a pas jusqu'aux enfants, even chiUI/rcn mil meddle with il, 
qui ne s'en melent, 

The verb falloir forms a sort of gallicism with the pro- 
noun en, when it is conjugated like pronominal verbs with 
the double pronouns il se. 



d. 

B we do not 
een written 



EXAMPLE. 
II ftV>n ffliit. il s'en fallait. etc. 



It then means 
adverb of quantity 



to be wanting, and when preceded by an 
the first pronoun is omitted. 
K K 



398 



GRAMMATICAL CONSTRUCTiOlif. 



EXAMPLE. 

' Peu s'en faut, tant a'cn faut. 

These several manncra of using the verb fall&ir will be 
found in the follcvving sentences : 

EXAMPLES, 

il "'en fiut Won qu'il soil ausai A- is far from being so clever «j A^ 

habile qu'iI croit I'dtre, thinks. 

peu s'en est fallu qu'il n'ait sue- ke was very tiear fa!Hne in that 

coinb6 dans cette entreprise, undertakvng. 

lino s'en est presque rien fallu he was as -near as possible heme 

qu'iI n'ait 6t6 tue, kiUed. ^ 

Tous dites qu'il s'en faut vingt ymi say il wants twenty pounds to 

livres que la somme entifere complete the sum, tnU you are mis- 

n y Boit, mats vous voua trom- taken, it cannot want so much 

pez, il ne pei'> pas s'en falloir 

tant, 

■on rhume est entidrement gu6ri, his cold is entirely cured or vert/ 

ou peu s'en faut, near. 

que s'en est-il fallu que cos hoto near were these two friends 

deux amis ne so soient brouil- quarrelling ? 



je ne suis pas content de vdtre 
application a I'^tude, tant s'en 



am not satisfied with your appli- 
cation to study, far from it. 



faut. 

tant 8 en faut que cette comedie so far from this play pkasino- me 

roe plaise, elle me ^emble au / thi7ik U insufferabte. " ' 

contraire detestable, 

il s'en fallait beaucoup que je I was far from approving your con- 

vous • approuvasse dans cette dttct rni that occa^on. 

circonstance, 

The sentences : 

il n'est rien moins quo genercux, he is far from being generous. 

Vmia aimo Kami .IC— « . •' » . " " . 



VOUS avez beau dire, 
a ce u'il me semble, 



you may say whai you please, bid, etc. 

by what I can see, as the matter ap- 
pears to me, etc 

we began to lament,, here we are 
lamenting^ crying, etc, 

what tmetched beings we are, etc. etc. 



nous voila a nous lamenter, 

qu'est-ce que de nous ! 
are also gallicisms. 

The use which is made of the preposition en, in many 
sentences, is likewise another source of gallicisms ; some 
of this kind will be found in the following expressions : 
a qui en avez-vous 1 %ohom are you angry toith ? 

ah en veut-il venir 1 what does he aim it ? what would he 

be at? 
U lui en veut, he owes him a grudge. 

i iio propOoitiOu en ciiaiige», also, sometimes, the signifi- 
cation of verbs, and then gives rise to gallicisms. 



*» i»iiiiiiiillliirtiii|i.»fe. 



ir will be 

clever as ke 

g in that 

ssible being 

pounds to 
itm are mis- 
so much. 

ed, or vertf 
two friends 



f/our appli- 
m it. 



easing me, 



S your con- 



rous. 

ase, but, etc. 
matter op.. 

^e we are 

are, etc. etc. 

in many 
IS ; some 
is: 



GRAMMATICAL CONSTRUCTION. 39$ 

The conjunction que pro jces as great a nuinbe*- of galli- 



cisms. 



EXAMPLES. 



c'est une terrible pMsion que lo gaming is a terribie pussian. 
, jeu, ^ 

c est done en vain que je Ura- it is in vain then thai I timk. 
vaille, 

CO n'est pas trop que cela, tJial -s not too much. 

U n est quo d'avoir du couraga, tAe^e is iwthing like having courage. 

See No, 426, 

^ Many others will be found in the use wlii<;li is made of 
the prepositions a, <&, dam, aj^iresy etc. but enough has been 
said on this subject. 

Gallicisms are of very great use in the simple style : 
«jerefore La Fontaine ami Mme.de Sevign^ abound in them* 
The common style has not so many, and the solemn oratori- 
cal but few, and these even of a peculiar nature. Only two 
examples of this kind, both taken from the tragedy of Iphi- 
genia, by Racine, will be here inserted. 

A>,'eB-vous jw penser qu'au sang d'Agamemnon 
Achille |Mr«terat une tille sans non, 
Ciui, de tout son destin, ce qu'elle a pu cohiprendr«. 
C est qu'elle sort d'un sang, etc. 

And, 

Je ne sais qui m^arrete et retient mon counoUx, 
Que par un prompte avis de tout ce qui se passe, 
Je ne coure des dieux divulguer la menaco. 

In the first sentence, gut is the subject though without 
relating to any verb ; and in the second, Jc ne sais qui ir^ar- 
rete que je ne cours, is contrary \o the rules of common 
construction. « But," says Vaugelc a, « the extraordinary 
phrases, far from being faulty, possess the more beauty, as 
they belong to a particular l4nd of language." 



U would he 



e signifi- 



ff 



4(KI 



FREE EXERCISES, 

m 

h 

MADAME DE MAIN'T'ENON TO HER BROTJIKIC. 

We can only be \ unhappy by our own fault f this shuU 
always be my tex;, and my reply to your lamentations. Re- 
collect 2, my dear brother, the voyage to America, the rai» 
ibrtunes of our fiithcrj of our infancy and our youth 3; and 
you will bless Providence inf?tead of murmuring against for- 
tune. Ten years ago, we were both very far (below our 
f)rcsent Lituation 4 ;) and our hopes were bo feeble 5. that we 
imi«;ed our wishes to an (income of three thousand livres 6.) 
At present we have four times that sum 7, and our desire? 
are not yet satisfied ! we enjoy the happy mediocrity which 
■foil have so often extolled 8 ; tot us be content. II posses- 
sions 9 come to us, let us receive them from the hand of God, 
but let not our views bu 10 too extravagant 11. We have 
(every thing necessary 12) and comfortable 13 ; all the rest 
is covetousness 14; aU these desires of greatness spring from 
15 a restless heart. Your debts arc all paid, and you may 
live e'.agantly TG, without contracting more 17. What have 
you to desire? must 18 schemes 19 of wealth and ambition 
occasion 20 ♦he loss of your repose and your health ? read 
the.life of St. Louis ; you will eec ^ow unequal 21 the great- 
ness of this world is to the desires of the human heart; God 
only can satisfy them 22. I repeat it, you are only unhappy 
by your own fault. Your uneasinesb 23 destroys your health, 
which you ought to preserve, if it were 24 only because I 
love you. Watch 25 your temper 26 ; if you can render it 
less splenetic 27 and less gloomy, (you will have gained a 
great advantage 28). Tliis is not the work of reflection only j 



1. On ne etrc— que. 2, Songcr a. 3. The misfortnncB m our 
iruincy and those of our, etc. 4 Du point ou nous sommes aujour- 
d'hui. 5. Si peu de chosp. 6. Troia niille livrea de rente, 7. 
Tkaf' suvi, en . . phis. 1. Have so often extolled, vanter si fort, ind-2. 
9. Possessio7is, biens 10. Let us not have views. IL Trop 

va.ste. 12. Lo nece.';sairc. 13. Do commode. 14. Covetojis- 
ncss, cupidite, 15. Spring from, ^jartir du vide dc. 16. D6Ii- 
cieusement. 17. Constructing more, en fairc de nouvelles. 18. 
Must, faut-il quo. 19. Prqjet. 20. OccMion, couter, subj^l. 

21. tlwiqii-al, au-dcssous dc. 22. Saliify thcvi, le rassasier, 23. 
r/ziertr-^mw.-!, mquietudc pi. 21. If it vk're, quand co 6trc, cond-1. 
25, Travaillcr sur. 2(5. Humciir. 27. Rilicux. 28. Ce 6tre 



TJIBlt. 



; this BhalJ 
itions. Re- 
;a, the mis 
nth 3; and 
igainst for- 
[Dciovv our 
! 5. that we 
d livres 6.) 
our desirev 
crity which 

li posees- 
md of God, 

We have 
all the rest 
(tpring from 
id you may 
iVhat have 
id ambition 
alth? read 
L the great- 
leart; God 
ly unhappy 
our health, 
' because I 
in render it 
e gained a 
iction only j 



yrlnnes ru our 
ames aujour- 

rente, 7. 
si fort, ind-2. 
11. Trop 
14. Covetous- 
16. D6Ii- 
.'elles. 18. 
uter, subj^l. 
iasier, 53. 
6trc, cond-1. 

28. Ce 6tre 



FREK EXERCISES. 



401 



exercise, antUiemen!, and a regular life, (arc necessary fop. 
the purpose 29.) You cannot think well (whilst your health^ 
18 affected 30 ; when the body is debiliiuted 31, the mind is 
without vigour. Adieu ! write to me more Irequently, and 
la a Jtyle less gloomy. 



II. 
THE CONVERT. 

AN EASTERN TALE; 

Divine mercy 1 had brought a vicious man intb a society 
of sages, whose morals were holy and pure. He was aflected 
by their virtues ; it was not long 2 before 3 ho imitated them 
and lost his old habits : he became just, sober, patient, labo- 
rious and benevolent. His deeds nobody could deny, but 
they were attributed 4 to odious motives. They praised his 
good actions, without loving his p jrson : they would always 
judge him by what he had been, nul by what he had become. 
This injustice filled him with grief; he shed tears in the 
bosom 01 an anciem sage, more just and more humane than 
the others. " O my son," said the old man to him, " thou art 
" better than thy reputation ; be thankful to God lor it. Hap- 
" py the man who can say : my enemies and my rivals cen* 
"sure in me vices of which I am not guilty. What matters 
" 5 it, if thou art good, that men persecute tliee as v, i< ked t— 
" Hast thou not, to comfort thee, the ttvo best v. lUieeses of 
" thy actions, God and thy conscience ?" 

SAiNT-LAWfiEilT. 



Mr. de Montausier Jias Written a letter to Monsfeigneur 
upon the taking of Philipebourgn which very mm' pleases 
me. " Monsejgneur, I do not compliment vou on u.c capture 
" of Philipsbourg J you had a good army, 'bombs, canon, And 
*' Vauban ; neither shall I compliment you upon your valour ; 
" for that is an hereditary virtue in your [iinuly. But I ^ejoice 
" that you are liberal, generous, humane, and chat you know 
" how to recompense the services of those who behave well : 
" it is for tliis that I congratulate you." 

Sevigke. 



29. II y faut de. 30. Tant que vous 



un grand point de gagne. 

MA yw}i4ai> nial ^t n^lUl-H,,li,.l .l^L- U-x.-,.i. . 

1. Misericorde. 2. Ne pas tarder. {J. A inf. 4. On donner 
dea motifs. 5. Importer. 

K k 2 



UJ2 



i'lXEE EXERCISE*. 



II I 



III. 

THE GOOD MINISTER. 

AN EASTERN TALE. 

The great Aaron Raschild began to suspect that his vizier 
Giaiarwas not deserving of the confidence which he had 
reposed in hhn. The women ol' Aaron, the inhabitants of 
Bagdad, the courtiers, the dervises, censured the vizier with 
bitterness. Tlie calif loved Giafar; he would not condemn 
him upon the clamours of the city and the court ; he visited 
his empire ; every where he saw the land well cultivated, 
the country smiling, the cottages opulent, the useful arts 
honoured, and youth full of gaiety. He visited his fortified 
cities and sea-ports ; he saw numerous ships, which threa- 
tened the coasts ol" Africa and of Asia; lie saw warriors disci- 
plined and content ; these warriors, the seamen and the 
peasantry, exclaimed : ''' O God, pour thy blessings upon 
the faithtul, by giving them a calif like Aaron, and a vizier 
like Giafi^r." The calif, affected by these exclamations, 
enters a mosque, falls upon his knees, and cries out : " Great 
" God, I return thee thanks ; thou hast given me a vizier of 
" whom my courtiers speak ill, and my people speak well." 

Saint-Lameert. 



Providence leads us with so much goodness through the 
different periods of our life, that we (are not sensible of our 
progress 1.) This loss takes place gently 2, it is impercepti- 
ble, it is the shadow of the sun-dial whose motion we do not 
se6. If, at twenty years of age, we could see 3 in a mirror 
the face we shall have at three-score, we (should be shocked 
at the contrast 4) and terrified at our own figure ; but it is 
day by day that we advance : we are to-day as we were 
yesterday and shall be to-morrow as we are to day ; so we 
o forward without perceiving it, and this is a miracle of that 
rovidence which I adore. Sevigne. 



IV. 
THE MAGNIFICENT PROSPECT. 

This beautiful house was on the declivity of a hill, from 
whence you beheld the sea, sometimes clear and smooth as 



1. Ne Ic sentir quasi pas< 2 Va douccment. 

faire voir. 4 Toiubor d la renverse. 



3, On nous 



lat his vizier 
lich he had 
iliabitants of 
vizier with 
[lot condemn 
t ; he visitecJ 
1 cultivated, 
useful arts 
his loFtified 
rhich thrca- 
ari'iore disci- 
en and the 
Bsingg upon 
md a vizier 
Kclamations, 
)ut : " Great 
i a vizier oi" 
•eak well." 

Lambert. 



hrough the 
sible of our 
impercepti- 
1 we do not 
in a mirror 
be shocked 
e ; but it is 
IS we were 
iay ; so we 
racle ofthat 
Sevigne. 



r. 

I hill, from 
smooth as 



3. On nous 



*r*tR«.*H -3' A^«j?MtsftiiEai-i '^•. 



fR£B £X£RCI6£8« 



403 



glass, sometimes idly 1 irritated against the rocks on which it 
broke, bellowing 2 and swellmg its waves like mountains. 
On another side was seen a river, in which were islandu 
bordered with blooming limes, and lofty poplars, which rais- 
ed their proud heads to the very clouds. The several 
channels, which formed those islands, seemed sporting 3 in 
the plain. Some rolled their limpid waters with rapidity : 
some had a peaceful and still course ; others, by long wind- 
ings, ran ba«k again, to reascend as it were, to their source, 
and seemed not to have power to leave tliese enchanting 
borders. At a distance were seen hills' and mountains, 
which were lost in tiie clouds, and formed, by their fantaslic 
figure, as dehghtiul a hori>5on (as the eye could wish to 
behold. 4) The neighbouring mountains were covered 
with verdant (vine branches, 5) hanging in festoons ; the gra- 
pes brighter than purple, could not conceal themselves under 
the leaves, and the vine was overloaded with its fruit. The 
fig, the olive, the pomegranate, and all other trees, overspread 
the plain, and made it one large garden. Fenelon. 



Long hopes wear out 7 joy, as long maladies wear out 
pain. 

^ All philosophic systems are only good wheii one (has no 
use lor them 8.) 



A GENERAL VIEW OF NATURE. 

With what magnificence does nature shine 1 upon earth ' 
A pure light, extending from east to west, gilds successively 
the two hemispheres ol this globe; an element, transparent 
and light, surrounds it ; a gentle fecundating heat animates, 
gives being 2 to the seeds of life : salubrious running streams 
contribute to their preservation and growth ; eminences di- 
versified over the level land, arrest the vapours of the air, 
make these springs inexhaustible and always new; immense 
cavities made to receive them divide the continents. The 
extent of the sea is as great as that of the earth : it is not a^ 
cold, barren element; it is a new empire, as rich, as popvlous 
as the first. The finger of God has marked their boundaries. 

The earth, rising above the level of the sea, is secure 3 



1. Pollenaent. 2. En gemir. 
le plaifeir Ue. u. Fampre, m, 
avoir que fairc. 

1. Ne brillor pas. 2. Fairc colore. 3. A I'abri do. 



3^ Se jouer. 4. A aouhait nour 
6. Vigne. f. 7. User. 8. N'en 



0f 



•mmmimmmim' 



404 



FREE EXERCISES. 



frtfm its eruptions : its surface, enamelled with flowers, adorn- 
ed with e"ersprinping verdure, peopled with tliousands and 
thousands of species of difierent animals, is a place of rest, a 
delightful abode, where man, placed in order to second na- 
ture, precides over all beings. The only one among them 
all, capable of knowing and worthy of admiring. God has 
made him spectator of the universe, and a witness of his 
wonders. The divme spark with which he is animated en- 
ables him to participate in the divine mysteries : it ie by this 
light that he thinks and reflects ; by it he sees and reads in 
the book of the universe, as in a copy of the Deity. 

Nature is the exterior throne of the divine Majesty : the 
man who contenv)lates, who studies it, rises by degrees to 
the interior throne of Omnipotence. Made to adore the Cre- 
ator, the vassal of heaven, sovereign of the earth, he enobles, 
peoples, enriches it; he ebtablishes among living beings 
brder, subordination, harmony ; he embellishes nature her- 
self ; he cultivates, extends, and polishes it ; lops off the 
tl^iatle and t' . briar, and multiplies the grape arid the rose. 

BUFFON. 



«i ' 



IV. 
ANOTHER GENERAL VIEW OF NATURE. 

Trees, shrubs, and plants are the ornaments and clothing 1 
oftheeartli. Nothing is so melancholy 2 as the prospect of 
a country naked and bare 3, exhibiting to the eye nothmg but 
stones, mud, and sand. But, vivified by nature, and clad 4 
in its n iptial robe, amidst the course of streams and the sing- 
ing of birds, the earth presents to man, in the harmony of the 
three kingdoias, a spectacle full of life, of interest and charms, 
the only spectacle in the world of which his eyes and heart 
are never weary 5. 

The more a (contemplative man's soul is fraught with 
sensibility 6), the more he yields to the extacies which this" 
harmony produces in him. A soft and deep melancholy then 
takes possession of his senses, and, in a intoxication of de- 
light, lie loses himself in the immensjiy of that beautiful 
system, with which he feels himself identified. Then, every 
particular object escapes him, he sees and feels nothing but 
m the whole. Some circumstance must contract his ideas 
and circumscribe his iniaginatiou, before 7 he can observe 
by parcels that universe which he was endeavouring to em- 
brace. J. J. Rousseau. 



1. V6lcment 2. Triste. 



3. Pele. 



4. Rcvdtu. 



5. &'e 



lasser. G. Conteinplateur avoir I'arae sensible. 7. Pour qu'il. 



ers, adorn- 
iisands aad 
B of rest, a 
second na- 
long them 
God has 
less of his 
imated en- 
t ie by this 
I reads in 

ijesty: the 
degrees to 
re the Cre- 
he enobles, 
ing beings 
lature her- 
)ps off the 
the rose. 

BUFFON. 



["URE. 

I clothing 1 
prospect of 
lothmg but 
and clad 4 
id the sing- 
nony of the 
md charms, 
and heart 

lught with 
which this" 
icholy then 
ition of de- 
it beautiful 
len, every 
othin^ but 
; his ideas 
in observe 
ing to em- 

OUSSEAU. 



u. 5. 
Pour qu'il 



Se 



FREE EXERCISES. 405 



VII. 

CULTIVATED NATURE. 

How beautiful is cultivated natv^-e ! And, by the labours of 
man, how brillant it is, and how pompously adored ! lie him- 
self is its chief ornament, its noblejit partj by multiplying 
lumself^ he multiplies-the most precious germ ; she also seems 
to mtiltiply with him ; by his art, he (brings forth to view 1) 
all that she concealed 2 in her bosom. How many unknown 
treasures ! What new riches ! Flowers, fruits, seeds brought 
to perfection, multiplied to infinity j the useful species of ani- 
mals transported, propagated, increased without number; 
the noxious species reduced, confined, banished : gold, and 
iron more necessary than gold, extracted from tiie bowe'.-j of 
the earth ; torrents confined 3, rivers directed, contracted 4 ; 
the sea itself subjected, explored 5, crossed, from one hemis- 
phere to the other ; the earth accessible in every part, and 
every where rendered equally cheerful and fruitful : in the 
valjies, delightful meadows ; m the plains, rich pastures and 
still richer harvests ; hvUs covered with vines and fruits ; their 
summits crowned with useful trees and young forests ; deserts 
changed into cities inhabited by an immense population, 
which, continually circulating, sp eads itself from these cen- 
tres to their extrrmi ties ; roads opened and frequented, com- 
munications established every where, as so many witnesses of 
the strength and union of society : a thousand otJher monuments 
of power and glory sufficiently demonstrate that man, posses- 
sing dominion over the earth, has changed, renewed the 
whole of its surface, and that, at all times, he shares the em- 
pire of it with nature. 



VIII. 

THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED. 

J! 

However, man only reigns by right of conquest : he rather 
enjoys thr \ possesses, and he can preserve only 'iy means of 
continued labour. It this ceases every thing dr. ops, every 
thing declines, every thing changes and again returns 1 under 
the hand of nature ; she reossumes her rights, erases the work 
of man, covers with dust and moss his most pompous monu- 
ments, destroys them in time, and leaves him nothing but the 
regret of having lost, through his fault what his aucestprs had 



1. Mettrc au jour. 
5, F^connu. 
1. ilcnlrer. 



2. Rcceler. S. Contcnu. 



4. Rcsserre. 



406 



FREE EXERCISES. 



i 




conquered by Uieir labours. Those limes, In which man loses 
his donunion, those barbarous 2 ages, during which every 
thmg 18 seen to perish, are always preceded by war, and ac- 
companied by scarcity and depopulation. Man, who can do 
nothing but by nnmber, who is strong only by union, who 
can be happy only by peace, is mad enough to arm himself 
for his misery, and to light for his ruin. Impelled by an in- 
satiable thirst of having, blinded by ambition still more insa- 
tiable, he renounces all the feelings of humanity, turns all his 
strengA against himself, seeks mutual destruction, actually 3 
destroys himself; and, after these periods of blood and car- 
nage, when the smoke of glory has vanished, he contem- 
plates with a sad eye, the earth wasted, the arts buried, 
nations scattered, the people weakened, his own happiness 
ruined, and his real power annihilated. 

BUFPON. 



\ IX. 

INVOCATION TO THE GOD OF NATURE. 

Almighty God whose presence alone supports nature, and 
maintamsthe harmony of the laws of the universe: Thou, 
who from the immoveable throne of the empyrean, seest the 
celestial spheres roll under thy feet, without shock or con- 
tusion ; who, from the bosom of repose, reproducest every 
moment their immense movements, and alone governest, in 
profound peace, that infinite number of heavens and worlds ; 
restore at length tranquillity to the agitated earth ! let it be 
silent at thy voice ; let discord and war cease their proud 
clamours God of goodness, author of all beings, thy pater- 
nal eye takes in 1 all the objects of the creation ; but man is 
thy chosen being ; thou hast illumined 2 his soul with a ray 
ot thy immortal light : complete the measure of thy kindness 
hy penetrating his heart with a ray of thy love : tliis divine 
sentiment, diffusing itself every where, will reconcile opposite 
natures ; man will no longer dread the sight of man ; his 
Hand will no longer wield the murderous steel 3 ; the de- 
vouring flames of war will no longer dry up 4 the sources of 
population : the human species, now weakened, mutilated, 
mowed down in the blossom, will spring a new and 5 multiply 
without number; nature, overwhelmed under the weight of 
scourges 6, will soon re-assume, with a new life, its former 



2. De barbaric. 3. En effet. 

1 • Enibrasser. 2. Eclairer. 

4. Tarir. 5. Genncr d6 nouvcau. 



3. Lc for — armc'i sa main 
6. Fleau. 



i man loses 
tiich every 
ir, and ac- 
'ho can do 
nion, who 
m himseir 
i by an in- 
more insa- 
rns all his 

actually 3 
d and car- 
le contem- 
i-ts buried, 

happiness 

JFFON. 



JRE. 

ature, and 
•se; Thou, 
, seest the 
ok or con- 
cest every 
vernest, in 
[id worlds ; 
! let it be 
leir proud 
thy pater- 
ut man is 
with a ray 
y kindness 
;liis divine 
le opposite 
man ; his 
J ; the de- 
sources of 
mutilated, 
5 multiply 
weight of 
its former 



tnci 8a mam 



pRt& GXERCISESt 



407 



fruitfuliieEs ; and we, honeficent God, will second it we will 
cultivate It, we will contemplate it incessantly, that we raav 
every moment offer thee a new tribute of gratitude and ad- 
™''^*'°"- BUPPON. 



X. 

Happy they who are disgusted with 1 turbulent pleasuree. 
and know how to be contented 2 with the sweets oFan innoi 
cent ife ! Happy they who delight in being instructed 3, and 
who take a pleasure 4 in storing their minds with knowledge ! 
Wherever adverse fortune may throw them, they alwSvs 
carry entertainment with them ; and the disqullBt which 
preys upon others, even in the midstof pleasures, is unknown 
to those who c . employ themselves "^in reading. Happy 

into a gloom , fo' ^^ where I immediately perceived an old 
man holdmg t. aok in his hand. The forehead of this "age 
was broad, bald, ana a little wrinkled : a white beard huL 
down to his girdle ; his stature was tall and majestic: hii 
complexion still fresh and ruddy, his eyes lively and pierdnff 
h,s voice sweet, his words plain and cRarming?^ I neCr saw 
BO venerable an old man. He was a priest of Apollo and 
officiated 5 ma marble temple, which the kings of 4ypt had 
dedicated o that God in thfs forest. The book whicf he heM 
m his hand was a collection of hymns in honour of the Gods 

toS?hr'H.^'"f ;"w?^'"^'y"^^""^^^ ^"d we discoursed 
together. He related things past so well, that they seemed 

preset, and yet ^vlth such brevity that his account never 

^red ,ne. He foresaw the future by his profound knowledge! 

which made him know men, and the designs of which thev 

are capable. With all thii wisdom he was cheerful an J 

complaisant, and the sprightliest youth has not so many 

gracee as this man had at so advanced an age. He accord^ 

ingly loved young men when they were teachable 6, and had 

a taste for study and virtue. Feivelon 



XL 

THOUGHTS ON POETRY. 
Wherever I went, I found that poetry was considered as 



1 Sedegoiiterde. 2. Se contenfer de. 

4. Se plaire. 5. Servir. 6. Decile. 



3. S'instruira. 



I 



I 



408 



FR£E fiX£RCt8li:S. 






I 



the higheBt learning 1, and regarded with a veneration (some- 
what approaching to 2) that which men would pay to ange- 
lic nature. 

It yet fills me with wonder, that, in almost all countries, the 
most ancient poets are considered is the best ; whether (it 
be that 3) every kind of knowledge is an acquisition gradu- 
ally attained, any poetry is a gift conferred at once, or that 
the fir^t poetry of every nation surprised them as a novelty, 
a»l(l retained the credit by consent, which it received by 
&. J? nt at first, or whether, as the province 4 of poetry is to 
4e ;T.be nature and passion, which are always the same, the 
first writers (took possession 5) of (the most striking objects 
for description 6) and (the most probable occurrences for 
fiction 7,) and lell nothing to those that followed them, but 
transcription 8 of the same events, and new combinations 9 
6f the same images. Whatever be the reason, it is commonly 
observed, that the enrly writers are in possession of nature, 
and their followers 10 of art: that the first excel in strength 
and invention, and the latter in elegance and refinement. 

I was desirous to add my name to this illustrious fraternity 
11. I read all the poets of Persia and Arabia, and was able 
to repeat by memory the volumes that are suspended in the 
mosque of Mecca. But I soon found that no man was ever 
great by imitation. My desire of excellence 12 impelled 13 
me to transfer 14 my attention to nature and to life 15. 
Nature was to be my subject, and men to be my auditors : 
I could never describe what I had not seen : I could not 
hope (to move those with delight or terror ^o) whose interests 
and opinions I did not understand 17. 



XII. 

THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED. 

Being now resolved to be a poet, I saw every thing (with 
a new purpose 18 :) my sphere of attention was suddenly 
magnified: no kind of knowledge (was to be overlooked 19.) 
I ranged mountains and deserts for 20 images and resemblan- 
ces and (picture upon my mind 21) every tree of the forest 



1. Partie 'a plus sublime de la litterature, *2. Clui tenait de. 3. Ce 
vienne de ce que. 4. But. 5. S'emparer. 0. Objets (;^ui fournissaient 
les plus riches descriptions. 7. Ev^nements qui pr^taient le plus a la 
fict^n. 8. De copier. 9. Faire de nouvelles combinaisons. 10. 
Successeurs. 11. Pamille. 1'2, Kjcceller. 13. Eiiffager. 14. Re- 
porter., sur. 15. Tableau de la vie. 16 Reveiller Je plaisir ou la 
terreur^ans ceux. 17. Ne connaitle ni. 18. Sous un nouveau jour. 
19. Jo na devais n^gliger. 30. Pour recucillir. 21. P<?n$trcr men 



)n(Eom6-' 
to ange- 

itries, the 
hether (it 
»n gradu- 
:, or that 

novelty, 
reived by 
etry is to 
jame, the 
g objects 
ences for 
tiem, but 
nations 9 
ommonly 
if nature, 

strength 
ment. 
fraternity 
was able 
led in the 
was ever 
ipelled 13 
;o life 15. 
auditors : 
jould not 
e interests 



FREK £XGRCI$$S. 



ling (with 
suddenly 
)oked 19.) 
bsemblan- 
the forest 



;de. 3.Ce 
tarnissaient 
le plus a la 
isons. 10. 
!r. H. Re- 
laisir ou la 
uveau jour. 
nStrcr mon 



4asf 



and flower of the valley. • I observed wilJi equal care th« , 
crags oi the rock and tiie pinnacles of tl^e palace. Soma,; 
tunes I wandered along the raazcBof the rivulet md eouiel 
Umes watched the clianges of the 8ummer-Gloi^4i|. To a pooK 
nothing can be useless. Whatever is beautiful, and wliata! 
yer is dreadiul, must he famili^ir to his imagination; he nlusl' 

f ni^P^f T?"^ ?^ r'^V.f ^^^^ f'^ ^f ^""y ^"^' «•• elegantly 
little 23). 1 he plants of the garden, the animals of the wood.; 
the minerals of the earth, and ihe meteors of the sky, must 
all concur to atore his mind with inexhaustible variety • for 
evejy idea is useful for the (enforcement or decoration 24) 
of moral or religious truth ; and he who knows most will 
have most power 25 of diversifying his scenes 26, and orati- 
fymg hi? reader with remote allusions and unexpected in.' 
Stmciions* 

All tlie appearances ofnature (I was, therefore, careful to 
study,) 27, and every country which I have surveyed has 
contributed something to ray poeiical powers. J 

In so wide a survey, interrupted the prince, you m M 
surely have leit much unobserved. I have lived, till now 
wjthin the circuit ol these mountains, and yet cannot walk 
abroad without the sight of something which I had never 
beheld before, or never heeded 28. 



i^Mi^ 



XIII. 

THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED. 

, The business ofa poet, said Imlac, is to examine, not the 
mdivdual, but the species; to remark general pTo^ertks and 
(large appearances 29 :) he does not number WJea^^^^^ 
the tuhp or describe the different shades in ^he verdSre of 
the forest. He is to exhibit, in his portrait nalure such 
prominent and striking features, as'^SO recal u^^WUial to 
every mmd; and must neglect 'the minuter diWfS on 
31, which one may have remarked, .>nd another nScted 
for those characters 32 which are 'alike obvious 33 to viau' 
ance 34 and carelessness 35. ° 

But the knowledge of nature is only half 36 the task ofa 



egpnt du tableau de. SJ2. Bien connaitre. 23. Etonne par sa gran- 
deur ou charmc par son elegante peUte^se. 34. Portifier.^ou emSlSr 
25. Ressources pour. 26. Tableau. 27. Etudier avec so n toS les 

34. GEil observdteur. 35. Esprit insouciai^f,. M^hFt^ffl^ 



Eaprit 



inspuciaiit. 36. The half of. 



410 



FREE EXERCISES. 



f! 



r ; 



poet: he must be acquainted likewise with all the rnddfes 37 
of life. His chiuacter requires that he estimate 38 the hap- 
piness and misery of every condition : observe the power of 
all the passions, in all their combinations, and trace the 
changes 39 of the human mind, aa they are modified by 
various institutions, and accidental influences oi climate or 
custom ; from the sprightliness of infancy to the despondence 
of decrepitude. He must divest himself 40 of the prejudices 
of his age or country ; he must consider right and wrong 41 
in their abstracted and invariable state 42 ; he must disre- 
gard present laws and opinions, and rise to general and 
transcendant truths, which will always be the same ; he 
muEt, therefore, (content himself with the slow progress of 
his name 43,) to' contemn the applause of his own time, and 
comip(iit his claims to the justice of posterity. He must write 
as the interpreter of nature, and tne legislator ofm.->nkind, 
and consider himself as presiding 44 over the thoughts and 
manners of future generations, as a being superior to time 
a^id place. 

His labour is not yet at an end ; he muRt know many lan- 
guages and many sciences ; and, that his style may be 
worthy of his thoughts, he must, by incessant practice, fami- 
liarize himself to every delicacy of speech and grace of har- 
mony. S. Johnson. 



XIV. 

First follow nature and your judgment frame 

By her ju^t standard, which is still the same ; 

l^Jnerring nature, still divinely bright. 

One clear, unchanged, and universal light, 

Life, force, and beauty, must to all impart ; 1 

At once the source, and end, and test of art, 2 

Art, from that fund, each just supply provides : 

Works without show, and without pomp presides ; 

In some fair body thus th' informing soul 

With spirits feeds, with vigour fills the whole, 

Each motion guides, and every nerve sustains 



I 



37. Tous les diff6rerits aspects. 38. Apprecier. 39. Suivre lea vicissi- 
tudes. 40. Se depouiller. 41. Ce qm est juste ou injuste. 42. Ab- 
straction faite de ces divers prejug^s.. 43. Se r^signer a voir son 
nom percer difficilement. 44. Infiuer. 

1. Light, clear, immutable, and universal nature, v/hich never errs, 
and shines always with a divine splendour, must impart to ail sns does 
life, force and beauty. 

2. She is at once the souice, etc. etc. 



i« mndH 37 
38 the hap- 
ie power of 
1 trace the 
modified by 
! climate or 
lespondence 
B prejudices 
id wrong 41 
must disre- 
feneral and 
) same ; he 
progress of 
vn time, and 
J must write 
of m.^nkind, 
loughts and 
Brior to time 

V many lan- 
f\e may be 
actice, fami- 
rrace of har- 

JOHNSON. 



rR££ SZZRCiSES. 



4U 



e 



1 


2 


les: 


2sidea : 


le, 


ms 


aivre les vicissi- 


uste. 42. Ab- 


ner a voir son 


liich never em, 


t to all 8h« does 





Itself unseen, but in th' effect remains. 3 

Some, to whom heav'n in wit has been profuse, 
Want as much more to turn it to its use : 
For wit and judgment often are at strife, 
Tho' meant each other's aid, like man and wife. 4 
Tis more to ^ide, than spur the muse's steed ; 
Restrain his lury, than provoke his speed : 5 

{.The winged courser, like a gen'rous horse, 
Shows most true mettle, when you check its course. 6 



3. So in a fair body, unseen itself, but always sensible by its effects 
the soul continually acting, fceda the whole with sfarita, fills it witii 
vigour, guides every motion of it, and sustains every nerve. 

4. Some to whom heaven has given wit with profusion want as 
much yet to know the ose they ought to make of it ; for wit'and iudir- 
ment, though made, like man and wife, to aki each other, are often in 
opposition. 

5. It is more difficult to guide than spur the covfrser of th« muses 
and td reastrain its ardour than provoke its impetuosity. * 

6. The winged courser u like a generous horse : the more we strive 
w> stop It in Its rapid course, the more it shows unconquerable vigour 



I 




•MM 



4lt! 



PHRASES ON SOME mFPICULTlES* 



*37. EXAMPLES OF PHRASES ON THE PRINCIPAL 
DIFFICULTIES OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE. 

N.B. — It is strongly recomraanded that these examples be 
learnt by heart. They will also be found very useful, in 
point of reference, whenever the learner is at a loss on some 
point of grammar or construction. The better to enable him 
to find what he wants, the different chapters have been num- 
bered, and will be found minutely described in the Table of 
Contents. 



1. Sur les CoUectifa Paiiitifs. 

La plupart ilon fmita verts sont 
d'un govit austere. 

La plapart dcs gen» ne se con- 
duisent que par inter6t. 

La j^upart da monde w 
troinpe. 

II m^prise par pliilosophie les 
honneurs, que la plupart du 
monde recherche. 

II devait me fiiurnir tant d'ar- 
bres; mais j'en ai rejet6 la moi- 
ti6 qui no, valait rien. 

Un grawMT nombre de specta- 
teurs ajouiait a la bcaut6 du 
spectacle. 

Toute sorte dc livres ne sont 
pas egalcmcnt bons. 

Beaucoup de personnes se sont 
pr6sent6e8. 

Bien des personnes se font des 
principes a lewt fantaisie. 



2. Sur q;itetques Vefbes qu^on ne 
pevf cmjugiier avec Avoir satis 
faire des barbansrms. 

Tl Tui est echu une succession 
du chef de sa femme. 

II f* bren dechu de son cre- 
dit. 

Ne nmes-nous pas conve- 
nus du prix 'I 

N'est-il pas intervenu dans 



^.^fv,„,^ ;i 






promis 1 
II est survenu k I'improviste. 



On the Collectivo Partitivefr 

The greater part of green fruit 
is of a harsh taste. 

Most people are guided only bij 
interest. 

The greater part of vtankind 
are in error. 

As a tnie philosopfier be deS' 
pises those ho/unirs which, man-^ 
kind in general court. 

He was to furnish me so manif 
trees, but I refused hulf of them 
which were good for nothing. 

A' constd^raMc number of spec- 
tators added to the splendmtr of 
the sccTve. 

Every kind of books are not 
eqimlly good. 

Many people presented thetH' 
selves. 

Many peisons ftrrni pvincip]es 
to themselves^ according to their 
fancy^ 

2, On some verbs which cannot 
be conjueat<»d with the verb 
Avoir, without n)aking barbar 
rous phrases. 

An estate fell to hhi in right 
of his wife. 

He has lost much of his cr dit. 

Have we not agreed about the 
price 7 

Did he not inteifere in that af- 

J^VVt z.v rr-, ,,.,.— 2--"-' '• -• 

He rame up unawares.. 



INCIPAL 

UAGE. 

atnples be 
useful, in 
IB on some 
>nable him 
been num- 
3 Table of 



artitived- 
green fruit 

itUd only bij 

ij", mankmd 

'her he de%' 
which man- 

me so many 
\tdf of them 
'itking. 
'her of spec- 
^lendmir of 

oks are not 

\ented them' 

rti princip^s 
ing to their 

hich cannot 
;h the verb 
iking barbar 

'.im in right 

his cr dit. 

ed about the 

e in that af- 
■t o 



■mi 



«MHHi 



l^HRASEI ON SOMfi DiPFlCUttlES, 



413 



La neige, ^ui cat tombea ce 
tnatin, a adouci lo temps. 

Q,u() do neige il est tomb6 co 
latin I 

Toutes lea dents lui so*^ om- 
bres. 

Ce propos n'est pas tomb6 k 
tenre. 
Etes-vous aIl<S voir votre ami 7 

lis sont arrives k midi et sent 
repartis de suite. 
Cea fleurs sont a peine ^closes. 

II est n6 do parents vertueux, 
qui n'ont rien n6glige pour son 
Education. 

Mademoiselle votre soeur est- 
elle rentree ? 

Madame votre mfire n'est-elle 
pas encore venue 1 

3. Sur les Mots de QuantUi. 

H a beaucoup d'esprit, mais 
encore plus d'amour-propre. 

II a assez d'argent pour ses 
menus plaisirs. 

II y avait bien du- monde a 
rOpgra. 

U y avait liier au Pare je no 
sais combien de gens. 

II boit autant d'eau que de 
vin. 

II a tant d'amis qu'il ne man- 
quera de rien. 

Personne n'y a plus d'intdr^t 
que lui. 

II n'a pas plus d'esprit qu'il 
n'en faut. 

Trop de loisir perd souvent la 
jeunesee. 

J'y ai bien moins d'interdt que 
vous. 



TTle snow which fdl this morn- 
ing has softened the toeather. 

How much snow /uis fallen this 
morning I 

AU his teeth have falien out. 

T%at remark was not aiimotd 
to escape. 

Have yoH been te see your 
friend? 

They arrived at noon and set 
out again iminediately. 

These flotoers are scarcely 
blown. 

K was bom of virtuous pa- 
rents^ who bestowed on him the 
best education. 
Is your sister returned ? 

Js not your mother comt yet ? 

On Words of duantity. 

He has a great deal of sense 
but still more vanity. 

He has pocket-money enough 
for his pleasures. 

There loere a great many people 
ai the Opern. 

There were I do not know how 
many people in the park yester- 
day. 

He drinks as rtmch water as 
win'- 

He has so many friends tfioi he 
will want for nothiig. 

Nobody has more interest there 
than he. 

He is not overburthened with 
sense. 

Too much, leisure time is fre- 
quently the ruin of youth. 

I am much less concerned in it 
than you. 



4. Sur Us Pronoms Personnels. 
Sors et te retire. 
Conrs vite et ne t'amuse point 
II dit aojourd'hui ane chose et 
domain il m dementira. 



11 s*est dementi lui-meme, 



h\ 



On the Personal Pronounsv 

Go out and retire. 

Go quick and do not loiter. 

He advan/xs a thing to-dav. 

:c.-jti ^ £i'£M ci»<**« wijic* /iiiii^cif to- 
morrow, 
^e has contradicted himself , 



414, 



PUAASEH ON 80MB DiFPICULTfESw 



Ljo, jeuncHse cBt naturellenicni 
eni{)urttiu ; cil« a liesoin do quei- 
<jue entrave qui la retienne, 

II no peut voir personne drns 
la prwjpe'We Hana lui prter envio. 

Co quo voug me diteij cat une 
^nigme pour inoi, 

C'est ut) hoinme extrSine en 
tout ; 11 aiaie ct ii hait avoc fu- 
reur. 

Si V0U8 n'y avez jamais 6t6, jo 
V0U8 vint^ncrai. 

Je I'ai connu doux et modesle ; 
il s'cst bien gclte dans le com- 
meroe de ses nouvcaux amin. 

Eilc n'est pus encore revenue 
du soisitisement, quo lui a cause 
crte nouvelle. 

}l menace de I'extermineri lui 
et 'oute da race. 

l^i V0U8 ii'avez que faire de ce 
livre'la, jprdtez-le-moi. 

Je lui avais envoy6 un dia* 
mant, il I'a refuse, je le lui ai 
renvoy6. 

II apprend facilement et ou- 
blie de m6me. 

Je lui pardonne facilement 
d'r.voir voulu se faire auteur ; 
mais je ne saur.iis lui pardonner 
toutes les pu6rilit68 dent il a 
farci son livre, 

Je me plains a vous de vous- 
meme. 

Si vous ne voulez pas etre 
pour lui, au moins ne soyez pas 
contre. 

duand sera-cc que vous vien- 
drez nous voir "J 

5. Sur s&if lui, soirinemef et lui- 
mime. 

Ctuand on a pour soi le t6- 
moisnagc de sa conscience, on 
est bien fort. 

L'estime de toute la terre ne 
sert de rJ'^'^ a un homme qui n'a 
pas le I joijjrnage de sa con- 
science pour lui. 

Un hoaime fait mille fautes, 
parce qu'il ne fait point de re- 
flexions sur lui. 



Yi/iUh i ' :uUuralLy hasty ^ tl netdi 
some curb to restrain it. 

He can see the prosperity of nobody^ 
without envying them. 

What you tell me is a perfect 
riddle to me. 

He is a man that cafiies cveiy 
thin^ U- excess t he u alike violent 
in his ve and in his haired. 

If you have never beeii there, I 
will take you. 

J knew him when he was gentle 
and modest ; he haa been vmch cor- 
rupted by associaltng with his new 
acquaintances. 

She is not yet recovered from the 
consternation into which that news 
threw her. u..;? 

He threatens to rxtertniiiale him 
and cUl his /amily. 

If you have done with this book, 
lend u me, 

I had cent him a diamond, and 
he refused it, but I sent him it back 
again. 

He learns easily and fwgets the 
savie. 

I can easily pardon him for 
hamng attempted to turn author f 
but I cauTwt pardon him all live 
absurdi'ies wiih which he h/is stuffed 
his book. 

I complain tdtj&u, of yourself. 

If you imll not be for him, at 
least do not be against him. 

When will you come to see its? 



On soijTui, soi-m^Die, and lui- 
in^mp. 

TVie approbation of our conscience 
imparts great courage. 

The good opinion of the whole 
woi-ld is of no use to a man who has 
not the approbation of his own con- 
Sci'-'nce. 

i man commits a thousand 
fauUs, because he does not reflect on 
fuXure C07isequ£nces. 






i^MRASfiS ON SOME Dli^FlCUiTlEft. 



415 



tsly, xlneedt 

y of nobody^ 

'■s a perfect 

ihies cveiy 
dike violent 
Ured. 
ieti there, I 

was ceiUlc 
I mnck C01' 
oith. his new 

^e/l from the 
ch that nexos 

miiiale Mm 

h this book, 

mond, and 
him It back 

'■ forgets the 

n him for 
■m authoj- f 
Urn all t/ie 
e fi/is stuffed 

ouri^elf. 

^or Mvif lU 
in. 

see us ? 

) and lui- 
r conscience 

f the whole 
an who has 
s own con- 

', thmisand 
9t reflect on 






On fail luillft faijtM, quand on 
ne fait aucune reflexion sur boi. 

II aime mieax dire du mal de luL- 
in^me, que de n'en print i>arler. 

L'6goi8te alrnera mioux dire 
du nittl de soi-mcuie, quo de n'er* 
point parlcr. 

Oi 4* souvent l?Boin d'un plus 
petit que soi. 

Un prince a souvent benoin do 
beaucoup de gena plus petit* que 
lui. 

C'est un bon moyen <]e -'file- 
ver soi-mdme, quo d'exalter ses 
pareiia ; et un horn arJ-oit 
relive ainsi lui-mdm.^ 

6. Sur les Pronoms helati^:. 

II n'y a rien de si capable d'ef- 
ftminer le courage, que Toisivete 
et les delices. 

II faut empficher que la divi- 
sion, qui est dans cette famille, 
n'6clate. 

II y a bien des evSnenients quo 
i'on '.suppose se passer pendant 
les entr actcs. 

Je le trouvai qui s'habillait. 

Q,ui le tirera de cet embarras, 
le tirera d'une grand mbcre. 

Ceux-]& sont v6ritablement 
heurcux, (^ui croient l'6tre. 

II n'y a que lavertu, quipuisse 
rendre un homme heureux en 
cette vie. 

II n'y a r6gIo si gen^rale, qui 
n'ait son exception. 

C'est un orateur qui se pos- 
sfede et qui ne se trouble jamais. 

II n'y a pas dans le coeur hu- 
inain de repli, que Dieu ne con- 
naisse. 

On n'a trouve que quelques 
fragments du grand ouvragc qu'il 
avail promis. 

La faute, que vous avez faite, 
est plus importante que vous r ^ 

Les premiei^es d-marches qu'on 
fait dans le monde, cr* beaucoup 



We commit a ihimiand fauMs. 
wlu^n we negleU to refied tm our» 
selves. 

P f^d rather tpeak ill of hinir- 
self t,. 1 TwtlaU: of himself at aU. 

The selfii.* man prefers speaking 
lU of himself rather than nU be the 
sniject of his own conversation. 

We frei/uentty want the assis- 
tance of one who is below ourselves. 

A priue freqne.uly needs the 
assistance of muny persons inferior 
to himself. 

It is an excellent method of exalt- 
ing ourselves to ezall our equals, 

^ nndamanof address by this means 
exalts hi'r"%elf. 

On the Relative Pronouns. 

Nothing is so calculated to ener- 
vate the mind as idleness and 
pleasure. 

The dissension in thai family 
must be pievented from becoming 
ptcbhc. 

There are many events in a 
piece, which are supposed to hap- 
pen between the acts. 
I found him dressing, 

Who^er extricates him from 
this JHcuUy, will relieve kim 
from, much distress. 

Those are really happy, who 
think themselves so. 

Virtv^e alone can render a man 
happy in this life. 

T/tcre is no rule so general kit 
it admits of exceptions. 

He is an orator toho is master 
of himself, and who is never em- 
barrassed 

There is no recess of the human 
heart but God perceives it. 

Only some fragments of the 
great work he had promised have 
been found. 

The aror you have committed 
is of more consequence than imo 
crruigme. 

The first steps we take on en- 
tering tb£ icmld have consider- 





«: 



4I& 



PHRASES^ ON SOME DiPFICULTrES. 



d'influence sur le reste dela vie. 

Cette farce est uno des plus ri- 
sibles qu'on ait encore vues. 

Amassez-vouB destresors que 
les vers et la rouille ne puissent 
point gSter, et que les voleurs ne 
puissent point derober. 

L'incertitude, ou nous sommes 
dece qm doit arriver, fait que 
nous ne saurions prendre des 
mesurea justes, 

Je m'etonnc qu'il ne voie pas 
le danger oU il est, 

L'homme dont vous parlez 
n'cst plus ici. 

Celui de qui je tiens cette nou- 
velle ne \ou& est pas connu, 

Gehu k q.ai ce beau cbRteau 
appartient ne Thabite presque 
jamais. 

Ce sont des evenements aux- 
quelles il faut bien se soumettre. 

Cost ce a quoi vous ne pensez 
guere. 

7. Sur 1 p-onar's Demonstra' 
tifs. 

Nc point recoanaitr«! la divi- 
nity, c'est renoncer a toutes les 
lumieres de la raison. 

Mentir, c'est mepriser Dieu 
et craindre les hommes. 

II y a des epidemies morales, 
et ce sont les plus dangereuscs. 

Jc crois que ce que vons dites, 
est bien eioigne de ce que voas 
pe' sez. 

Les hommes n'aiment ordi- 
nairement que ceux qui les flat- 
tent. 

Celui qui persuade a wn autre 
de faire un crime n'est guere 
moins coupable que celui qui le 
commet. 

Penser ainsi, c'est s'aveugler 
soi-mSmo. 

y-l „,.',-.-.-, s:ii5-j-..-.i!*^ A^ '"- esf 
\^C M^ *Jii i'Ji|>l>\>i t<> tic ilil fcT^t- 

inconcevable. 

Co qui m'afflige, c'est dc voir 
le triompho du crime. 



able i7ifiuence an the rest of our 
lives. 

That farce is one of the most 
truly comic that ever was seen. 

Lay up for yourselves treasures 
which neither moth nor rust can 
currupt^ and which thieves cannot 
steal. 

Our uncertainty as to what 
sitall happen make* us incapable 
ofproparly providing against it. 

I am asUmislied he does not see 
the danger he is' in. 

The man whom you are speak' 
ing of, is not here now. 

The person from whom I re- 
ceived the intelligence is not known 
to you. 

The proprietor of that beautiful 
seat seldoni resides there. 

These are events to which we 
miist submit. 

It is what you seldom think of. 



On the Demonstt-ative Pro- 
nouns. 

Not to acknowledge the divi- 
nity, is totally to renmcnce the 
light of reasaih. 

To lie is to despise God amd to 
fear man. 

There are moral cmUagious dis- 
eases, and they are the most dan- 
gerous. 

What you advance is, I thivJc, 
widely different from your sen. ■ 
ments. 

Men in general love only those 
wlio flatter them. 

He who persr.ades another t& 
the co^iKmission of a crime, is 
hardly less guilty than he who 
commits it. 

To think in this mawner is to be 
wilfidly blind. 

hardly conceivable. 

What distresses me is to see 






8. 



uilt triumphant. 



'est of our 

f the most 
'S seen. 
>es treasures 
r rust can 
zves cannot 

; to what 
; incapable 
gainst it. 

oes iwt see 

are speak' 

horn I re- 
not known 

it beaxUiJvl 



which we 
think of. 

e Pro- 

the divi- 
mcnce the 

od a/nd to 



igious dis- 
•niost dan- 



y I ihi'nk, 
our seii. 

only those 



nother to 
crime, is 
>i he who 

er is to be 

» "* 

!5 to see 



PHRASES ON SOME DIFFICULTIES. 






Counaissez-vous la jeune E- 
milie; c'est une enfant dont tout 
le monde dit du bien. 

Imitez en tout votre ainie ; elle 
est douce, appliquee, honnote et 
compatissante. 

8. Sur le Verbe avoir employe a, 
V Imperso7vncl. 

Remarque. — duand le verbe 
avoir s'emploic a I'impersonnel, 
c'est dans le sens d'e/re, et alors 
il se joint toujours avec y. 

Ily axxn an que je ne vous ai 
vu. 

Y a-t'il dcs nouvelles 7 

Non, ll n'y en a pas, du moins 
que je sache. 

N'y a-t-il pas cinquantc-quatre 
milles de Londres a Brighton % 

Ily avait deja beaucoup de 
nionar iorsque j'arrivaii. 

II n'y nvait hier presque per- 
sonne au Pare, 

Y avait il de grands debata ? 
N'y avait-il pas beaucoup de cu- 

rieux. 

Je I'avais vu il y avail a peine 
vingt-quatre heures. 

IT n y avait pas deux j( 
qu'il avait dine chez nioi. 

Y avaii-il si loug-temps que 
vous ne I'aviez vu 1 

Ily cut hier «n bal chcz Mr. 
un tel, 

II n'y cut pas hier de spectacle. 

Y eut-il beaucoup de cdafn- 
sioi:. et de desordre 1 

N'y eut-il pas un beau feu 
d'artifice 7 

Ily a eu aujourd'hui une foule 
immense a la promenade. 

II n'y a pas eu do bal, conime 
on I'avait annonce. 

Est-il vrai qu'il y a eu un 
duel 7 

N'y a-t-il pas eu dans sa con- 
duite un peu trop d'emporte- 
ment 7 ^ 

•«44Uu.m li y <:ui til, utic explica- 
tion, les espriis se calmerent. 

iVy avait-U pas eu un plus 
grand aombre do sijcctatour."? 1 



jours 



Do you kvow Utile 
is a child of whont 
speahs y^'dU. 

Imitate your friend 
thing; she is gentle, 
polite aiid compassionate. 



61T 

> mily ? she 
every body 

in iveiy 
assidwoViSf 



On the Verb Avoir, to have^ em- 
ployed impersonally. 

When the verb avoir m used 
impersonally it signifies dtre, io 
be, and in this sense it is always 
accompanied by the adverb y. 

It is a twelvemonth since I saw 
yon. 

Is there any news ? 

No, t/tere is twne at least that 
I know. 

Is not il fifty-four miles from 
London to Bnghion 7 

Thei'e were already a great 
many people when I arrived. 

There was hardly any body iu 
the Park yesterday. 

Were there violent debates 7 

Were there not many spectators 1. 

I had seen him scarcely four-and- 
twenty hours before. 

He had dined with me not t''j:o 
days before. 

Was it so long since you had seen 
him ? 

There was yesterday a ball at 
Mr. A's. 

There was no play yesterday. 

Wb.s there a great deal of con- 
fusion and dism'der. 

Were there not beautiful fire-^ 
icmlcs 7 

There ioasan immense crowd, to^ 
day in the public walks. 

There has -not been any ball as 
had been mentioned. 

Is it true that- there has been a 
duel? 

Was there not rather too piuch 
hastiness in his Oeliaviour ? 

After there /tad been an expia-^ 
nation, tranquiUiVy was restored. 

Was iwt there a greater imin-. 
her of spectators, t 





MRMMMiM 






518 



PHRASES OW SOME D!FP1CULTIE«. 



Jl y aura demain un simulacre 
de combat naval. 

II n'y aura aucun de vous. 

Y awra-t-tl one bonne r6colte 
cette ann6e 1 

N'y aura-t-il pas quelqa'un de 
votre famille 1 

A coup sikr U y aura eu bien 
du desordre 1 

Sur cent pereonnea, il n'y en 
aura paseu dix> de satisfaites. 

Y aura^t-il eu uli' bon soup6 1 

N'y aura-t-il eu pas de mecon- 
tentsl 

II y avaU da la malhonnStetS 
dans ce pfoc^de. 

II n'y aurait pas grand mal a 
cela. 

Y aurait-il quelqu'un assez 
hardi pour I'attaquer 1 

N'y aurait-il pas quelqu'un 
assez charitable ijour I'avertir de 
ce qu'on dit de lui % 

IL y aurait eu de I'imprudence 
a cela. 

II n'y aurait pas eu tant de 
mesintelligence, si I'on m'en 
Rvait cru. 

11 n'y aurait pas eu dix per- 
sonnes. 

Y auraii-il» eu^ de I'ineonv^- 
nient. 

N'y aurait-il pas eu de jaloux 
pour le traverser dans ses pro- 
jets^r 

Je ne crois pas qu'i/ y ait un 
spectacle plus magnilSque. 

Je desirerais qu'iZ y eiit moins 
de fau8set6 dans le commerce de 
la vie. 

Je n'ai pas oui-dire qw'il y ait 
«» hier des nouvelles du conti- 
nent. 

Auriez-vous cru qu'tZ y eut eu 
tant de personnes compromises 
dans ce affaire 1 



Te-mmrew tJiere will be a mock 
sea-fight. 

There wiU be none of y(m. 
Will no6 there be a good harvest 
tMs year 1 

WiU not there be some of your 
family 1 

There must certainly have been 
mucft disorder. 

OtU of a hundred persons there 
rciU not have been ten satisfied. 

WiU there have been a good 
supper? 

Will there not have been some 
dissatisfied peopk 7 

Such a step would have been 
uncivil. 

There would be no greaJt harm 
in that.' 

Would there he any one bold 
enough to attack him ? 

Would there be nobody kind 
enough to acquaint him with what 
is said of him 7 

There would have been some im- 
prudence in that. 

There would not have been so 
great a misunderstanding had I 
been believed. 

There would not have been ten 
persons. 

Would there have been amfin- 
dfnveniejice ? 

Would there not home been sonie 
envious persons to thwart him- in 
his designs 7 

I do not think thxre can be a 
more superb spectacle. 

I wish there was less duplicUy in 
the concerns of life. 

I have not heard that there waf 
any. news from the' continent yes- 
terday. 

Could you have thougfU so many 
persons woidd have Seen expnsed 
in- that affair? 



9 Phrases Diverses. 

Sa vie, ses actions, ses paroles, 
son air mSme et sa demarche, 
tout pr6che, tout 6difie en lui. 



Promiscuous Phrases. 

His life, his actions, his very 
look and deportment, every thing 
in him instructs and edifies. 



PiiRA9£S ON SOME blJ^PlCULTlBS. 



5ll» 



be » mock 

yen, 

wd harvest 

ne of your 

have been. 

ersoM there 
itisfied. 
n a good 

been some 

have been 

great harm 

f one bold 

ibody kind 
I wUh what 

«n some im- 

ave been so 
iing had I 

ive been ten 

ven arvyin- 

ve been some 
oart hinh- in 

re can be a 

duplicilyin 

hat there waf 
Tntinent yeS' 

)tc}d so many 
been exposed 



irases. 

>»s, kis ■very 
every thing 
tdifies. 



On craignait qu'il n'amvit 
quelque dSsordre dans I'agsem- 
bl6e, mais toutes choaes s'y pas- 
sirent fort doucement. 

La vigne et le lierre s'entor- 
tiUent autour des ormes. 

On ne disconvient point qu'il 
ne soil brave, mais il est un peu 
trop fanfaron. 

Le cadet est riche, mais I'aine 
I est^eiicore davantage. 

Le del est couv«»t de nuages. 
et Forage est pr^t Tondre. 

Apr^ qu'il eat franchi les 
Alpes avec ses troupes, il entra 
en Italie. 

La frugalite rend les corps 
plus sains et plus robustes. 

Ce discours est peut-6tre un 
des plus beaux morceaux d'elo- 
quence, qu'il y ait jamais eus. 

C'estun homme qui aime la 
liberte j il ne se g^ne pour qai 
que ce soit. 

II est plus haut que moi de 
deux doigts. 

Irez-vous vous exposer a Ja 
barbaric et a Tinhospitalite de 
ces peuples ? 

A la longue, lea erreurs dis- 
paraissent, et la v6rite surnage. 

Si vous le prenez avec moi 
sur ce ton de fiert^, je serai aussi 
fier que vous. 

C'est un homme rigide, qui ne 
pardonne rien, ni aux autres ni 
a lui-mSme. 

Les una montent, les autres 
descendent, ainsiva la roue de 
la fortune. 

Je ne vols r-en de solide dans 
tout ce que vous me proposez. 

L'art n'a jamais rien produit 
de plus beau. 

Lequel est-ce des deux qui a 
tort 1 ^ 

On aime quelquefois la trahi- 
traitres. 



It was apprehended some dis- 
order wottld take place in the as- 
senibly, but every thing went off 
very quietly. 

The vine and the ivy twist raumd 
the elms. 

They do not deny that he is 
brave, but he boasts rather too 
much. 

The youngest is rich, bui the 
eldest IS still mare so. 

The sky is covered with clouds, 
and the storm is preparing to 
burst. 

After having crossed the Alps 
with his troops, he eiUered Italy, 

Temperance imparts an in- 
crease if health and stretudk to 
the body. 

This speech is perhaps one of 
the finest pieces of eloquence that 
were ever ddiwered. 

He is a mem fond of Uherty, he 
will be constrained by nobody. 



I by two 



He is taller than 
inches. 

Will you go and expose you/tf 
self to the barbanty and inktspi- 
tcuiiy of those nations 7 

In time, errors vanish and truth 
survives. 

If you treat me wUh that haugh- 
tiness, I can be as haushtu as 
you. 

He is a stern man, who par- 
dons nothing either in himself or 
others. 

Some rise, others descend; thus 
goes the wheel of fortune. 

I see nothing certain in all you 
propose to me. 

It is one of the finest produc- 
tions of art. 

Wliich of the two is in the 
wronj^ ? 

We sometimes like treason, but 
ive tUwuifi huix (he iraiior. 




h^O 



pnuxska ON some w^ficulties. 



10 C&niinAuUitnis 

L'iliphant Be scrt Ae satfompe 
^our prendre et pour enlever 
lout ce fltt'il veUt. 

Plus J'examinc ceilte petaonne, 
pjuajecroisl'avoir vue quelq.ue 



Lanuitvint, defa^on quo je 
fU8 contraint de me rctirer. 

II faut vivrc de fa9on qu'on ne 
fiisse tort a personnc. 

Eltc «ut qu'on attaqjuait son 
lAJiri; elte courut aussitot tout 
^perdue pour le secourir. 

Je trouvai ses parents tout 
6plor6s. 

Get arbre pousse ses branches 
toutcs droites. 

J'en ai encore !a memoire 
tout fraiche. 

lUa voulu ftire voir par cet 
essai qu'il pouvait reuaait en 
quelque chose de plus grand; 

II futbless6 au front et mou- 
rut de cette blessure. 

Ces chevaux prirent le mors 
aux dents et entrainSrent le car- 

rosse. 

C'estun hommequi compose 
sans chaleiir, ni imagination : 
tout ce qu'il ecrit est frojd et 

Ce batiment a plus de profon- 
deur que de largeur. 

Cet horame est un prothge de 
savoir, de science, devaleur, d'es- 
prit et de ra6moirc. 

II est attach^ k I'un et a 1 au- 
tre, mais plus a I'un qu'a J'autre. 

lis ont bien I'aif I'ua de 1 au- 

Si Ton ruine cet homme-la, le 
contre-coupretombera sur vous. 

II serait mort, si on ne I'eut as- 
siste avcc soin. 

Co polrac serait parfait, si les 
incidents, qui le font languir, 
n'interrompaient la continuite de 
Taction. 

11. Continuation. 

duand je Ic voudrais, je ne le 
pourrais pas. 



Continuation. 

7%« elephcmt makes use of hif 
trunk to take and lift anything 
he pleases. 

The more I look at that person 
the more J think I have seen hirti. 
som^ewhere. 

Night came on,, so that I ioa» 
obliged to retire. 

We must live in Sficch a muimer 
as to injure nobsdy. 

She knew her husband was at- ' 
lacked,, and in a stale of distrac- 
tion, ran to his assistance. 

I found her relations all in tears. 

The IrancUsof that tree grow 
quite straight. 

It is still quite fresh on inij me-- 
mory. 

lis icished to show by that at- 
tempt that he could succeed in an 
enlei'prise of mwe cor sequence. 

He was wounded in the fore- 
head, and died of his ivound. 

Those horses ran away with the 
carriage. 

He it a man that leriles with- 
out the Uast warmth or anima- 
tion; all his productions are cold 
and insipid. 

That building has more depth, 
than it has breadth. 

Tiiat man is a prodigy ofhuiw- 
ledge, jxtdgment, courage, sense^ 
and memory. 

He is attached to both, but to one 
more thin the other. 

They very much look like one 
another. 

If that nian is ruined, his mis- 
fortune wiU recoil wpo/t you. 

He woidd have died if he had 
not been kindly assisted. 

TlwJt would be a perfect poem, 
if the incidents which give a hxavi- 
oiessto it. did twt break the con- 
nexion of the subject. 



<UUXitlUUMUUtl. 



If tioere disposed, I could not do 



it. 



« of AlV 
anything 

it person 
seen hirti. 

at I was^ 

I manner 

I was at' * 
f distrac- 

I in Uars. 
tree grow 

II inij me-' 

' that at- 
'.ed in an 
lence. '- 
the forc' 
md. 
y with the 

rites with' 
>r anima' 
J are cold 

tore depth, 

y of know- 
age, scnsCf 

but to one 

■ik like one 

i, his mis- 
yon, 
if he had 

rfect poem^ 
ive a heavi- 
ik the coil' 



could not do 



.'MW4«iw 



mmttm 



P«RA9ftS ON SOME DIFPICULTIEt. 



idi 



Je gerai toujouro votie ami, 
q«and irdme vous ne le voudriez 
pas. 

Q.uand vons auriez r^ussi, que 
vous en sefait-il revenu 1 

Q,uand on decouvrirait votfe 
tiemarche, on ne pourrait la bia- 
mer. 

Q,uand vous auriez consulte 
quelqu'un sur voire manage, 
vous n aunez pas mieux reussf 

Le tonnerre et F^clair ne sont 
«ensibles que par U prppa^-ation 
du bruit et.de la lumidre jusqu'a 
I'oeil et a I'oreiUe ^ 

Le langage de la prose est plus 
wmpie et meias figure que celui 
des vers. ^ 

Le commencement de son dis- 
cours est toujours assez sa<Te- 
maw, dans la suite, a force'de 
vouloir s'elever, il se perd dans 
les nues : on ne sait j>!«s ni ce 
qnon voit, ni ce qu'on entend. 

C, est xasie faute excusable dans 
un autre homme, mais a un 
lomme aussi sage que lui, elle 
ne se peut pardon ner. 

11 ne suffit pas de paraitre kon- 
nSte homme, il faul. I'^tre, 

II nous a repus avec bonte, et 
nous a ecoutes avec patience. 

Tout y est si feien peiat qu'om 
eroit vcir ce qu'il decrit. 

On ne pense rien de vous, qui 
ne vous soit glorieux. 

Les eaux de citernes ne sont 
que des eaux de pluie ramassees. 

»U nest pas fort riche, du 
means a-t-il 6e quoi vivre h«n- 
netement. 

Cluel quantiSme dumois avons- 
nous ? 

. 11 lui tarde qu'il ne soit ma- 
jeur, il compte les jouw et les 
mois. 

^ PesquaUtesexceHentesJoinlcB 
ralrite '*^ *»'«"»», font le parfait 

TI _ . _ 

'••P. a..« mauvtuue quaute, s'est 
qu a ne saurait garder un secret. 



/ sMl ever be y»ur friend., even 
though yon should not wish it. 

Though yon liad succeeded, what 
viereyou ta liave derived frtm it ? 

Should the steps you Aa4>e taken 
be ducovered they could not be 
blamed. 

Had you consulted somebody 
aiiont your marriage, you could 
not have succeded better. 

Thunder and lightning are only 
perceptible by the transmission of 
sound And light to the ear a/^ 
eye. 

. ■P^'we language is much more 
simple and Uss Jigwatioe than 
poetry 

The begiiming #/ his speech it 
moays tolerably sensible: Imt after- 
wards, by affecting the sublime, he 
loses himself, and ^ve no longer un-- 
derstand eUhej whai we see or hear. 

This fauU would be excusaMein 
another man, but in a man of his 
sense U is unpardonable. 

it is not enough to ^i^pear to be 
an /umest man, we must be so. 

He received m with kindness and 
heard us patiently. 

Eve?y t/iing in il is so weU de- 
lineated you think you see what ke 
describes. 

They think nothing -of you (tut 
what is to your honour. 

Cistern water is generally onlv 
ram water collected. 

If he is not rich at least he has 
enough to live upon respedabty. 

What day of the month is it. f 

He longs to be of age and counU 
the days ant^nwnths- 

Excellent qualities joined to dis- 
tinguished talents constitute verfea 
ment._ t^ j^^^ 

He has one bad qualUy, he can- 
910. • keep a secret. 



M M 



ir 



IMMMNK 



i22 



PHRASES ON SOME DIFFICULTIES. 




12. ModiUs de Phrases dans Us- 
gudles, on doit /aire usage 
de I' Article. 

VWoTMM est sujet a bien des 
vieiMitud^, 

Ias hommes d'un rrai g6nie 
lont Tares. 

hes hommes d imagination sont 
rarament heureax. 

L'homme dont voob parlez, est 
gn de mes amis. 

La vie e»tun melange de biens 
et de mayx. 

•. La perfection en tout genre 
e«t le but auquel on doit tendre. 

La beaute, les grdces et Vesprit 
Bont dcB avantages bien prroieux 

rind ils sont relevSs par la mo- 
lie. 

yoila des tableaux d'une grande 
Ibeautd. 

Faites-vous des prindpes, dont 
vous ne voi)s eeartiez jamais. 

Cet arbre porte des fruits ex- 
cellentii.t 

pes raisons sont des conjeo 
tUres biv-'n faibles. 

Servez-vous des termes 6tablis 
par I'usage. 

• On doit Sviter VbAt de Vaffec- 
tation. 

Le Jupiter de Phidias 6tait 
d'une grande beeute. 

ConUnuation des memes Phrases. 

La memoire est le tresor de 
Vesprit, le fruit de Vattention et 
de la reflexion. 

J'achetai h^er desgravures pre- 
cieuses et rares. 

La Prance est le plus beau pays 
de I'Europe. 

L'int6r6t de TAlIemagne etait 
opi»ose a celui de la Russia. 

h^longnewr (UVMgUterre du 
nord au sud est de 360 milles et 
■a largeur de Test a I'ouest est 
deSOO. . _ 

11 arrive d£ la uhine, du Japon, 
et des Indes Orientales, etc. 

11 arrive de VAmirujfue, de la 
ffarbade, de la Jamaique, etc. 



Examples of Phrase in wbieb 
the Article is used. 

Man is liable to a variety of 
changes. 
Men of real genius are scarce. 

Men of visionary cheerader are 
seldom happy. 

T%e man you speak of is a friend 
of mine. 

Life is a compmtnd of good and 
evil. 

Perfection in every thing ought 
to be our object. 

Beauty, gra/xfuhtess^ and wit, 
are oaluame endovnnents when 
heightened by modesty. 

These are very beautiful pic 
lures. 

Establish rules for yourself and 
'neve'' deviate from them. 

TMs tree bems very e^lient 
fruit. 

These reasons are very idle con- 
jectures. 

Use the expressions established 
by custom,. 

We ought to avoid the appear- 
ance af affectation. 

The Jupiter of Phidias was ex- 
tremely beautifm. 

The same Phrases continued. 

Memory is the treasure of the 
mind, the result of aUenOon and 
refleUion. 

I yesterday bought some vari- 
able and scarce enp-avings. 

Prance is the finest country in 
Europe. 

The German interest was con- 
trary to the Russian. 

The length of England from 
north to south is 360 miles, and 
its breadth from east to west is 
300. 






and the East Indies. 

He comes from America, Bar- 
badoes, Jamaica^ el^. 



n which 
i. 

r 

variety of 

t scarce, 

trader are 

is a friend 

■" good aiid 

king ought 

, and wit, 
ents when 

'Aitiful ptc* 
ourselff and 
ry e;ccelient 
mj idle con- 
e$tabUshed 
the appear' 
Has was ex- 

;ontinue<l. 

sure of the 
ieniion and 

some valU' 
ings. 
t country in 

est was con- 

ngland from 
\ mileSf and 
( to west is 

nerica, Bar- 



PHRASES ON SOME mfMCUtTIM. 



42$ 



II neat de la Fiandre Pran- 
9«ise. 

II B'est 6UbK dans la province 
de Middlesex. 

Des petits-maUres sont des 
Atrcs insupportables dans la so- 
ci6t6. 

C'est I 'opinion des n^uveaitx 
philosoplies. 

EUe a.bien de la grace dans 
tout ce qu'elle fait. 

Cctte StofTe se vend une gui- 
n6e Taune. 

Ce y'm coAte 70 livres sterlinffs 
la pi^ce. 

13. Modules de Phrases dant Us- 
quelles on ne doUpa% favre 
wage de V Article, 

Nosconnaissancesdoivent^tro 
tir6s de principes evidents. 

Cet arbre porte d'ezcellenls 
fruvts. 

, Ces rais<ms sont de faibles con- 
jeclmres. 

Evitez tout ce qui a un air 

a affectation. 

Ces exemples peuvent servir 

de modeks. 

Il a unegrande presence d'esprit. 

La m6moire de raison et d'esprit 
est plus utile que les autres sortes 
de memoire. 

Peu de personnes reflechissent 
sur la rapidite de la vie. 

Q,ue d'evenements inconcevables 
se sont succedes les uns aux au- 
tres! 

II y a plus d^esprit, mais moins 
<fe connaissance, d&m ce siecle 
que dans le siftcle dernier. 

On ne vit jamais autant d'ef- 
fronterie. 

Je pris hier beaucoup de peine 
pour nen. 

Candie est une des iles les plus 
agreables de la Mediterranee. 

II arrive de Perse, d'ltalie, 

Il est"revenu de Suisse, d'AUe- 
wagne, etc. 



He conus from French nan- 
ders. 

He has settled in the county of 
Middlesex. ^ 

Coxcombs are insufferable 
beings in society. 

It is the opinion of the new phi- 
losophers. 

She does every thing most grace- 
fully. 

This stuff sells at a guinea the 
ell. 

This wine costs seventy poutidi 
the hogshead. 

Examples of phrases in which 
the Article is omitted. 

Our knowledge ought to be de- 
rived from evident prindp'cs. 

This tree pwduces excelknt 
fruit. 

These reasons are idk comec- 
twes. 

Avoid whatever bears the jubm 
pearance of affectation. 

These examples may serve as 
models. 

He has great presence of mind. 

The memory of reason and 
sense is more tcsefid than any 
other kind of memory. 

Few peopie reflect on the rapi- 
dity of life. 

How many inconceivable events 
have followed in succession! 

Therms mme wit but less know- 
ledge in this age than in the last. 

So much assurance Tusver was 
met with. 

I took a great deal of trouble 
yesterday about nothing. 

Candla, is one of the most agree- 
able islands in the Mediterra- 
nean. 
^ He comes from Persia, Italy, and 

He is returned from Switzer- 
land, Germany, etc. 



^4 



:f. s 



PHRASB8 ON SOME DIFFICULTIES. 






Les vins de fiance 5eront chera 
cetta ann6e ; les vignea out could. 

L'empire (VAUemagnc est com- 
post de erands ct de petits ^tats. 

Les chcvaiuc (VAngUUrre sonk 
excellents. 

Apr^s mon depart de Suisse j» 
mc retirai a Rome. 

14. Contimiatton des memes 
Prases. 

Vous trouverez ce passage 
page 120, livre premier, chapit,-e 
diz. 

II s'est retire en Angleterre. 
>I1 vit dans sa retrake en vrai 
philosophe. 

Cluand il r6flechit sur sa con- 
duite, il en eut honie, 

C'est un homme qui chcrcho 
foriwne. 

II entend malice a tout. 

Ne portez envie a personne. 

Si vous proraettez, tenez pa- 
roU. 

Dans les affaires importantes 
ne vous d6cidez jamais sans pren- 
dre conseil. 

Courage, wWa/5,tenons fermes ; 
la victobe est a nous. 

Cette femmo n'a ni gi'Ace ni 
bcaute. 

Monseigneur le due, etc. prince 
du sang, alia hier a la campagne. 

Montrer tant de faibleese, c'est 
n'6tre pas homme. 

Get nomme est une csp^e de 
misa7ithrope, dont les brusqueries 
sont quelque fois tr^s-plaisantes. 

L'ananas est une sorte de/rut* 
tr5s-eommun aux Antilles. 

C'est un genre de vie qui no 
me plait point. 

I5> Continuaiion des memes 
phrases. 

Cette dam^ plait a toot le 
monde par son honn^tctd et sa 
douceur. 

Tmit homme a des d6fauts plus 
ou moins sensibles. 



French nines vnll be dear tki* 
year; the vines have ran. 

The German empire is com- 
posed of great and small slates. 

The English horses are excel- 
lent. 

On my leaving Svnt^erland, I 
retired to Rome. 

Continuation of tke same 

Phrases. ;,i » ,j 

You will find this passage in 
page 120, book the first, chapter 
the tenth. 

He has retired to England. 

He lives in his retreat, like a 
real philosopher. 

When he refiected on his con- 
duct, he woi ashamed of it. 

He is a man that seels forttmef 
he his a fortune hunter. 

He puts a mcilicieus cmtstruc- 
lion on every thing. 

Envy nobody. 

If you promise, keep your tetrd. 

In matters of consequence never 
decide with t advice. 

Cheer up, soldiers, let us con^ 
tinuefirm, the day is our own. 

This woman is destitute both of 
grace and beauty. 

The duke of, etc. a prince of 
the blood, went yesterday into the 
country. 

To shew so much weakness w 
not a thing like a man. 

This man is a kind of misan- 
thropist, whose oddities are some- 
times comical. 

The pine-apple is a kind of 
fruit very common in the Antilles. 

It is a kind of life that is noi 
agreeable to me. 

The same sentences continued. 

This lady pleases every one for 
her good (needing and mUdness^ 

Every man has defects more or 
less obvious. 



m 



VHItASKg Off SOME DIFFIOULTIEl. 



i2ft 



c^^^r le noaibre do ses the number of his fritnZ,^^^^ 

Every bkssing comes from CM. 



nuns. 

Tout les blens nous vjennent 
ae Dieu. 

SeJon lea pai'ens JuyiUr fitait - * * 



^ - — — una ^^aai.* ^ 

10 premier des dieux. 

Apolhn 6tait frdre jumeau do 
Diane. 

Rubens a 6t6 un grand pointre. 

Homireet Virgite eont les deux 
plus j^rands pontes fipiques. 

Londreg est la plus belle ville 
que ie connaisse. 

L eau flfe riviire est douce, ct 
lean de mer est sal6e. 

C'efltun excellent poiason de 
mer. 

Voila uno supcrbe table de 
marbre. 

L'eau de Seine est cello qu'on 
lHr6ffereaPa.i8. ^ 

Pauvrete n'est pas vice. 

CHoyeiis, etrangers, grands, 
pevples, so sont montrea sensi- 
bles a cette perte. 

Ui. Modiks de Phrases snr le 
pronovi Le. 

Eat-ce-Ia, votre opinion? — ^no 
doutez point que ce ne la soit. 

Sont-ce-Ia vcs domestiqiies ? 

oui, ce fe5 sont. 

Mosdamts, ^tes-voualesc^mn- 
^em qu'on m'a annoncgea ?~ 
oui, nous les sommes. 

Madame, etes-vous /« Ttialade 
pour laquelle on m'a appcle ?— 
oui, ie la suis. 

Madames, ^tes-vous la mere 
de cet enfant ? — oui, jo la suis. 

Mesdame, etes-vous contentes 
de cette musique 7— oui, nous le 
sommes. 

Elles est Tnalheureuse, et ie 
crains bien, au'pUe • - !^ s^-.u 
loute sa vie. 

Madajii, dtes-vous mere 1— 
oui, je le suis. 

M m 



puces. 

According to the Uiathms. Ju^ 
piter was the first of the gods. 

AppoUc was twin brother to Di- 
ana. 

Rubens was a ^reat painter'. '. '' 
Homw dfnd Vxrgil are the two 
greatest epic poets. 

Ldnidon is the finest city that' I 
know. 

River water is sweet, and iea 

water is salt. 

It is an excellent sea fish, 

'J%ere is a snberb nuurble tabU.. 

The water of the Seine is wt- 
f erred at Paris. 

Poverty is not a viee. 

Citizens, strangers, grandees, 
people, have shewn themselves sen- 
sible of this losn. « 

Forms of Phrases upon the pro- 
noun Le. 

Is thai your opinion 7t-^o noi 
fuestion it. 

Are those your servants T—yes, 
tAey are. 

Indies, are you the strangers 
that have been announced to me? 
yes, we are. 

Madam, are you the sick per- 
son fm- whom. I have beat called ? 
yes, lam. , 

Madame, are you the moUm-bf 
this child?—fes, I am. 
Ladles, are you pleased with 
this music ? — yes, we are. 

r ^^^, " Jj'J^PPy, and I much 
ji:iir 5,xc ujiii coiiitmie so Jv^r life. 

Madam, are you a mother?— 
yes, I am, 
2 






PHRASBii OK «QM£ DlFyiCUI.Tlfi^» 



Madanw, d^uia quel temp 
Ate8-"voiw mariee 7— je le suis de- 
|)iUis un an. 

Y a-t-il long-tcraps que vous 
Atcs arrivec 1 — je /« auw depuis 
^linze joun. 

" Ariitote croyait que le monde 
itait de tout £ternit6 ; niaia Pla- 
ten ne U croyait pas. 

duoiquc cette femme raontre 

SIus de fermetd que lc8 autres, 
tie n'Mt pas pour cela la moins 

Cette femme a I'art i» r^pandre 
del larmes dans le temps mdme 
^ qu'elle est U moins aJSagee. 

17. Modlki dA Phrases sur Ics 
diffirentes rigles du participe 
pasfi. 

Vh nouvelle piice A-i-eile et€ 
Appilaudie ? 

Voa y parents seront-ils arrives 
It temp6 7 

Elle s'est donne de belles robes. 

Elles nous ont apporU de su- 
perbes oeillets. 

Cette ruse ne lui a pas reussi. 

I> vie tranquille que j'ai mc- 
7iee depuis dix ans, a bcaucoup 
contiibue a me faire oublier mes 
midheurs. 

J ^8 lettres c^ne j'ai regttet, m ont 
bcaucoup affl^6e. 

due de peines vous voUs 6tes 
do7tnees ! 

Q,uelle t&chfc vous vous fites 
imposee ! 

C'est uue satire que j'ai retrou- 
vie dans mes ppiers. 

Les lettres qu'a ecritcs Pline le 
j«une, quelque agrdables qu'ellcs 
soient, se ressentent nfianmoins 
un peu de la decadence du goiit 
parmi les Romains. 

Je ne serais pas ent»^ avcc 
vous dani toua ces detales de 
grammaire, si jc ne les avals crus 
necessaires. 

VEgypte s'^tait rettdv^e celehre 
par la eaccsse dc ses lois, long- 



Madatn, how Itn^ have you 
been married 7 I h$v^ bf.c» mar- 
ried a year, w 

Have you, long bun tvrrivtA 1 — 

ajortnighi. 

Anstotle believed the xcmld tit 
have been front, ail eternity, but 
Plato did not. 

Although this woman shows 
more resoLutiom, than the others, 
she is nevertheless not the le^ut 
distressed. 

This woman had the art of shed- 
ding tears, even when she is least 
diUressed. 

Forms of Phrases upon the dif- 
ferent rules of the peurticiple 

Did the new piece meet with 
applause 7 

Will your relations arrive there 
in time 7 

She has given herself fine 
gowns. 

Tliey hove brought us b:aiuti/iil 
pinks. 

He has not succeeded in t/iis 
stratagem. 

T/u quiet life J have kd tiiese 
ten years has greatly contributed 
to ,vajce me j or gel my misfor- 
t/imet. 

The Utters I have received have 
greatly distressed ihe. 

What a deal of trouble you, 
have given yotirselj! 

What a task you have imposed 
on yourself! 

It is a satire that J have again 
fovmd within my papers. 

The letters which the younge>' 
Pliny has written, however agree- 
able they may be, savour never- 
theless a little of the decline of 
taste among the Romans. 

I would not have entered into 
these grammatical details with 
you, had J not ikoughl thtrt/o ■nt- 
cessary. 

Egypt had Income celebrated 
for the wisdom of its laws, long 



lam you 
t:cn mar' 

rivtd 7 — 



voiid to 
mity, but 

m skews 

ke otAers, 

the katt 

H of shed' 
ie is least 



I the dif- 

■if :-j 

meet with 

mive there 

rsdj fine 

II b'.avti/ul 

ed in this 

e led these 
contributed 
ny misfor- 

ceived have 

rouble you 

we imposed 

have again 

te younge>' 

ever agiee- 

7our never- 

decline of 

ntered into 
'^tails tcith 
U ilifiii' UK' 

celebrated 
taws, hri£ 



PHRASIf ON BOiL£ DtFflCULT^Vtl.' 



temps av&nt que U Grdc« surtit 
de la barbarie. 

C'ett une den plus graixdos 
fnerveiUes qu'on ait vius. 

L'hoiume de lettres, dont vous 
m'avez parle, a un aont exquis. 

Vous avez tr^s-bien imtruit 
VM 61dve8. 

Lucrbce a'ent donne la uiort. 

La sicherease qu'il y a eu au 
nrintetnps a fuit pdrir tovm les 
»uito. 

Je n'ai point r^ussi, malgr6 
les mesures que vous m'avez con- 
seiUe de prendre. 

Ctuelle aventurc vous est-il ar- 
rive? 

Cette ferame sVit proposee pour 
module d ses enfants. 

Cette femme s'est propose d'en> 
aeigner la geographic ct I'his- 
toire a ses enfants. 

18. Modules de Phrases sur les 
jfrindpaux rapports des modes 
et d£s temps. 

Je I'attendaw deuuis long-tomps 
^-^nd il vint in'i joindrc. 

II sortit au moment mSme que 
J'entraiE. 

^ Je commen^ai-s a avoii* des 
waintes sur i» rtussitte de voire 
Afiairu, lorsque j'ai re9u votre 
lettre. 

D^s que j'eus fait quelques 
visiles iudisfj^isables, je renlrai 
diez moi, et je ne sorlis plus. 

J'avais d^jS, lout prepare pour 
mon depart, lorsque des affaires 
imprSvues m^ont force a le dif- 
f(5rer do quelques jours. 

Vous etiez deia sortl, quand 
je me presenlai chez vous. 

J'avais deja livre i I'impres- 
sion mon ouvraga, lorsque vous 
me demandiez si je le donnerais 
bientot au public. 

Lorsque j'ai eu termine mon 
aiTdirc, TuUo avcz coinrucncc is. 
v6tre. 

Lorsque j'eus dejeflne, je mon- 
tai a cheval, el je fus a Londree. 



before Greece had emerged from 
Imrbarism. 

It is one of the gf^atesl toont 
ders that has ever been seen. 

The man of letters you spoke 
to me of has an excellent taste. 

You have taught your pupils 
extremely well. 

Lucrctia killed herself. 

The dry weather we had i%ike 
spi-ing has destroyed all the fruit. 

I have not succeeded nobieithf 
standing the steps you advised me 
to take. 

What adventures have you met 
wilhl 

This woman proposed herself as 
a model for her children. 

This woman proposed to teach 
geography and history to her 
children. 

Forms of Phrases upon *.he prin- 
cipal relations of moods . t^d 
lenses. . ,^;:^, ,' ■' ' , 

/ had waited a long time Jor 
him, wkev, he came to me. 

He was going out at the time I 
loas entering. 

I was beginning to be appre- 
hensive ofine siuxess of your btisi^ 
ness when I received your letter. 

As soon as J had paid soma in- 
dispensable visits, I went home 
and did not go out afta-wcrds. 

I had already matte every pre- 
paration for my departure^ when 
some unexpected business occurred 
that obliged me to defer it for 
some days. 

You were already gone out 
w/ien I called upon you. 

My work had been sent to be 
printed^ when you asked vie if I 
should soon bring it out. 




When I had terminated 

vU^tViCSSf you GC^Uiiti yuAT5. 



my 



I 



ot% 



When I had done breakfast^ I got 
horseback, and went to lancoiu 




428 



THRASES en iOMJ! DlFFICUl/flES. 



Lorsquo j'&urai lu la nouvelle 
{tt6c«, j« V0U8 dirai arec t'ran- 
chbe ce que j'en pense. 

19. ModiUs de Pkrases sur I'eni- 
floi da AuaUiairca allor, vcnir 
de, u 'Voir, pouvoir. 

Je vais partir 5, 1'instant niAme. 

Nous allions vous expliquer 
cela en deux mote. 

Nous allons nous mettro a 
table loraqu'il est entr^. 

J'allais lui offrir mon bras, 
lorsque je ui'aper9U8 de ma m6- 
priso. 

On aiiuH en venir aux mains, 
mais )a nuit venant a tombor, on 
remit I'attaque au lendcmain. 

Je Tiens de les voir ensembie. 

Elle vient do se marier avec 
un homme fort riche. 

Lcilir p6re vient de mourir, 
ainsi il n'est pas probable qu'elles 
aillent en societe. 

Mon frdre venait de sortir. 

Nous venions de diner. 

SI vous avez quelque chose a 
leur dire, je men cnargerai, je 
dois 1^ voir aujourd'hui. 

""^ous ne devez pas lui repon- 
dire ainsi. 

Dojs je attendre ? 

Elle doit avoir quinz^^ ans au 
moins. 

II doit ctre a la maison car je 
ne I'ai pas vu sortir. 

Je devais sortir, mais le mau- 
vais temps m'en a emp5ch6. 

No deviez-vou« pas vous mct- 
trc en route lundi uernier. 
lis dovaient m'en pr^vcnir. 

Cela evait 6tre le meilicur 
parti. 

Vous devrioz lui dire la verite. 



Uevrais-je obeir a des ordres 
si injustes. 
II aurait du revenir de suite. 




IfA^H / have read the new 
piay, I fmll candUly give you my 
opinimi of U. 

Examples on tbe use of the Auxi- 
liaries aUer, venir tie, devoir, 
pouvoir^ 

lam of this vei.y instant. 
We tviU ejyi^laiu U to you in two 
words. . - - 

We were going to sit down lu 
table when he entered. 

I was oil the point of offering 
ihij arm to her, ivhen - w*; wy 
mistake. 

They ueie on the moment of 
engaging, but ^,ight faUins, they 
put off the attach unt'd me nc.U 
day. 

I have this moine^ i seen them 
together. 

She has jxLst married a very 
rich man. 

Their father has recently ated, 
it is not likely tlurefore they 
slundd so into company. ■ 

My brother had just gone out. 

We had not long dined. 

If you have any message to 
send to them, I mil take it, fw^ 
I am to sec t/ie-m t^day. ^ 

You, are not to answer him in 
this manner. 

Am I to wait, or mud I wait 1 

She must be fifteen at least. 

He must be at home, for I d' 
not see him go out. 

J intended to go out, I was ». 
have gone out, but the bad wea- 
tlier prevented me. 

Where you n/jt to Jiave set off on 
Monday last. 

They ought to have told me of 
it. 

Thai must have been the best 
detc7-mination. 

You should speak the truth to 
him. 

Ought I to obey such unjust 
orders? 

He ought to have returned di- 
rectly. 



PHftASBt «r» iOMB DlFiClC'ULTlli. 



42S^ 



WwM n'aurioiui pM dA d<^pen- 
■R^ folieinentw 

Mon Irdra potorait vou» rw- 
conduirc. 

NouH jiourrions lai en parler, 
lonqu'il sera uioins rnxupc. 

We puurrioDB-notts patt passer 
par Bath 1 *^^ 

11 me ^emh\e qu'elle autait pu 
mw'x feiire, *^ 

u..^ troupes auraient pu de- 
wirquer sur nos cotes. 



Weougki not to knv« $vent ex- 
travaganlly. 
My bipthcr must see you home. 

We might '^ion it to Mm 
xohen he w less ent^^^tC. 

Might we not "return throuch 
Bath '/ * 

n appears to me that ike might 
nave umie better. 

The tioops might have lunded 
on our coeits. 

S». M,dch ,0 ,hau, W U, „^„ „iu, .1,.,,, „„„„_ .H„„|j_ ^a^^^j^ 

P.i^*ni »r'" ""•"'■'' ""*'''»''' »"» so to S,„, if u 

A would. ' 

co;^S:ronTort\vdt . "^^"^y^.^-^-a.r^eU to these 

. frez-voQs d',m»in a Londre. "■ •• ^^■ 

■1 V0U8 le pou\ l—oui, j'irai. ' 
II sera sArenient parti, si vous 
J avez voulu, 

J'ai bic 1 donni, maw tw?* pas 
lu%. ' 

N'a-t-il pas une jolie terr en 

Nomiandie 1 out, Monsunti. 

Nous avons ^te au spectacle 



Shall you, go to London to- 
mo,row, %t you can 7 yes, I shall. 

lie will certainly have set out 
tj you have wished tt. ' 

/ have slept well, but he has 
not. 

Has he not a ptetty estate in 
Normandy ? yes, he has. 

Wewcnttathi plky last night. 



hierausoir. Vraiment ! or ah I Did you? 
Elle n a pas de fortune. Vrai. Sl^Lsno fortune of her own. 



m^enlt 

Mes compliments chez vo»'_3. 
Je n^y vianquerai pas, 

Je dis qu'JI y 6tait ; mais m«t 
■CBur dit que non. 

Jc vous dis que oui, et rnoi, je 
vous dis que non. 

Vous eussiez laiss6 6chapp<,r 
une occasion si favorable, si Ton 
no vous eut averti a temps. 

4i. Continuation dcs mimes 
Phrases. 

On dit que vous partez aujour- 
d hui pour Paris. 

Tout le monde so\itient que 
)Uj8 accentflrp* In •ilo».n ^.,'»„ 



Has she not 1'' 

My '•ompliments at home. I 
will. 

I say /le was there j but my sis^ 
ter says he was not. 

/ tell you it is, and I tell twu 
tt IS not. "^ 

Ymi would have le* .<;& favour- 
able an opportunity slip, had you 
not been warned in time. 

The same Phrases continued. 

It is said that you set of to-day 
for Palis. * 

Every one mahUains thai, you 

til nm>nf. ilia /r.7^... jl _ .• •_ ■^ /• 



^ u un vout rencontra. when you ivere met yesterday. 



fjpl 



IP 



430 



PHRASES ON SOME DlfFICUtTISS. 



Be&ucoup de voa amis croient 
que vous partites hior pour la 
CAmpagne. 

Le bruit se repand quo vous 
avez fait uno grosao perte. 

J'apnrcnds dans rinstant que 
V0U8 luasiez parti il y a troia 
jours, si dcs engagements, que 
vous aviez contractus depuis 
long-temps, ne vous avaiont re- 
tenu. 

N'est-il pas vrai que vous par- 
tiiiez aujourd'hui, si voua le 
pouviez 1 

Est-il vrai que vous serie/ par- 
ti depuis long-tinipa -[Kiur la 
can>pagni, si votre amour i>our 
les artd ne vous avait retc nu a ia 
viJle 1 

Je ne crois pas que • I'Us nar- 
tiez, quoique tout le monde I'as- 
Burd 

Je ne croysds pas qu il fAt si- 
tdt de retour. 

II a fallu qu'il ait eu affaire k 
bien des personnca. 

Jo doute que votre ami fAt Ve- 
nn a bout de ses projets, s'il n'a- 
vait pas et6 forteroflnt prot«g6. 

11 n'est point d'homrae, quel- 
que m^rite qu'il ait, qui ne fdt 
trfts-mortitie, s'il savait tout co 
qu'on pense de lui. 

Vous ne vous persuadiez pas 
que les affaires pussent si mal 
tourner. 



Many oj ffour friends Miev6 
that you set out yestaday for th9 
comUnj, 

Tfwte is a report that you have 
Wit with a consi'terable Ittss, 
I have this niament leai-nl thai 
you would have set out three dci/s 
since, had not engagements vjhich 
you had fanned long ago, de- 
tained you. 

It is not Uv4 that you would 
sd out to-day ^ if you could 1 

hit true that you woiUd have 
set out for thjcovMtry long since^ 
had not your love for the arts de- 
tained you in town 7 

I do not imagine thai you wiU 
set Old, aUhoiigh every My as- 
serts it. 

I did mt believe he had gone 
back so soon. 

He must luive had business wdh 
a great many people, 

I doubt that your fnend would 
have succc led in hts pUms, had 
he not been strongly patronised. 

There is not a man, whatever 
net it he viay possess, that would 
not be very much mortified, were 
he to know every thing thai is 
'hought dm. 

You never persuaded yourself 
tluU matters could have taken so 
unfortunate a twin. 



22. Modeles de Phrases sur la 
Negative No. 

11 n'y a pas beaucoup d'argent 
chez les gen? de lettres. 

II n'y a point de ressourcc dans 
une personne qui n'a. poini d^ett- 
prit. 

C'est k tort que vous I'accuscz 
de jouer ; je vous assure qu'i! ie 
joue point. 

Entrez dans le salon ; yous 
pourrez lui parier ; il ne joue 
pas. 



Forms of Phrases upon the ne- 
gative Ne. 

There is n^t much money to be 
found among men of letteis. 

There are no rerov/rces in a per- 
son deprived of sense, 

Yov- accuse him torongfvMy of 
gaming ,• / assure you he never 
does. 

Go itUo my room, you may 
speak U) him { he is not playing. 



I Miev6 
for the 

(tnt kav9 

t 

rnl that 
ret dcys 
it vjhich 



K VHmld 
1 

uld have 
ng tince^ 
r arU de- 



you will 
body OS' 

had gone 

ness wUh 

nd would 
lans, had 
nised. 
whatever 
iat would 
fied, were 
i that it 

d yourself 
taken to 



in the ne« 

noney to be 

tert. 

« in a per- 



mgfiiMy of 
% he never 

you may 
playing. 



PHKASKS ON SOMa DiPflOUtTllSS. 



431 



Si pour avair du bion, il en 
coAte h laprobit*, jo n'en veux 
point. 

Uienn'eHt R<)r nveo leu ua- 
pricleux: voua croyea «tre bien 
en favour ipuint dn tout : rins- 
turit dti lu pluu bolle humeur 
6it iuivi do lu plus IKicheuHe. 



Voi3m< n« cmsez de nous rfi- 
p6ter 1«^ ni6mo«< chonos. 

Jo n'auruJM o*(§ .'oui en 
parlor 'e premier. 

Mulgr6 ««« protections il 
n'ap« r6us«ir duns Him projots. 

Cot o /rage serait (ort 
bon, n'6tait la ndgligence du 
Nlyle. 

Y a-t'il quelqu'un uont elle 
n« mddiHO 7 

J'ai pris iant de goAt pour 
une vie retirfie, que jd ne (bom 
pmaciim jarruuH. 

Voiia CO qui s'est patii6; 
»i'en parlez A pergonne. 

Mon par» out pris j ne n'en 
paries; plus. 

A^'employez aucun de ogn 
moyen* ; ilii iont indignes do 

V0U8. 

Rien w'est plus joli. 

Je ne din Hen que je no 
pen^ie. 

Je we faj* jarnm'g d'exr;5« 
que je n'en «oiH iricommod6. 

23 Continuation de» mSrnea 
PhruMm. 

C'e«t un homme pour qui 
je n'ai ni amour, ni eutime. 

II w'est ni atisez prudent w/ 
aswez ficlairfi. 

Je voua assure que je ne le 
frequente ni ne le voi«. 

JVi? faire que parcourir le* 
ajff6rcntes brunclie« des eon- 
naiffancet humainci taot 



l(h not wish tQ mmke a/Gf^ 
tune, if it can only be done afi 
the e.vmme ofhtmesty, 

Nothinff ia" certain with ca- 
pHcio'm people: you think 
youraelf in favour, by no 
means : the moment iif the 
heH humour ia folhwed by 
that of the worat. 

You are constantly repeat' 
ing the same thing to ua. 

I ahould not have dared to 

be thefirat to apeak to you of it. 

With alt hia inlereat he haa 

not been able to succeed in hi» 

plana. 

Thia work wotdd bo very 
goodf were it not for the n«- 
gligeme of the style. 

la there any one ahe does 
not blander? 

J have acnuired ao great a 
taste for rettrementf tfm /sel- 
dom go out. 

This is what haa paaaed\ 
do not mention it to any one. 

My resolution iafiu!ed ; talk 
to me no more of it. 

Do not employ any ont of 
these measureSf they are Wf 
worthy of you. 
Nothing is more beautlfd. 
f nevnr apeak but what J 
\k. 

/ nevei' commit any exce^m 
without suffenng by it. 

Continuation ol'the «ame 
PhruitieN. 

He is a num for wh^m I 
have neither love nor esteem. 

He is neither aufficiently 
prmhnt not erUghtened, 

I asmire you J neither asaO" 
date with him nor see him. 

Togo through the different 
branches of hnm/tn kfunfJs/fo'js 



I 



432 



PHRASES ON SOMB DIFFICULTIES. 



s'arr^ter h aucune, c'est 
moins chercher a e'instruire, 
qu'ji tuer le tempe. 

Que n'^tes-vous toujours 
aussi complaisant ? 

II ne le fera pas d moina 
que vous ne I'y engagiez. 

II n'ira pas, si vous ne I'en 
priez. 

II nous a menaces de se 
venger; nous n'avons fait 
9M'en rire. 

Trop d'insouciance ne peut 
que nuire. 

Que devenez-vous ? ily a 
trois mois que nous ne vous 
avons vu ? 

Comment vous 6tes-vous 
porl^ depuis que nous ne vous 
avons vu 1 > 

C'est bien pire qu'on ne le 
disait. 

Peu s'en faut que je n' aie 
donne t^te baissee dans le 
piege. 

Dites la verite en toute ce- 
casion ; on meprise toujours 
ceax qui parlent autremeu 
qu'il ne pensent. 

Ne desesperez pas que la 
verite ne se fasse jour k la 
longue. 

Je ne disconviena pas que 
la chose ne soit ainsi. 

Prenez garde qu'on ne 
vous entraine dans quelque 
fausse d-marche. 

rempScherai bienqu'on ne 
vous nuise dans cette affaire. 

II craint qu'on ne le soup- 
9onne d'avoir trempe dans ce 
romplot. 

On lui a donne d'excel- 

lents conseils, de crainte 

, qu'il ne manqu&t I'occasion 

cle faire connaitre ce qu'il est 



one of them, is not to seek for 
instruction^ but to kill time. 

Why are you not at all 
times equally obliging 7 

He will not do it, unless you 
persuade him to it. 

He will not go, if you do not 
request it of him. 

He has threatened us with 
vengeance ; we only laughed 
at him. 

Too great supineness can- 
not but be hurtjvl. 

What has become oj you 7 
we have not seen you these 
three montlis. 

Hmv have you been since 
we saw you 7 

It is much worse than was 
said. 

I was near running head" 
long into the snare. 

Tell the truth on all occa- 
sions : those who speak what 
they do not think are always 
despised. 

Do not despair that truth 
will appear in time. 

I do not deny but the thing 
jfiOyhave been so. 

Tak<i care that you are not 
led into some false step. 

I shall prevent them from 
doing you any harm in this 
business. 

He vi apprehensive that he 
is suspected of being concern' 
ed in this plot. 

TViey have given him ex- 
cellent advics, lest he should 
lose the opportunity of sliow^ 
ing what he was capable of 



Pyt 

je net 

Vol 
taire ; 
vous ( 

Vol 
un pli 

\ 24. F 
Hi 



Ire 

ra?- 

Iri< 

Rom 

L8 

quell 
cont< 
salt 1 

C« 
eton 
tre r 

II 
■son 

.Te 
hau 

* ^* ^ 



\ 



'/ 



"O • 



mis 

se r 

sag 

I 
hor 
rite 

P 
ma 

1 
bai 

1 
pai 
ma 



PHRASES ON SOME DIFFICULTIES. 



483 



teek/or 
time. 

at all 

less you 

It do not 

lis with 
laughed 

is8 cari' 

if you? 
u these 

n since 



an was 
g- head- 
ill occa- 
ak what 
always 

it truth 

he thing 

'• are not 
'ep. 

m from 
'. in this 

J that he 
concern- 

him ex- 
e should 
of sliow- 
pable of 



J'y ai long-temps travaill6 ; 
je ne saurais en venir & bout. 

Vol's feriez raieux de vous 
taire ; vous ne savez ce que 
vous dites. 

Vous ne sauriez me faire 
un plus grand plaisir. 

24. Phrases sur quelques De- 
licatesses de la Langue 
Frangaise. 






\ 



1 



I have been long employed 
about it; I cannot accom- 
plish it. 

You had better be silent, 
you do not know what you are 
saying. 

You cannot do me a great- 
er favour. 

Phrases on some Niceties of 
the French Language* 



Irez-vous ce soir h l'op6- 
ra ?— oui, j'irai. 

Iriez-vous avec plaisir h 
Rome 7— oui, j'irais. 

La justice qui nous est 
quelquefois refus^e par nos 
contemporains, la posterite 



iait nous la renJre. 

Cette grandeur qui vous 
etonne si fort, il la doit h vo- 
ire nonchalance. 

II perit, ce heros, si cher h 
son pays. 

.Te I'avais bien privu que ce 
haut degre de grandeur serait 
la cause de sa mine. 
'%, Citoyens, strangers, enne- 
niisjpeuples, rois, empereurs, 
le plaignent et le reverent. 

L'assemblee finie, chacun 
se retira chez soi. 

Heureux le peuple qu'un 
sage roi gouverne. 

il tefusa les plus grands 
honneurs, content de les m6- 

riter. 

Pridres, remontrances, com- 
rasuidements, tout est inutile. 

Le vent renverse tours, ca- 
banes, palais, ^glises. 

Notre reputation ne depend 
pas du caprice des hommes ; 
mais elle depend des actions 
louablea aue nous faisons. 



Shall you go to the opera 
this evening 7 — yes^ I shall. 

Would yoii cheerfully go to 
Rome ? — yes, I would. 

Posterity known how to do 
us that justice whl^h is some- 
times refused us by our con- 
temporaries. 

That greatness which so 
much astonishes you he owes 
to your indifference. 

That hero, so dear to his 
country perished. 

I foresaw that the greatness 
of his elevation would be his 
ndn. 

Citizens, strangers. 



ene- 
mies, nations, kings, empe- 
rors, pity and respect him. 

The assembly being over 
each returned home. 

Happy are the people wl 
are governed by a wise kirtg. 

He refused the greatest ho- 
nors, satisfied with having 
deserved them. 

Entreaties, rcr^<iri8trance8, 
injunctions, all a/s useless. 

The wind overtume towers, 
cottages, palcces, churches. 

Our reputaticm does not de- 
pend on the caprice of men, 
but on the commendable at- 
tions we perform. 



-■■^im^ — ,.- ■- K-i»(i'^r.-ribw^ 



4^4 



PHRASES ON SOME DIFFICULTIES. 



II y a beaucoup dc choses 
qu'il n'lraporte point du tout 
, de savoir. 

La vue de I'esprit a plus 
d'etendue que la vue du 
corps. 

Ce qui sert d la vanite, 
n'est que vanite. 

Tout ce qui n'a que le 
monde pour fondement, ae 
dissipe et s'evanouit avec le 
monde. 

C'est le privilege des grands 
liommes de vaincre I'envie • 
le mfirite la fait naitre, le mL 
rite la fait mourir. 

L'amour-propre est plus 
habile que le plus habile 
homrne en monde. 

.En quittant le monde, on 
n^ quitte le plus sou vent ni 
les erreurs, ni les folles pas- 
sions du monde. 



'''he eye of the mind reaches 
tnmh farther than the hodilv 
eye. ^ 

m-t promotes vanity tV 
only vanity. ^ 

All that is confined to this 
lower world disperses and 
vanishes with the world. 

It is the prerogative ofgreal 
men to conquer envy • merit 
gives it birth, and ment des- 

thnf-fi,^''^^ ** ^""^ i^Seniotis 
than the most ingenious man 
m the world. 

In renouncing tJie world we 
generally renounce neither th^ 
errors nor foolish passion, of 
the world. '' 



END, 



ny things 
omequence 

nd reaches 
the bodily 

vanity is 

ed to this 
'Tses and 
yrld. 

'e of great 
yy: merit 
lerit des- 

ingeniotis 
ious man 

world we 
nther the 
ssionti of 



,. 



I